Studies in the Osteopathic
Basic Principles: Volume
Louisa Burns, M.S., D.O., D.Sc.O.
Ad-apt-a’-tion—The process by means of which any organism becomes fitted
for a new environment or function.
in the blood serum which cause the clumping of bacteria. They are
found in great dilution in other body fluids, also.
abnormal mental condition.
receptor which has been set free from a cell; it contains two haptophore
process of building food materials into living protoplasm or into functional
parts of the cell.
or Al-ex’-ine—The bactericidal or bacteriolytic substances dissolved in
the serum and other body fluids.
appearance in an individual of structural or functional peculiarities characteristic
of the race at an earlier stage of development.
by the retention of the waste products of metabolism, either normal or
of the processes of the neuron, distinguished from the other processes,
the dentrites, by the following characteristics: The axon arises
from an axon hillock, contains no tigroid substance, gives off branches
at right or recurrent angles, always carries impulses away from the cell
body, and terminates by forming synapses with other neurons or in a motor
nerve ending. (Figures 3, 8, 9.)
Hil’-lock, or Implantation Cone—A clear portion of the protoplasm of the
neuron from which the axon arises. It contains no tigroid substance,
and resembles the axon in its staining reactions. (Figure 3.)
the power of killing bacteria.
the power of dissolving bacteria. Used also as a synonym of bactericidal.
Gang’-lia—Collections of neurons arranged around the lower part of the
cerebral hemispheres, wherein are coordinated the impulses concerned in
the emotional reactions. The optic thalamus, the corpora striata,
the red nucleus, the substantia nigra, and the sub-thalamic region are
included with others in the term.
living proteid molecule.
Nerve—A group of neurons which receive and coordinate the impulses regulating
the activity of any organ or controlling any function. The nerve
centers act in accordance with the algebraic sum of the impulses reaching
them. Morat is authority for the statement that neurons may be affected
by nerve impulses which retard or inhibit their activity.
Os-te-o-path’-ic, or Su-per-fic’-ial—Certain areas upon the surface of
the body whose sensory nerves affect the action of the nerve centers.
Speech—The group of neurons in the third frontal convolution which coordinate
the impulses from the sensory and associational neurons concerned in speech.
Vas’-o-mo’-tor—Groups of neurons in the spinal cord, the floor of the fourth
ventricle and the acqueduct of Sylvius, which coordinate the impulses from
the associational and sensory neurons concerned in regulating the size
of the blood vessels.
Vis’-cer-o-mo’-tor—Groups of neurons which receive and coordinate the impulses
concerned in regulating visceral activities.
headward tendency acted in animals, especially in vertebrates. The
grouping of important organs in or near the head. The process of cephalization
is incomplete in the degree in which segmentation remains dominant.
movement of cells toward or from the source of substances in solution.
disintegration of the tigroid substance. Varying degrees of chromatolysis
occur normally under the influence of stimulation. Abnormally, chromatolysis
occurs under the influence of many poisons, excessive fatigue, hyperpyrexia,
senility and starvation. Recovery is not impossible even after very
stainable rods which result from the breaking of the spireme in karyokinesis.
They are invariable in number for any given species of animal or plant,
except for the reproductive cells after maturation and before conjugation.
They are held to be the bearers of the hereditary qualities.
branch given off by an axon. Collaterals leave the axon at right
or recurrent angles. By means of collaterals, a neuron is able to
affect the action of more than one other neuron. (Figures 8,9.)
ferment which is able to destroy cells.
cessation of the coordinate processes whose sum makes life. Normally, the
expiration of the possibilities of metabolism in the absence of sexual
reproduction. The cells of complex bodies are unable to undergo sexual
division, hence death is inevitable to these. Abnormally, death is
the result of inability to maintain metabolism in the presence of an abnormal
environment, or of some structural injury.
of the prolongations of a neuron, distinguished from an axon by the following
characteristics: Dendrites may be of almost any number; they contain Nissl’s
bodies; their protoplasm has the staining reaction of the cell protoplasm;
they branch at acute angles, as do trees, whence their name. Dendrites
carry impulses toward the body of the neuron. With the exception
of the sensory neurons of the first order, dentrites are usually short,
and decrease regularly in size from their origin to their termination.
