Studies in the Osteopathic Sciences
Basic Principles: Volume 1
Louisa Burns, M.S., D.O., D.Sc.O.

            Ad-apt-a’-tion—The process by means of which any organism becomes fitted for a new environment or function.

            Ag-glu’-tin-ins—Substances in the blood serum which cause the clumping of bacteria.  They are found in great dilution in other body fluids, also.

            Al’-ien-ism—Any abnormal mental condition.

            Am-bo-cept’-or—A receptor which has been set free from a cell; it contains two haptophore groups.

            An-ab’-ol-ism—The process of building food materials into living protoplasm or into functional parts of the cell.

            Al-ex’-in, or Al-ex’-ine—The bactericidal or bacteriolytic substances dissolved in the serum and other body fluids.

            At’-a-vism—The appearance in an individual of structural or functional peculiarities characteristic of the race at an earlier stage of development.

            Aut’-o-in-tox-i-ca’-tion—Poisoning by the retention of the waste products of metabolism, either normal or abnormal.

            Ax’-on—One of the processes of the neuron, distinguished from the other processes, the dentrites, by the following characteristics:  The axon arises from an axon hillock, contains no tigroid substance, gives off branches at right or recurrent angles, always carries impulses away from the cell body, and terminates by forming synapses with other neurons or in a motor nerve ending.  (Figures 3, 8, 9.)

            Ax’-on Hil’-lock, or Implantation Cone—A clear portion of the protoplasm of the neuron from which the axon arises.  It contains no tigroid substance, and resembles the axon in its staining reactions.  (Figure 3.)

            Bac-ter-i-ci’-dal—Having the power of killing bacteria.

            Bac-ter-i-o-lyt’-ic—Having the power of dissolving bacteria.  Used also as a synonym of bactericidal.

            Ba’-sal Gang’-lia—Collections of neurons arranged around the lower part of the cerebral hemispheres, wherein are coordinated the impulses concerned in the emotional reactions.  The optic thalamus, the corpora striata, the red nucleus, the substantia nigra, and the sub-thalamic region are included with others in the term.

            Bi’-o-gen—The living proteid molecule.

            Cen’-ter, Nerve—A group of neurons which receive and coordinate the impulses regulating the activity of any organ or controlling any function.  The nerve centers act in accordance with the algebraic sum of the impulses reaching them.  Morat is authority for the statement that neurons may be affected by nerve impulses which retard or inhibit their activity.

            Cen’-ter, Os-te-o-path’-ic, or Su-per-fic’-ial—Certain areas upon the surface of the body whose sensory nerves affect the action of the nerve centers.

            Cen’-ter, Speech—The group of neurons in the third frontal convolution which coordinate the impulses from the sensory and associational neurons concerned in speech.

            Cen’-ters, Vas’-o-mo’-tor—Groups of neurons in the spinal cord, the floor of the fourth ventricle and the acqueduct of Sylvius, which coordinate the impulses from the associational and sensory neurons concerned in regulating the size of the blood vessels.

            Cen’-ters, Vis’-cer-o-mo’-tor—Groups of neurons which receive and coordinate the impulses concerned in regulating visceral activities.

            Ceph-al-i-za’-tion—The headward tendency acted in animals, especially in vertebrates.  The grouping of important organs in or near the head. The process of cephalization is incomplete in the degree in which segmentation remains dominant.

            Chem-o-tax’-is—The movement of cells toward or from the source of substances in solution.

            Chro-ma-tol’-y-sis—The disintegration of the tigroid substance.  Varying degrees of chromatolysis occur normally under the influence of stimulation.  Abnormally, chromatolysis occurs under the influence of many poisons, excessive fatigue, hyperpyrexia, senility and starvation.  Recovery is not impossible even after very marked chromatolysis.

            Chro’-mo-somes—The stainable rods which result from the breaking of the spireme in karyokinesis.  They are invariable in number for any given species of animal or plant, except for the reproductive cells after maturation and before conjugation.  They are held to be the bearers of the hereditary qualities.

