Studies in the Osteopathic
Basic Principles: Volume
Louisa Burns, M.S., D.O., D.Sc.O.
DISEASE SYMPTOMS ARE EFFORTS AT ADJUSTMENT TO ABNORMAL CONDITIONS.
Old Idea of Disease.
The series of phenomena which are called the symptoms of disease appear
at first sight to be of such malignant and whimsical and illogical character
that it is no wonder that in earlier times, and even to this day in some
circles, people consider diseases as entities, as if they were wild beasts
seeking whom they might devour. There is something ferocious in the
attitude of the symptoms of sudden illness, and there is no blame to the
ignorant person, who, seeing only the superficial aspect of the suffering
patient, thinks of the disease as a cruel entity, to be propitiated or
Disease Not an Entity.
such a viewpoint, drug therapy is almost inevitable. If diseases
are entities, if they have certain powers, if they perform certain malicious
actions, then the rational thing to do is to expel, or kill, or counteract
the disease, the creature which is making the mischief. Witchcraft
sought to expel diseases, modern drug and serum therapy seeks to kill or
counteract them. If diseases are malicious entities, and their symptoms
are evidences of their presence, as the odor of an animal might betray
its presence, then drugs of the most poisonous nature are rational enough,
and the only question to be raised is one of the efficiency and expediency
of these methods. They are, for the most part, found entirely wanting,
even from this standpoint, according to the statements of those who have
used them longest. But the standpoint is an untrue one, if there
be no diseases as entities. It is true that certain groups of symptoms,
usually found co-existant, have been studied and named, and our knowledge
of these conditions has been greatly increased thereby, but it is not true
that there is any real thing which may be called a disease.
researches into physiological problems during the last few years indicate
the utter fallacy of regarding diseases as entities. Disease symptoms
are efforts, not at the destruction of the body by some more or less personal
malignancy, but at the maintenance of existence under changing and abnormal
conditions. Health is not an entity, either; both health and disease
are abstract terms applied to conditions of metabolism.
is merely the condition of an organism which is perfectly adapted to its
environment; disease is the condition of an organism which is not well
adapted to its environment. When any organism is subjected to the
influence of abnormal conditions, its metabolism is affected in various
manners. The nature of the changes in the metabolism of the organism
depends only in part upon the nature of the external influences; the character
of the cells affected is a factor of equal importance. The activities
of normal cells vary considerably under normal conditions, and are subject
to great variations under abnormal conditions. Hence the nature of
the effects produced upon the cells by any given abnormality in their surroundings
may differ very widely at different stages of physiological activity.
has shown that some of the simpler animals reverse their reaction to light
under the influence of temperature changes. H. S. Jennings and Ada
Watterson Yerkes have shown that among the unicellular organisms and the
simpler multicellular organisms the character of the reaction to any stimulus
depends in large part upon the character of the stimuli previously received.
The behavior of these organisms is then said to be “modifiable.”
The nature of the reactions of these organisms is modified by the occurrence
of previous stimulations. It would almost seem that the phenomena
observed in these cases indicates a sort of education of the cell, if the
expression may be employed without involving any considerations of consciousness
on the part of these simple structures.
The Living Proteid Molecule.
nature of the living molecule may be considered for a moment. The
ultimate division of living proteid matter that retains a semblance of
life is too small to be seen with the microscope. That is, the very
smallest bits of protoplasm that can be seen display signs of life, and
it is probable that still smaller bits also live for a time. It is
hardly likely that the limits of our present vision should coincide with
the limits of the size of the proteid molecule. But the smallest
bit of protoplasm that displays the powers of nutrition and reproduction
must be quite large. It must include both nucleus and protoplasm
in a certain amount.
the living proteid molecule is ultra-microscopic, it is known that the
chemical configuration of the molecule is continually changing, and yet
retains its individuality throughout its life time. This apparent
anomaly becomes conceivable when the activity of the living cell is compared
to a water-fall. Here, in a crude manner, is illustrated the phenomenon
of continual change with retention of identity. In a far more complex
manner, yet perhaps in some ways comparable to this, the cell retains its
identity and its characteristics through changes almost inconceivably rapid
and exhaustive. The central portion of this living molecule may be
considered as fairly stable. Attached to this rather stable center
are side-chains of very variable structure. There are certainly chains
containing certain fatty acids, some containing carbohydrates; some apparently
contain simple sugars, others hold oxygen in unstable combination and facilitate
oxidation processes, and many are very complex nitrogenous side chains.