Dendrites probably also assist in the nutrition of the neuron by increasing
the amount of absorptive surface. (Figures 3, 8, 9, 10.)
recognition of abnormalities of structure, environment, or habit which
are responsible for disease or malfunction.
existence of an abnormal relation between any cell, or cell group, or organ,
or system of organs, with their environment or with one another.
substance, or ferment, produced by cell activity which is capable of causing
or facilitating chemical reactions. These substances are characterized
by the following qualities: They act best in their optimum temperature.
They act only upon the substances to which they are adapted. Their activity
ceases in the presence of any considerable quantity of the products of
their activity. They appear to act by catalysis; that is, they cause or
hasten the reaction without themselves becoming a part of the final product.
The amount of change which can be produced by a given amount of an enzyme
is out of all proportion to the amount of the enzyme present. See
Ferment and Zymogen.
death, or normal death. The word is sometimes not quite properly
employed in reference to the use of anesthetics to render death speedy
sum of all the factors which influence any living organism. Among the lower
animals and plants, the environment is limited to factors in actual contact
with the living matter. Among higher animals, the sense organs increase
the environment greatly. By the activity of the powers of associative
memory the environment of the human race includes all of the past whose
history is known, and all of the future to which the past gives a clue.
condition of any cell or group of cells whose reserves of potential energy
have been used. Exhaustion differs from fatigue in this, that fatigue
refers rather to the accumulation of the katabolic products, while exhaustion
refers to the depletion of the materials necessary for anabolism.
effects produced by over stimulation. The term is properly limited
to the excessive accumulation of katabolic products. See Exhaustion.
Organized—Cells which have the power of causing or facilitating chemical
reactions in the substances found in their environment. Example, yeast,
Unorganized—Certain products of cell activity, themselves apparently not
living, which have the power of causing or facilitating chemical reactions.
Example, pepsin, trypsin, rennin, etc. See Enzyme.
chains, probably discarded receptors, able to unite with and render inert
bacteria, toxins, or foreign blood cells. These are supposed to be
produced in great numbers in acquired immunity, and it is to their presence
in the blood stream that immunity is supposed to be due.
manner of the action of any living structure. The place of any part
of an organism in its metabolism.
group of neurons associated in structure and in function.
Sympathetic—A group of neurons situated in any of the body cavities and
distinguished from other nerve collections by the following characteristics:
Sympathetic axons are not medullated, or have very small and inconspicuous
sheaths. Sympathetic axons are distributed to non-striated muscles, cardiac
muscles, and glands. Sympathetic neurons are governed by impulses from
the viscero-motor centers in the cord, medulla, pons and mid-brain.
Ba’-sal—Certain groups of neurons arranged around the base of the brain,
wherein are coordinated the impulses concerned in the emotional reactions.
Sens’-ory—Groups of neurons whose bodies lie in the inter-vertebral foramina,
in the cranial foramina and the cranial cavity, and in the middle ear,
whose axons enter the cord, the medulla or the pons, and whose dendrites
terminate in sensory nerve endings.
performance of actions under the influence of similar actions performed
in the past. Cellular memory.
part of a side chain which contains groups having free valencies.
relation of organism and environment which renders the organism capable
of gaining the most energy from the environment, and of making the reply
to environal changes which makes for the best good of the organism itself
and its race.
Helot, one of a race of slaves)—A manner of living together of two different
organisms wherein one receives the chief benefit, and the other receives
only the necessaries of existence. The chlorophyll bodies in algae
are examples of this condition. These live within the alga cells,
and make starch for the food of the host.