            Col-lat’-er-al—A branch given off by an axon.  Collaterals leave the axon at right or recurrent angles.  By means of collaterals, a neuron is able to affect the action of more than one other neuron.  (Figures 8,9.)

            Cy-tase—A ferment which is able to destroy cells.

            Death—The cessation of the coordinate processes whose sum makes life. Normally, the expiration of the possibilities of metabolism in the absence of sexual reproduction.  The cells of complex bodies are unable to undergo sexual division, hence death is inevitable to these.  Abnormally, death is the result of inability to maintain metabolism in the presence of an abnormal environment, or of some structural injury.

            Den’-drite—One of the prolongations of a neuron, distinguished from an axon by the following characteristics: Dendrites may be of almost any number; they contain Nissl’s bodies; their protoplasm has the staining reaction of the cell protoplasm; they branch at acute angles, as do trees, whence their name.  Dendrites carry impulses toward the body of the neuron.  With the exception of the sensory neurons of the first order, dentrites are usually short, and decrease regularly in size from their origin to their termination.  Dendrites probably also assist in the nutrition of the neuron by increasing the amount of absorptive surface.  (Figures 3, 8, 9, 10.)

            Di-ag-no’-sis—The recognition of abnormalities of structure, environment, or habit which are responsible for disease or malfunction.

            Dis’-ease—The existence of an abnormal relation between any cell, or cell group, or organ, or system of organs, with their environment or with one another.

            En’-zyme—A substance, or ferment, produced by cell activity which is capable of causing or facilitating chemical reactions.  These substances are characterized by the following qualities: They act best in their optimum temperature. They act only upon the substances to which they are adapted. Their activity ceases in the presence of any considerable quantity of the products of their activity. They appear to act by catalysis; that is, they cause or hasten the reaction without themselves becoming a part of the final product. The amount of change which can be produced by a given amount of an enzyme is out of all proportion to the amount of the enzyme present.  See Ferment and Zymogen.

            Eu-than-as’-ia—Painless death, or normal death.  The word is sometimes not quite properly employed in reference to the use of anesthetics to render death speedy and painless.

            En-vir’-on-ment—The sum of all the factors which influence any living organism. Among the lower animals and plants, the environment is limited to factors in actual contact with the living matter.  Among higher animals, the sense organs increase the environment greatly.  By the activity of the powers of associative memory the environment of the human race includes all of the past whose history is known, and all of the future to which the past gives a clue.

            Ex-haus’-tion—The condition of any cell or group of cells whose reserves of potential energy have been used.  Exhaustion differs from fatigue in this, that fatigue refers rather to the accumulation of the katabolic products, while exhaustion refers to the depletion of the materials necessary for anabolism.  See Fatigue.

            Fa-tigue’—The effects produced by over stimulation.  The term is properly limited to the excessive accumulation of katabolic products.  See Exhaustion.

            Fer’-ment, Organized—Cells which have the power of causing or facilitating chemical reactions in the substances found in their environment. Example, yeast, certain bacteria.

            Ferment, Unorganized—Certain products of cell activity, themselves apparently not living, which have the power of causing or facilitating chemical reactions.  Example, pepsin, trypsin, rennin, etc.  See Enzyme.

            Fix’-a-tives—Side chains, probably discarded receptors, able to unite with and render inert bacteria, toxins, or foreign blood cells.  These are supposed to be produced in great numbers in acquired immunity, and it is to their presence in the blood stream that immunity is supposed to be due.

            Func’-tion—The manner of the action of any living structure.  The place of any part of an organism in its metabolism.

            Gang’-lion—A group of neurons associated in structure and in function.

            Gang’-lion, Sympathetic—A group of neurons situated in any of the body cavities and distinguished from other nerve collections by the following characteristics: Sympathetic axons are not medullated, or have very small and inconspicuous sheaths. Sympathetic axons are distributed to non-striated muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands. Sympathetic neurons are governed by impulses from the viscero-motor centers in the cord, medulla, pons and mid-brain.