The character of the foods that are taken up by the living proteid molecule
depends upon the affinities of these side chains. The nature of the
reaction of the cell to external stimulation depends upon the essential
structure of the molecule and upon its position in the rhythm of its series
of chemical changes. As illustrative of the first of these factors,
we note that a muscle cell contracts and a gland cell secretes under the
influence of identical stimuli; while as an instance of the second factor,
we note the occurrence of the “latent period” of muscle and neuron.
Permeability of the Cell Wall.
has studied the permeability of cells under different conditions.
He finds that the substances that are soluble in water and also in organic
solvents, -- Oil, ethyl-ether, the higher alcohols, etc., penetrate cells
very easily. But the more the solubility of any substances in water
exceeds its solubility in the organic solvents, the more slowly does it
penetrate living cells. Overton suggests that the limiting layers
of the protoplasm are impregnated with a fatty substance,--a mixture of
lecithin and cholesterin, and that the elective solvent power of this mixture
for different substances governs the pure osmotic permeability of the cells.
If this be a justifiable conclusion , the accumulation of the products
of katabolism might affect the permeability of the limiting membrane and
thus affect the permeability of the limiting membrane and thus affect the
reaction of the cells to subsequent stimulation. The immunity of
some cells to certain poisons, and the great susceptibility of others may
be in part due to the nature of this “elective solvent power” and in part
due to the affinities of the open side chains at the moment of the stimulation.
The variations of the reactions to the same stimulus at different times
may be accounted for in this way, perhaps.
Variations in Metabolism.
of these variations in the metabolism of the cells, or of animals or plants
of higher development, form a part of their normal life or race history.
These are not to be considered abnormal manifestations. The phenomena
of metabolism are normal so long as the cell is able to reply to its environal
changes in an efficient and logical manner; the phenomena of metabolism
become abnormal when the cell is unable to give a logical reply to the
changes in its environment. Or, in other words, the cell, or group
of cells, is normal when it is able to secure from its environal changes
the energy necessary to the perpetuation of its characteristic metabolism;
it is abnormal and displays phenomena which we call the symptoms of disease
when it is not able to make use of the energy supplied by its environment,
in a degree sufficient to maintain its characteristic series of chemical
reactions, or when the environment itself is abnormal.
Adjustment to Environment.
of this possibility of variation in cell metabolism, the cells (and cell
groups) are able to endure certain changes in their environment.
If the changes be slowly made, and if it be not destructive in its effect
upon the cell structure, the cells may become adapted to the new environment,
which thus becomes the normal. During this period of adaptation,
the cell metabolism is not that which is characteristic either of the cells
in the old environment, or of the acclimated cell. During this period
of adjustment, the cell is not to be considered quite normal. It
is more susceptible to the ill effects of temperature changes, is more
erratic in its reactions to unusual stimulation. In the case of the
higher animals, the cells are more easily fatigued, more liable to injury,
and more susceptible to bacterial invasion. Ultimately, under such
conditions, either adaptation is secured, and the new environment becomes
the normal one, or the cells and organisms perish, as is the case with
the manifestly unfit.
Causes of Disease.
are unable to make rational reply to the changes in their environment under
two conditions: The cell structure may be abnormal or its environment
may be abnormal.
cell structure may be abnormal from its first existence as an individual.
The influence of heredity in maintaining peculiarities of structure is
not doubted by thoughtful persons. This influence is not absolute,
however, but is subject to modification by environal conditions.
Influence of Heredity.
influence of heredity is to perpetuate the best of the race, for the most
part. By varying combinations, and the tendency of those with unworthy
characteristics to die young, the normal and sane characters leave greater
effects of their lives upon the race than do the abnormal or insane, unless
the abnormal conditions be perpetuated by continuous inbreeding.
There is an inheritance of cell structure as well as of gross structure,
as is shown by the occurrence in families of nutritional or metabolic traits.
In the last analysis, these tendencies must be transmitted as peculiarities
of structure, only in the one case it is a peculiarity of gross, and in
the other of molecular, structure.
the faulty inheritance, the occurrence of disease symptoms is almost inevitable,
under conditions of unusual stress, at any rate. It is true that
the weakling may live a fairly normal life provided his environment remains
fairly normal. The normal person is able to maintain normal conditions
of metabolism under unfavorable conditions. The weakling fails in
time of extra demands. The only thing to do for the person of faulty
inheritance is to give him the environment that secures for him the best
strength of body and mind of which he is capable. This varies with
gross structure of the body may be rendered abnormal by accident.