Organs—The organs concerned in the manufacture of the erythrocytes. In
the adult, these are mostly limited to the red bone marrow; in the embryo,
many of the glands of the body are hemotopoietic.
transmission of characteristics from one generation to another by means
of cell structure or habit. The transmission of characteristics from
one generation to another by means of education or nutritive condition
to another by means of education or nutritive conditions is not properly
blossom shaped expansion at the summit of the stem of hydroidea, etc.,
by means of which food is taken.
condition of being unaffected by bacterial or parasitic invasions, or by
poisons. The term is usually applied to freedom from successful bacterial
Ac’-quired—The immunity which follows recovery from bacterial invasion,
or repeated non-lethal doses of poisons or toxins.
Ab’-so-lute—The condition of an organism whose invasion by any given bacterium
Nat’-ur-al—The immunity which depends upon the absence of receptors capable
of forming chemical union with the molecules of any given bacterium.
That is, since every cell maintains its own characteristic metabolism,
there must be variations in the nature of the side chains of its biogens;
and these must vary in their affinities, as chemical compounds differ from
one another in their affinities. If any cell maintains a manner of
metabolism which is associated with the presence of side chains which have
absolutely no affinity for a given toxin or bacterial product, that cell
enjoys natural immunity.
Cone—See Axon Hillock.
(from the word meaning “impel”)—The change, or series of changes, produced
in the entire neuron by a change in the environment of any of its parts,
and which it transfers to other neurons or to other tissues.
sum of the traits which any organism receives from its progenitors by way
of cell structure or function. Inheritance is evidently carried by
the word meaning “to go”)—One of the atoms or radicals into which compounds
are divided by an electrical current, or in very dilute solutions.
series of nuclear changes which initiate and accompany cell division.
Among nearly all forms of cell life, cell division is karyokinetic, and
the number of cells which appear to undergo direct or akinetic division
is becoming continually smaller as our methods of investigating the phenomena
of cell life becomes more exact and exhaustive. The process of karyokinesis,
which is very complex, is fully described in “The Cell,” by E. B. Wilson.
destructive aspect of metabolism. The sum of the processes by means
of which the complex compounds of the living protoplasm are broken into
the waste products which are eliminated from the cell.
to, or characteristic of, katabolism.
or Ky-mo-graph’-ion—An instrument for recording the movements of a needle.
It consists of a clock which carries a revolving drum which is covered
with smoked paper. A needle playing upon the smoked surface leaves
a white mark. The record thus made is rendered permanent by being
coated with shellac or some other varnish. The tracing of the respiratory
movements illustrated in Figures 4 and 5 were made by the kymograph.
structural abnormalilty which is responsible for functional derangement.
Any change in the structure or relationship of tissues which produces abnormal
Bony—Used in a somewhat restricted sense in reference to the slight mal-positions
of bones, or to bones held fixed in a position which brings tension upon
their articular surfaces, and thus initiates reflex visceral mal-function.
Mus’-cu-lar—Used as above, in reference to contractures or to the maintenance
of muscular contraction for a length of time abnormal to the muscles.
Vis’-cer-al—Structural abnormality of viscera.
Cer’-e-bral—Structural changes in the cerebral substance.
term not to be exactly defined. The characteristic of certain complex
compounds by means of which they are able to make use of environal changes
as a source of energy and to transform environal substances into the form
of their own molecules.
Val’-ue—See Neuron Threshold.
process of cell division by means of which the number of chromosomes in
the ovum and sperm cells is halved in preparation for conjugation.
whose bodies are composed of many cells.
series of chemical reactions by means of which the cell assimilates food
from its environment and transforms these again into its own wastes.
characteristic of cells by means of which the nature of their reply to
environal changes varies according to previous reactions.
nerve cell with all its prolongations, the entire cell.
Sensory, of the First Order—A neuron which is affected by environal changes,
transforms the effects of these into nerve impulses, and conveys the nerve
impulses to the central system. The dendrite of a sensory neuron
of the first order terminates in a sensory nerve ending. Of the Second
Order—Neurons which receive impulses from those of the first order.