            Gang’-lion, Ba’-sal—Certain groups of neurons arranged around the base of the brain, wherein are coordinated the impulses concerned in the emotional reactions.

            Gang’-lion, Sens’-ory—Groups of neurons whose bodies lie in the inter-vertebral foramina, in the cranial foramina and the cranial cavity, and in the middle ear, whose axons enter the cord, the medulla or the pons, and whose dendrites terminate in sensory nerve endings.

            Hab’-it—The performance of actions under the influence of similar actions performed in the past.  Cellular memory.

            Hap’-to-phore—The part of a side chain which contains groups having free valencies.

            Health—That relation of organism and environment which renders the organism capable of gaining the most energy from the environment, and of making the reply to environal changes which makes for the best good of the organism itself and its race.

            He’-lot-ism—(From Helot, one of a race of slaves)—A manner of living together of two different organisms wherein one receives the chief benefit, and the other receives only the necessaries of existence.  The chlorophyll bodies in algae are examples of this condition.  These live within the alga cells, and make starch for the food of the host.

            He’-mat-o-poi-et’-ic—Blood forming.

            Hematopoietic Organs—The organs concerned in the manufacture of the erythrocytes. In the adult, these are mostly limited to the red bone marrow; in the embryo, many of the glands of the body are hemotopoietic.

            Her-ed’-i-ty—The transmission of characteristics from one generation to another by means of cell structure or habit.  The transmission of characteristics from one generation to another by means of education or nutritive condition to another by means of education or nutritive conditions is not properly termed heredity.

            Hy-dranth—The blossom shaped expansion at the summit of the stem of hydroidea, etc., by means of which food is taken.

            Im-mu’-ni-ty—The condition of being unaffected by bacterial or parasitic invasions, or by poisons.  The term is usually applied to freedom from successful bacterial invasion.

            Im-mu’-ni-ty, Ac’-quired—The immunity which follows recovery from bacterial invasion, or repeated non-lethal doses of poisons or toxins.

            Im-mu’-ni-ty, Ab’-so-lute—The condition of an organism whose invasion by any given bacterium is impossible.

            Im-mu’-ni-ty, Nat’-ur-al—The immunity which depends upon the absence of receptors capable of forming chemical union with the molecules of any given bacterium.  That is, since every cell maintains its own characteristic metabolism, there must be variations in the nature of the side chains of its biogens; and these must vary in their affinities, as chemical compounds differ from one another in their affinities.  If any cell maintains a manner of metabolism which is associated with the presence of side chains which have absolutely no affinity for a given toxin or bacterial product, that cell enjoys natural immunity.

            Im-plant-a’-tion Cone—See Axon Hillock.

            Im’-pulse (from the word meaning “impel”)—The change, or series of changes, produced in the entire neuron by a change in the environment of any of its parts, and which it transfers to other neurons or to other tissues.

            In-her’-it-ance—The sum of the traits which any organism receives from its progenitors by way of cell structure or function.  Inheritance is evidently carried by the chromosomes.

            I’-on—(from the word meaning “to go”)—One of the atoms or radicals into which compounds are divided by an electrical current, or in very dilute solutions.

            Kar’-y-o-kin-e’-sis—The series of nuclear changes which initiate and accompany cell division.  Among nearly all forms of cell life, cell division is karyokinetic, and the number of cells which appear to undergo direct or akinetic division is becoming continually smaller as our methods of investigating the phenomena of cell life becomes more exact and exhaustive.  The process of karyokinesis, which is very complex, is fully described in “The Cell,” by E. B. Wilson.

            Kar’-y-o-kin-et’-ic—Pertaining to karyokinesis.

            Ka-tab’-ol-ism—The destructive aspect of metabolism.  The sum of the processes by means of which the complex compounds of the living protoplasm are broken into the waste products which are eliminated from the cell.

            Kat-a-bol’-ic—Pertaining to, or characteristic of, katabolism.