This aspect of the subject has been discussed in Chapter I.
structure of the body may be rendered abnormal through faulty function.
By this is meant that the environal changes may make excessive or unusual
demands upon the powers of the cells or the cell groups, and the cells
be finally injured, or the environment may not afford the available energy
needful to the metabolism of the cell.
The Old Pathology and the New.
older theories of pathology rested with the discovery of the abnormal structure
of the cells of the organ whose malfunction was being investigated.
The later investigations seek to penetrate further into the causes of the
lack of cellular integrity. The osteopathic theories of pathology
differ from those commonly accepted in this urgent demand for the causes
of malfunction. The view that the normal cell may act in an abnormal
manner unless it is affected by some abnormal factor in its environment
is unscientific and primitive. Every rational theory of disease or
therapeutics must recognize as a biological necessity that there is an
efficient cause for malfunction,--that every symptom of disease is the
manifestation of a changed metabolism of the cells of the body in reply
to some abnormal donations in their environment or structure.
Relations of Cells in Complex Bodies.
cells of bodies so complex as ours have as their environment the other
cells of the body, and the fluids formed by other cells. Thus, any
malfunction of any cell may affect almost any other cell in the whole body.
For this reason, the symptoms of disease may be grouped as the phenomena
displayed by cells in their reactions to their environment; the phenomena
displayed by cell groups, or organs in their reaction to their environment;
and the phenomena displayed by the body as a whole in its reaction to its
environment. These reactions are theoretically separate. Actually,
the reaction of one cell group, or one organ, affects the reactions
of others and of the body as a whole. For convenicence, however,
the simple classification may be retained here.
effects of changes in the environment of the cells may be considered in
is not desirable that every possible factor in the environment should be
considered in this connection. The study of the significance of the
symptoms resulting from a few of the changes in the environment of cells,
organs and the body as a whole will serve to illustrate some of the principles
underlying all disease processes.
phenomena of starvation have been studied from the condition of starving
cells and from the condition of certain organs of the body when their nutrition
is interfered with. The starving paramecium was studied by Wallengren.
According to his observations, the food masses and the food vacuoles disappear
first. Small granules, probably deutoplasm, disappear next, and the
living substance of the endoplasm is then used as a source of energy.
The cilia keep on waving, and the contractile vacuole maintains its pulsation
at the expense of these structures until they are exhausted. The
endoplasm becomes vacuolated, and just before all signs of life fail the
cilia are absorbed, then the macronucleus, and the micronucleus persists
longest of all the cell structures. All that remains of the cell
becomes granulated and the granules fall apart. Nothing is left but
a mass of granular debris. This description of the starving paramoecium
resembles the vivid pictures which Berkeley gives of the neuron which dies
of old age.
of the body which have failed to secure sufficient nourishment, or nerve
fibers which have been severed from their cell bodies, or cells which have
been poisoned, or which have been subjected to abnormal pressure, may undergo
what is called “fatty degeneration.” These conditions are probably
all due to failing nutrition, in their ultimate nature. The occurrence
of fat in these starved cells appears at first sight to be rather an anomaly.
Leathes and his predecessors have found that much of the fat found in these
tissues is derived from other less essential organs of the body.
Another part of the fat found in starvation is accounted for in another
living proteid molecule contains at least one and probably several side
chains built upon the plan of the fatty acid radical. There is reason
to believe that a partial disintegration of the living molecule sets the
fat free. Leathes shows, in this relation, that the heart, the cerebral
cortex, and degenerating nerve fibers contain actually less fat, by careful
analysis, than do these tissues under normal conditions. Under normal
conditions, these side chains do not give the micro-chemical reactions
characteristic of fats in general, because they are in chemical union with
the other parts of the living molecule. But it is possible to break
them off, and to extract and estimate them as fats.
the action of the autolytic enzymes during bad nutritional conditions,
these side chains are set free from their feeble union with the rest of
the living molecule, and they then give the micro-chemical reactions of
the fats. Hence the old absurd idea that the fatty degeneration is
a cause of disease.
also occurs a form of starvation not commonly considered as such, -- oxygen
starvation. Organisms of simple structure may live upon the oxygen
derived from the disintegration of oxygen-containing compounds, but higher
animals require this gas to be supplied to them free from “entangling alliances.”