Neurons of the third order receive impulses from these, and so on.
Mo’-tor, of the First Order—A neuron which carries nerve impulses to muscles.
Its axon terminates in a motor nerve ending. Of the Second Order—Neurons
which transmit impulses to the Motor neurons of the first order.
Motor neurons of the third order transmit impulses to these, and so on.
Sym-path-et’-ic—A neuron whose cell body lies in a sympathetic ganglion.
Its dendrites intermingle with the terminal ramifications of the axons
from the white rami, receiving impulses from them. Its axon terminates
upon the visceral and vascular muscles and among gland cells. (Figures
2 and 3.)
Threshold—The least amount of stimulation which is sufficient to initiate
a nerve impulse. This varies for different neurons and for the same
neuron at different times. The neuron threshold is normally lowered
by the frequent activity of the neuron. It is abnormally lowered
by fatigue, certain poisons, and by a slight increase in temperature.
Sys-tem—A group of neurons associated for the performance of any function.
rather indeterminate term, referring to any group of symptoms which result
from mal-function of the central nervous system.
Bodies—See Tigroid Substance.
development of the individual. The history of the growth changes
from the single cell to the adult organism.
found in the serum which so affect the bacteria as to render them susceptible
to phagocytosis. The same substances are called fixatives, fixators,
In’-dex—The number and power of the opsonins present in any given blood
proportionate to an empirical standard.
changes in the attitude or movements of an organism which are produced
by the effect of external stimulation. For example, the turning of
a moth toward the light.
passage of liquids or of substances in solution through membranes which
depends upon the relative number of molecules present upon the sides of
the membrane. A very concise explanation of the physiological aspect
of osmosis is given in Howell’s Text Book of Physiology.
of causing structural or functional abnormality.
an eating cell. A white blood corpuscle which ingests foreign substances.
action of phagocytes in ingesting bacteria or other foreign substances.
Certain other mesoblastic cells seem to perform this function also, at
series of developmental steps by means of which any race or species has
attained its present structure and function.
instrument for recording the changes in the size of an organ, usually
the hand. It consists of a glass cylinder provided with three stop
cocks with rubber tubes. Two of the tubes are used for filling and
emptying the plethysmograph, the other is connected with a tambour, q.v.
The hand is enclosed in the cylinder and the arm surrounded by a rubber
cuff. The plethysmograph, tubes and tambour are filled with water,
oil, etc., and the needle of the tambour plays upon the kymograph drum.
Any increase in the amount of blood in the hand increases the size of the
hand, presses the liquid from the cylinder into the tambour, and causes
the needle to rise. This traces its movement upon kymograph paper,
and the record may be preserved. By means of this instrument changes
in the blood flow produced by manipulations of the osteopathic centers
may be demonstrated.
in the blood serum which precipitate the serum of other animals or the
filtrate of bacterial cultures.
which are unicellular in adult life.
abnormal condition of the cerebral cortex which exerts a perceptible effect
upon mental processes.
side chains which have free valencies for food stuffs and which may be
affected by toxins, etc. Injured receptors are replaced by the cell,
apparently in numbers in excess of the number injured. These produced
in excess may be cast off from the cell, and are supposed to be concerned
in acquired immunity.
action produced by efferent nerve impulses which result from incoming sensory
impulses without the intermediation of consciousness. (Figures 1 and 2.)
So-mat’-ic—Activity of skeletal muscles in answer to the stimulation of
Vis’-cer-al—Activity of visceral or vascular muscles or glands caused by
the stimulation of viscero-sensory nerves.
So’-mat-o-vis’-cer-al—Activity of visceral or vascular muscles or glands
resulting from the stimulation of somato-sensory nerves.
process of renewing injured or lost parts. Example, the snail reproduces
a new eye stalk if the old one is removed.