            Ky’-mo-graph, or Ky-mo-graph’-ion—An instrument for recording the movements of a needle.  It consists of a clock which carries a revolving drum which is covered with smoked paper.  A needle playing upon the smoked surface leaves a white mark.  The record thus made is rendered permanent by being coated with shellac or some other varnish.  The tracing of the respiratory movements illustrated in Figures 4 and 5 were made by the kymograph.

            Le’-sion—The structural abnormalilty which is responsible for functional derangement.  Any change in the structure or relationship of tissues which produces abnormal metabolic changes.

            Le’-sion, Bony—Used in a somewhat restricted sense in reference to the slight mal-positions of bones, or to bones held fixed in a position which brings tension upon their articular surfaces, and thus initiates reflex visceral mal-function.

            Lesion, Mus’-cu-lar—Used as above, in reference to contractures or to the maintenance of muscular contraction for a length of time abnormal to the muscles.

            Lesion, Vis’-cer-al—Structural abnormality of viscera.

            Lesion, Cer’-e-bral—Structural changes in the cerebral substance.

            Life—A term not to be exactly defined.  The characteristic of certain complex compounds by means of which they are able to make use of environal changes as a source of energy and to transform environal substances into the form of their own molecules.

            Lim’-inal Val’-ue—See Neuron Threshold.

            Mat-ur-a’-tion—The process of cell division by means of which the number of chromosomes in the ovum and sperm cells is  halved in preparation for conjugation.

            Met’-a-zo’-a—Animals whose bodies are composed of many cells.

            Met-ab’-ol-ism—The series of chemical reactions by means of which the cell assimilates food from its environment and transforms these again into its own wastes.

            Mod-i-fi’-a-ble—That characteristic of cells by means of which the nature of their reply to environal changes varies according to previous reactions.

            Neu’-ron—A nerve cell with all its prolongations, the entire cell.

            Neu’-ron, Sensory, of the First Order—A neuron which is affected by environal changes, transforms the effects of these into nerve impulses, and conveys the nerve impulses to the central system.  The dendrite of a sensory neuron of the first order terminates in a sensory nerve ending.  Of the Second Order—Neurons which receive impulses from those of the first order.  Neurons of the third order receive impulses from these, and so on.

            Neu’-ron, Mo’-tor, of the First Order—A neuron which carries nerve impulses to muscles.  Its axon terminates in a motor nerve ending.  Of the Second Order—Neurons which transmit impulses to the Motor neurons of the first order.  Motor neurons of the third order transmit impulses to these, and so on.

            Neu’-ron, Sym-path-et’-ic—A neuron whose cell body lies in a sympathetic ganglion. Its dendrites intermingle with the terminal ramifications of the axons from the white rami, receiving impulses from them.  Its axon terminates upon the visceral and vascular muscles and among gland cells.  (Figures 2 and 3.)

            Neu’-ron Threshold—The least amount of stimulation which is sufficient to initiate a nerve impulse.  This varies for different neurons and for the same neuron at different times.  The neuron threshold is normally lowered by the frequent activity of the neuron.  It is abnormally lowered by fatigue, certain poisons, and by a slight increase in temperature.

            Neu-ron Sys-tem—A group of neurons associated for the performance of any function.

            Neu-ro’-sis—A rather indeterminate term, referring to any group of symptoms which result from mal-function of the central nervous system.

            Nissl’s Bodies—See Tigroid Substance.

            On-tog’-en-y—The development of the individual.  The history of the growth changes from the single cell to the adult organism.

            On-to-gen-et’-ic—Pertaining to Ontogeny.

            Op’-son-ins—Substances found in the serum which so affect the bacteria as to render them susceptible to phagocytosis.  The same substances are called fixatives, fixators, sensibilizing substance.

            Op-son’-ic In’-dex—The number and power of the opsonins present in any given blood proportionate to an empirical standard.

            Or-i-en-ta’-tion—The changes in the attitude or movements of an organism which are produced by the effect of external stimulation.  For example, the turning of a moth toward the light.