Such complex bodies as our own require that the oxygen shall be brought
to the cells in a very continuous stream. Oxygen starvation is sometimes
characterized by an excessive storing of fat. The abnormal fatty
accumulations found in persons suffering from cardiac lesions are due to
the faulty oxidation. The condition is in no way different in its
nature from the excessive deposit of fat which accompanies deficient hemoglobin
low hemoglobin percentages are often due to faulty nutrition, and this
condition may be due to bad habits of eating, as well as to some digestive
ailment. Ordinarily, starvation causes emaciation, but a lack of
oxygen, either in the air, or in the blood and lymph, or because of a lack
of the iron and phosphorus containing foods, may be accompanied by obesity.
It is perhaps needless to point out the fallacy of suggesting starvation
diet to the obese person who lacks hemoglobin enough to carry the oxygen
requisite to the proper oxidation of the food materials, or whose heart
is incapable of sending the aerated blood to the tissues in sufficient
quantity to oxidize the food substances, or to carry away the waste products
of cell metabolism.
cells of all forms of life are very susceptible to changes in the osmotic
tension of the fluids which surround them. The change in osmotic
tension is not the only factor in modifying their metabolism when different
quantities of salts are added to their environment, as is shown by the
exhaustive work of Loeb and many other investigators into the physiological
effects of ions in solutions. Though not the only factor, variations
in osmotic tension are very effective agents in modifying the activities
of cells. The structure of the cell is changed by variations in the
osmotic tension either within its walls, or in its surrounding fluids.
It absorbs water, perhaps until it bursts, or it yields its own fluids
to its denser medium, until it becomes shrunken and dead.
The Cause of Swelling.
normal conditions the number of molecules within the cell is just sufficient
to maintain a normal circulation of liquid into and out of the cell, in
connection with the series of chemical changes which are devoted to the
same end. If the function of the cell be subjected to serious interference,
its very complex molecules become broken down into simpler compounds.
This occurs normally under conditions of increased katabolism, but the
rebuilding proceeds as fast, or almost as fast, as the breaking down.
Abnormally, the anabolism fails in a certain degree. Under abnormal
conditions, then, the molecules within the cell are simpler and smaller
than normal, there are thus more of them from the numerical standpoint.
Since the osmotic tension of any fluid varies according to the number of
molecules present, without regard to their size, if the complex molecules
are divided into simpler molecules of half the atomic weight, the osmotic
tension is doubled. In a cell which has been injured, the molecules
are simple and therefore greater in number. Therefore, the abnormal
cell, however it may be injured, invariably swells first. The simpler
molecules, being more diffusible than the larger ones, are slowly dissolved
out of the cell, and the cell shrinks. This sequence of swelling
and shrinking is present under almost every manifestation of disease of
cells, either those living an independent existence, or those associated
with millions of others, as in our own bodies.
in temperature exert a marked difference upon the metabolism of all living
things. A slight increase in the temperature of the environment increases
the mobility of many unicellular organisms. This increased motility
causes their escape from the harmful neighborhood. In like manner,
probably, the cells of higher animals react to slight increase of temperature
by increased metabolism. In animals with nervous systems of considerable
complexity, the increased metabolism of different organs following increased
temperature is coordinated in such a manner that the loss of heat from
the body is facilitated, and the body temperature kept normal. Higher
degrees of temperature are fatal. The resistance of some spores and
seeds to high temperatures is very remarkable. Many of them remain
alive even after having been boiled for more than half an hour.
in the lethal temperature of the various living things depend upon the
nature of their more complex globulins. The work of Brodie and Haliburton
indicates that the lethal temperature of any animal depends upon the temperature
at which its most complex globulins are precipitated.
frog is accustomed to a low body temperature, and dies if kept very long
in a temperature above 34 degrees C. Even in glass, the extract from
a frog’s muscle forms a coagulum at a temperature of 34.5 degrees C.
The extract from the brain or muscle of most mammals does not give a precipitate
until a temperature of 42 degrees C. is reached. Extracts from the
brain or muscles of birds require even higher temperatures before the first
coagulum is formed. This is in accordance with the facts of the resistance
of these animals to heat. Birds endure temperatures disastrous to
human beings; mammals endure temperatures fatal to frogs. These temperature
figures apply to the temperature within the body itself, and takes no account
of thermogenic and thermolytic regulation through nervous activity.
The Neurons at High Temperature.
and Flatau have studied the nature of the effects of heat upon the neurons.