(of the spinal cord)—That part of the cord included between the uppermost
fibers of one nerve root and the uppermost fibers of the root next below.
Chains—Radicals of the living proteid molecule which are attached to the
central group and which serve some function in the series of chemical changes
whose sum is the function of that molecule.
to efferent impulses to the skeletal muscles.
to the afferent impulses from the skeletal structures.
to skeletal structures, as distinguished from visceral structures.
Sometimes used as pertaining to the tissues of the individual body, as
distinguished from the reproductive cells.
instrument for measuring blood pressure. It consists of a cuff made
of a rubber bag, connected by a rubber tube with a mercury manometer and
a small air pump. The cuff is placed around the arm over the biceps.
The cuff is then filled with air by means of the pump and the pressure
increased until the pulse is no longer perceptible. The pressure
is continuous in the cuff and in the chamber of the manometer, and the
height of the mercury in the tube indicates the pressure in the radial
instrument for registering the pulse wave. It consists essentially
of a lever which rests upon the pulse, and which supports a needle which
plays upon a strip of smoked paper. The paper is fed regularly into
the machine by clock work. The tracings shown in Figures 6 and 7
were made with Dudgeon’s Sphygmograph.
tracing made by a sphygmograph. (Figures 6 and 7.)
condition of being without the essentials of life, usually referring to
change in the environment which causes a change in the metabolism of an
form of an organism, as distinguished from its function.
slight mal-adjustment of bones. In subluxation there is no separation
of the articular surfaces, but the joints are held in a position of tension,
either by contracted or contractured muscles, or by ligaments which are
abnormally shortened, thickened or lengthened.
accumulation of stimuli. That is, an inefficient stimulus may be
frequently repeated at short intervals and the effects accumulate in an
organism until their sum is efficient and the reaction may occur.
living together of two distinct organisms to their mutual advantage.
perceptible deviation from normal activity.
structural relation between neurons which makes their functional relation
possible. This structural relation is secured by different modes
of connection. The synapsis always occurs between the axon or collaterals
of one cell and the dendrites or the cell body of another. The manner
of the synapsis of the fibers of the white rami with the sympathetic ganglion
cells is shown in Figure 3. The axons of the olfactory nerves branch
among the dendrites of the mitral cells of the olfactory lobe in the structures
called Glomeruli. The axons of the basket cells of the cerebellum
form basket-like networks around the bodies of the Purkinje cells.
The climbing fibers of the cerebellum branch among the dendrites of the
Purkinje cells. The collaterals from the incoming axons of the sensory
roots of the cord simply branch among the dendrites of the cells of the
anterior and lateral horns. Other methods of synapsis are recognized.
instrument of precision for recording changes in the size or motion of
organs. It consists of a pan, covered with rubber sheeting, and tubing
by means of which connection with another pan, or with the plethysmograph,
manometer, etc. The rubber sheet supports a needle which plays
upon the revolving drum of a kymograph. The tracings in Figures 4
and 5 were made by Marey’s tambour, with the second pan also covered with
a rubber sheet and placed over the apex beat of the heart.
Sub’-stance, or Niss’-l’s Substance, or Bodies—Masses of nuclear substance
found in the meshes of the neuron protoplasm which appears after certain
methods of fixation and staining. These masses are found in the normal
neuron, but undergo characteristic changes during stimulation, or in the
presence of temperature changes or poisoning. (Figure 3.)
substances formed by bacteria or other parasites, or by cells abnormal
to the body, or by cells normal to the body but suffering from abnormal
presence of toxins in the blood.
to the efferent impulses to the visceral muscles and glands.
to the afferent impulses from the viscera.
to the efferent impulses to the muscles of walls of the blood vessels.
substances which are the precursors of the enzymes. For example, Trypain
is made from trypsinogen, pepsin from pepsinogen, etc. The zymogens remain
within the cell awaiting the stimulation which shall initiate their transformation
into the enzymes, which, being soluble, pass through the cell wall into the
body fluids, and become functional.