            Os-mo-sis—That passage of liquids or of substances in solution through membranes which depends upon the relative number of molecules present upon the sides of the membrane.  A very concise explanation of the physiological aspect of osmosis is given in Howell’s Text Book of Physiology.

            Os-mot’-ic—Pertaining to osmosis.

            Path-o-gen’-ic—Capable of causing structural or functional abnormality.

            Phag’-o-cyte—Literally, an eating cell.  A white blood corpuscle which ingests foreign substances.

            Phag-o-cy-to’-sis—The action of phagocytes in ingesting bacteria or other foreign substances.  Certain other mesoblastic cells seem to perform this function also, at times.

            Phy-log’-e-ny—The series of developmental steps by means of which any race or species has attained its present structure and function.

            Phy-lo-ge-net’-ic—Pertaining to phylogeny.

            Pleth-ys’-mo-graph—An instrument for recording the changes in the size of an organ,  usually the hand.  It consists of a glass cylinder provided with three stop cocks with rubber tubes.  Two of the tubes are used for filling and emptying the plethysmograph, the other is connected with a tambour, q.v.  The hand is enclosed in the cylinder and the arm surrounded by a rubber cuff.  The plethysmograph, tubes and tambour are filled with water, oil, etc., and the needle of the tambour plays upon the kymograph drum.  Any increase in the amount of blood in the hand increases the size of the hand, presses the liquid from the cylinder into the tambour, and causes the needle to rise.  This traces its movement upon kymograph paper, and the record may be preserved.  By means of this instrument changes in the blood flow produced by manipulations of the osteopathic centers may be demonstrated.

            Pre-cip’-it-ins—Substances in the blood serum which precipitate the serum of other animals or the filtrate of bacterial cultures.

            Pro’-to-zo’-a—Animals which are unicellular in adult life.

            Psy-cho’-sis—Any abnormal condition of the cerebral cortex which exerts a perceptible effect upon mental processes.

            Re-cept’-ors—The side chains which have free valencies for food stuffs and which may be affected by toxins, etc.  Injured receptors are replaced by the cell, apparently in numbers in excess of the number injured.  These produced in excess may be cast off from the cell, and are supposed to be concerned in acquired immunity.

            Re’-flex—An action produced by efferent nerve impulses which result from incoming sensory impulses without the intermediation of consciousness. (Figures 1 and 2.)

            Re’-flex, So-mat’-ic—Activity of skeletal muscles in answer to the stimulation of somato-sensory nerves.

            Re’-flex, Vis’-cer-al—Activity of visceral or vascular muscles or glands caused by the stimulation of viscero-sensory nerves.

            Re’-flex, So’-mat-o-vis’-cer-al—Activity of visceral or vascular muscles or glands resulting from the stimulation of somato-sensory nerves.

            Re-gen-er-a’-tion—The process of renewing injured or lost parts.  Example, the snail reproduces a new eye stalk if the old one is removed.

            Seg’-ment (of the spinal cord)—That part of the cord included between the uppermost fibers of one nerve root and the uppermost fibers of the root next below.

            Side Chains—Radicals of the living proteid molecule which are attached to the central group and which serve some function in the series of chemical changes whose sum is the function of that molecule.

            So’-mat-o-mo’-tor—Pertaining to efferent impulses to the skeletal muscles.

            So’-mat-o-sens’-ory—Pertaining to the afferent impulses from the skeletal structures.

            So-mat’-ic—Pertaining to skeletal structures, as distinguished from visceral structures.  Sometimes used as pertaining to the tissues of the individual body, as distinguished from the reproductive cells.

            Sphyg’-mo-man-om’-e-ter—An instrument for measuring blood pressure.  It consists of a cuff made of a rubber bag, connected by a rubber tube with a mercury manometer and a small air pump.  The cuff is placed around the arm over the biceps.  The cuff is then filled with air by means of the pump and the pressure increased until the pulse is no longer perceptible.  The pressure is continuous in the cuff and in the chamber of the manometer, and the height of the mercury in the tube indicates the pressure in the radial artery.