Small animals, rabbits and guinea-pigs, I believe, were kept in a warming
chamber at a temperature of 42-44 degrees C. for several hours. After
they became apparently moribund, they were removed. Some were killed
at once, others at various intervals during their recovery. Not all
of them did recover, but some were able to regain their normal condition
within periods varying from a few hours to several days, according to the
animals, the length of time spent in the warming chamber, and other factors.
The brains and cords of those killed at once upon removal from the warming
chamber were prepared after the method of Nissl. Their neurons showed
that the cell structure had become greatly changed. The tigroid substance
had almost or quite disappeared. Its place was taken by light brown
opaque masses and small granules. The whole cell was enlarged and
the dentrites much swollen. The animals which began to recover were
killed at varying intervals. Their neurons displayed various stages
in the return to the normal structure. The opaque masses were slowly
absorbed, and the tigroid substance was formed again.
function of the neurons returned before the tigroid substance was replaced.
This is in harmony with the view that the tigroid substance represents
a store-house of potential energy, rather than an essential part of the
cell structure, and that deutoplasmic granules may be of more complex molecular
structure than the living proteid. According to Halliburton and Brodie,
if an extract be made of the brains of animals dying from excessive heat,
it does not produce a precipitate at 42 degrees C. as do extracts of normal
brains. The difference is clearly due to the fact that these have
been precipitated before death, or at the time of death.
globulins of muscles, glands, nerve cells and other active structures of
the body give the first precipitate at about the same temperature.
(It is commonly known that there are several globulins present in all living
structures, some of which are only distinguishable by differences in their
Mental Symptoms in Fever.
significance of the mental symptoms observed in fever are easily explained
in the light of these experiments. The temperature of the body cavities
is certainly higher than the mouth temperature. The temperature within
the brain must exceed the coagulation temperature of the tigroid substance
before death. But a quite advanced degree of chromatolysis is not
incompatible with ultimate recovery. Death, or permanent disability,
is inevitable after the coagulation of the globulins which form an essential
part of the cell structure. During very high temperatures, there
is no mental activity whatever; under less increase of temperature, the
mental activity is abnormal but intense. After recovery from high
fever, the mental activity is decreased until the partly precipitated complex
globulins representing the reserves of potential energy are again rebuilt
by the cell.
some cases, some of the cells may have yielded to the effects of the high
temperature sooner than others, and these may have been injured in their
essential structure. Recovery is not possible for these, and the
patient never does recover his old measure of mental efficiency, unless
embryonic cells may be developed to take the place of those injured.
is due to the stimulating action of the high temperature upon the neurons;
torpor is due in part to exhaustion, in part to the presence of toxins,
and, more seriously, in part to the partial precipitation of the deutoplasmic
globulins in the neurons.
fatigue phenomena display two well marked series of disease symptoms.
The symptoms commonly called fatigue are really conditions of poisoning
from the retention of the waste products of metabolism. Very similar
to this condition are the phenomena observed in the action of ferments.
These act with celerity upon the class of substances to which they are
adapted, but after certain changes are produced, the accumulation of the
products of the ferment action hinders further action until these substances
are removed. Cells are unable to maintain their normal metabolism
in the presence of their own waste products, even though their food and
oxygen supply remain normal, and every other factor is such as to facilitate
cells of more complexly organized beings are also unable to perform their
functions normally in the presence of their own waste products. The
more active the metabolism of any organ, the more rapidly are its waste
products formed and the more essential is their rapid removal. The
psychoses and neuroses which are usually considered due to exhaustion are
in reality due more to auto-intoxication than to an actual exhaustion of
the cells. It is true that there are conditions of real exhaustion
underlying some of these neuroses, but by far the larger number of these
are merely due to the retention of the wastes of metabolism within the
system, or to some other form of poisoning, as, for example, the use of
ordinary sensations of fatigue are due altogether to the accumulation of
the katabolic products within the blood and lymph streams. Under
normal conditions, there is rarely a possibility of exhaustion, in the
literal sense of the word.
are some instances, however of true exhaustion, or of what seems to be
true exhaustion. This occurs in the muscles as a result of long continued
strain under excitement or the stress of some unusual circumstances.
The muscle atrophies afterward, and only rarely recover, though the maintenance
of the normal nerve and blood supply seems to facilitate recovery in some
the case of the nerves, cases presenting the symptoms of exhaustion are
more frequently found. In these cases, the rational treatment should
include rest, and plentiful food, and the correction of all conditions
which might interfere with the normal anabolic processes. In the
cases mentioned in connection with fatigue, such a treatment would be disastrous.