            Sphyg’-mo-graph—An instrument for registering the pulse wave.  It consists essentially of a lever which rests upon the pulse, and which supports a needle which plays upon a strip of smoked paper.  The paper is fed regularly into the machine by clock work.  The tracings shown in Figures 6 and 7 were made with Dudgeon’s Sphygmograph.

            Sphyg’-mo-graph—The tracing made by a sphygmograph.  (Figures 6 and 7.)

            Star-va’-tion—The condition of being without the essentials of life, usually referring to food.

            Stim-u-la’-tion—Any change in the environment which causes a change in the metabolism of an organ.

            Struct’-ure—The form of an organism, as distinguished from its function.

            Sub-dis-lo-ca’-tion—See Subluxation.

            Sub-lux-a’-tion—A slight mal-adjustment of bones.  In subluxation there is no separation of the articular surfaces, but the joints are held in a position of tension, either by contracted or contractured muscles, or by ligaments which are abnormally shortened, thickened or lengthened.

            Sum-ma’-tion—The accumulation of stimuli.  That is, an inefficient stimulus may be frequently repeated at short intervals and the effects accumulate in an organism until their sum is efficient and the reaction may occur.

            Sym-bi-o’-sis—The living together of two distinct organisms to their mutual advantage.  See Helotism.

            Sym-pa-thet’-ic-Ganglion—See Ganglion, Sympathetic.

            Symp’-tom—Any perceptible deviation from normal activity.

            Syn-ap’-sis—The structural relation between neurons which makes their functional relation possible.  This structural relation is secured by different modes of connection.  The synapsis always occurs between the axon or collaterals of one cell and the dendrites or the cell body of another.  The manner of the synapsis of the fibers of the white rami with the sympathetic ganglion cells is shown in Figure 3.  The axons of the olfactory nerves branch among the dendrites of the mitral cells of the olfactory lobe in the structures called Glomeruli.  The axons of the basket cells of the cerebellum form basket-like networks around the bodies of the Purkinje cells.  The climbing fibers of the cerebellum branch among the dendrites of the Purkinje cells.  The collaterals from the incoming axons of the sensory roots of the cord simply branch among the dendrites of the cells of the anterior and lateral horns. Other methods of synapsis are recognized.

            Tam’-bour—An instrument of precision for recording changes in the size or motion of organs.  It consists of a pan, covered with rubber sheeting, and tubing by means of which connection with another pan, or with the plethysmograph, manometer, etc.  The rubber sheet supports a needle which plays  upon the revolving drum of a kymograph.  The tracings in Figures 4 and 5 were made by Marey’s tambour, with the second pan also covered with a rubber sheet and placed over the apex beat of the heart. 

            Ti-groid’ Sub’-stance, or Niss’-l’s Substance, or Bodies—Masses of nuclear substance found in the meshes of the neuron protoplasm which appears after certain methods of fixation and staining.  These masses are found in the normal neuron, but undergo characteristic changes during stimulation, or in the presence of temperature changes or poisoning.  (Figure 3.)

            Tox’-ins—Poisonous substances formed by bacteria or other parasites, or by cells abnormal to the body, or by cells normal to the body but suffering from abnormal conditions.

            Tox-e’-mia—The presence of toxins in the blood.

            Vis’-cer’-o-mo’-tor—Pertaining to the efferent impulses to the visceral muscles and glands.

            Vis’-cer-o-sens’-or-y—Pertaining to the afferent impulses from the viscera.

            Vas’-o-mo’-tor—Pertaining to the efferent impulses to the muscles of walls of the blood vessels.

            Zym’-o-gen—The substances which are the precursors of the enzymes.  For example, Trypain is made from trypsinogen, pepsin from pepsinogen, etc.  The zymogens remain within the cell awaiting the stimulation which shall initiate their transformation into the enzymes, which, being soluble, pass through the cell wall into the body fluids, and become functional.