Here there is needed the increased elimination of the waste products, the
rather slim diet, the increase of the oxygen supply, often the increase
of exercise, and the correction of all factors which prevent the free elimination
of the katabolic wastes. These cases present about the same subjective
symptoms, but the treatment advised the one might be very inefficient for
any cell, or any organ of a complex body, does not perform its duties in
a normal manner, it is because there is some reason for its malfunction.
The use of certain stimulants may cause a further evolution of energy,
and thus secure the appearance of the normal function, but this evolution
of energy must be at the expense of the cell structure. The experiments
which have been performed upon cells show this beyond question, in the
case of simpler animals, and there are post-mortem findings which verify
the conclusion in human beings. The onset of starvation may be very
greatly facilitated by increasing abnormally, by stimulants, the activity
of the organism subjected to experiment.
fallacy of trying to increase the activity of over worked, poorly nourished
structures by any form of stimulation, is apparent. It would be just
as rational to try to stimulate an engine to run while the fire box is
empty. In the other cases, where the fatigue symptoms are due to
the accumulation of the wastes, an effort to secure a return to health
by increased feeding would be as sensible as an effort to make a fire burn
while the stove is full of ashes.
considerations apply in a certain degree to the reactions of organs of
the body to abnormal factors in their environment.
the simpler forms of life the injury or destruction of any organ is followed
by the regeneration of the lost part. This process may be repeated
for a number of times which varies for the species, but which has not been
found unlimited for any. With the appearance of the complex and efficient
nervous system such as vertebrates possess, the possibility of regeneration
decreases. It has not yet disappeared, for even we ourselves grow
new skin daily. For the most part, however, regeneration has been
superseded by compensation. The nervous system has so perfectly unified
the various and diverse organs of the body that the injury of one is shared
by all, and the strength of one is shared by all. The nervous system
regulates this matter very largely, though there are other factors concerned
in compensation. The nerve relations concerned in compensation are
discussed in Chapters VII and VIII.
reaction of the body as a whole to its environment is for the most part
a matter of conscious action. In the case of the unicellular organisms,
we consider that certain phenomena are significant of life, and that the
absence of these phenomena denotes death. So, in the case of people,
there are certain mental attitudes which are characteristic of life, and
there are certain other conditions which indicate the presence of some
abnormality either of structure or environment. The normal person
experiences pleasure in living. His circumstances may affect him
unpleasantly at times,--he is not normal if he is able to enjoy, or to
look with indifference upon anything which occasions pain to any one, or
which has a disastrous effect upon his neighbors in any way. Yet,
on the whole, the normal person enjoys life, and likes to help others also
to enjoy it.
gloomy outlook indicates an abnormal condition of the cortical neurons.
There are some diseases, notably tuberculosis, in which there is a tendency
to an abnormal, because baseless, cheerfulness. The occurrence of
this cheerfulness is not to be considered as indicative of a favorable
prognosis in this disease, but if the dyspeptic should become cheerful
the prognosis becomes bright almost at once.
is characteristic of life. In the same way, expression is significant
of the normal mental condition. The normal brain transfers the sensory
impulses which reach it into some form of activity. The cell derives
energy from its environment; it is not normal if it does not do so, or,
if it does not use that energy for the good of itself and its race.
The person of normal mentality derives energy from his environment and
uses that energy for the good of himself and his race. He is not
normal if he does not do so. The person whose cortical neurons are
starved or poisoned is not capable of doing the best work, of living the
best life, of attaining the highest pleasure, of enjoying or of expressing
in any effectual degree those generous and altruistic instincts which make
for the highest and finest development of human life.
short, the person of normal brain works and enjoys work, lives and enjoys
life, and bases all his efforts upon a rational appreciation of his environment,
and of his own place in the midst of things. Mental conditions not
in harmony with these factors are not normal and are significant of some
interference with the structure or the nutrition of the neurons, or with
the environment of the individual.
A.—According to Plato, “No man is voluntarily bad; but the bad becomes
bad by reason of ill disposition of the body and bad education, things
which are hateful to every man and happen to him against his will.”
Diffusion and Osmosis, in Howell’s Physiology, p. 881, Edition of 1906.
The Assimilation and Synthesis of Fat, in Leathes’ Problems of Animal Metabolism.