Osteopathy Complete
Elmer D. Barber, D. O.
1898
  
            
DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
 
 
NEURALGIA
(Pain in the course of a nerve.)

SYMPTOMS
    Burning or shooting pain in the course of the affected nerve; parts may be anesthetic, but usually there is hyperesthesia of the skin.  Prolonged neuralgia may produce disturbance of nutrition.
    Neuralgia may be due to constitutional causes, such as gout or rheumatism; or some form of toxemia, as malaria; or condition of the blood, as anemia.

TREATMENT
    Neuralgia of any part should be treated in a similar manner to Acute Articular Rheumatism of that part.  If in the face, thorough manipulation of the face and neck should be given; if in a limb, thorough manipulation, extension, and flexion of that part should be applied.
    It is often advisable in neuralgia to give a thorough General Treatment.
    This disease is sometimes cured in one or two treatments, in other instances baffling the skill of the most experienced operator.
    Treatment should be given each day.
 



 
TIC-DOULOUREUX
(A form of neuralgia involving the trigeminus nerve, and causing muscular twitching of the face.)

TREATMENT
    1.  Place the hand under the chin, the other under the occipital, and give thorough extension of the neck.
    2.  Manipulate all muscles of the neck very thoroughly, working as far as possible with the fingers under the inferior maxillary.
    3.  Place the fingertips over the Gasserian ganglion (cut 49), and vibrate one minute.
    Treatment will occupy about ten minutes, and should be given every day.
 



 
HEADACHE
(Pain in the head.)

SYMPTOMS AND CAUSES
    Gastric or dyspeptic headaches are often occipital, sometimes frontal, and if accompanied by constipation, are diffuse and frontal.  Uterine and ovarian headaches are occipital and vertical.
    Nervous headaches are seated on the top of the head.
    If pulsating and throbbing, indicates vaso-motor disturbances; squeezing and pressing, nervous exhaustion or affection; sharp and boring, hysterical, neurotic, or epileptic; dull and heavy, toxic or dyspeptic; hot and burning, ,rheumatic or anemic.
    Headache, not caused by fevers, the stomach, or the uterus, can be almost instantly cured by stretching the neck and a pressure on the nerves at the base of the occipital bone.

HEADACHE TREATMENT
    1.  Place the right hand on the back of the patient's neck, the thumb on one side and the fingers on the other, close to the head; place the left hand on the forehead, tipping the head backward gently, lifting quite strongly with the right arm, while rotating the head gently from side to side (see cut 34).
    2.  Standing in front of the patient and tilting the head backward, gently hold the vaso-motor center (cut 35).
    3.  Place one hand on the forehead the other upon the back of the head, and press for several moments, hard.
    4.  Standing behind the patient, with one hand on each side of the forehead, make five or six quick strokes.
    5.  Place one finger on each temple, and, while pressing, gently move the fingers from right to left with a circular motion.
    6.  With the right hand raise patient's right arm high above the head, with the thumb of the left hand between the spine and the scapula, beginning at its upper angle, moving the muscles upward with a strong pressure at the same instant.
    This treatment will not occupy over ten minutes.  First, second, and third will cure any ordinary headache, and the entire treatment will cure any case of headache, no matter how severe, if not caused by fevers, the stomach, or the uterus, in from five to ten minutes.
    Of the scores of cases cured by us, we will mention the case of a lady of Scammon, Kansas, who would have an attack of nervous headache once each week, lasting from two to four days; she suffered intense pain, the muscles contracting, until they drew the head backward upon the neck. At these times electricity, hypodermic injections, and even chloroform, had failed to give relief Being anxious to put our method to the severest test, we undertook her case, and were even more successful than we had dared to hope.  In ten minutes she was sleeping quietly, apparently free from pain.  In the morning a second light treatment was given, which gave her complete relief, and the continuation of the treatments for one month effected a permanent cure.
 



 
NERVOUS HEADACHE

TREATMENT
    In addition to our Headache Treatment, place the patient on the face, and with the thumbs, beginning at the neck, press gently the entire length of the dorsal vertebra, after which, if the patient has retired, hold the vaso-motor center a moment (cut 13), and in a few minutes your patient will be asleep.
 



 
SICK HEADACHE

    Sick headache being caused by a reflex action of the pneumogastric and splanchnic nerves, the stomach is at fault; we must first reach that organ through the splanchnic nerves.

TREATMENT
    1.  Place the patient on the back; reaching over as in cut 21, with the fingers pressing hard on each side of the spine, beginning between the lower angle of the scapula and ending as low as the last dorsal vertebra, lift the patient gently with your fingers; then, moving down the breadth of the hands, repeat the application, thus desensitizing the splanchnic nerves.
    2.  Press gently at first, then gradually harder, over the pit of the stomach.
    3.  Give our regular Headache Treatment.
    It will take from ten to fifteen minutes to give this treatment, at which time the patient will be improving, although it may be some time before the pain entirely abates.
    A continuation of this treatment every second day will cure the most aggravated cases of chronic sick headache.
 



 
MIGRAINE, MEGRIM, OR SUN-PAIN
(Paroxysmal neurosis, with unilateral headache.)

SYMPTOMS
    Nausea; vomiting; derangement of vision and sensation; tingling and numbness.  More common in females.

TREATMENT
    1.  Place the patient upon a chair; the operator, standing behind, places the right hand upon top of patient's head, and the thumb of the left hand close to the spine of the seventh cervical vertebra on the right side; bend the head forward as far as possible, rotating it gently, but as far as possible to the left; press hard with the thumb, endeavoring to push the muscles as far as possible from the spine, as the head is returned, by reversing the rotation, to its normal position (cut 33); move the thumb up to the next cervical, rotate the head as before: and repeat, until the occipital is reached. Treat the opposite side of the neck in a similar manner.
    2.  Place the thumbs upon each side of the first dorsal vertebra, the fingers resting upon the patient's shoulders, and move the muscles upward and outward with the thumbs as low as the fourth dorsal vertebra.
    3.  Place the patient on the back; with one hand under the chin, the other under the occipital, give gentle extension and rotation of the neck.
    4.  Place the finger-tips over the Gasserian ganglion (cut 49), and vibrate one minute.
    5.  Place the hands on the sides of the neck, fingers almost meeting over the upper cervicals; tip the head backward, pressing gently with the fingers three or four minutes.
    Treatment will occupy about ten minutes, and should be given each day.
 



 
SINGULTUS, OR HICCUP (HICCOUGH)
(A short, sharp clicking or catching sound, due to sudden arrest of breathing, by a momentary spasmodic contraction of the diaphragm and a simultaneous contraction of the glottis.)

EXPLANATORY
    The diaphragm is the principal muscle of inspiration, placed obliquely at the junction of the upper with the middle third of the trunk, and separating the thorax from the abdomen, forming the floor of the former cavity and the roof of the latter.  When in a condition of rest, the muscle presents a domed surface with the concave toward the abdomen; when the fibers contract, they become less arched, or nearly straight, and in consequence the level of the chest wall is lowered, the vertical diameter of the chest being proportionally increased, thus permitting the lungs to fill with air; when, at the end of the inspiration, the diaphragm relaxes, the thoracic walls return to their natural position in consequence of their elastic reaction and of the elasticity and weight of the displaced viscera.  In all expulsive acts the diaphragm is called into action; thus before sneezing, coughing, laughing, crying, or vomiting a deep inspiration takes place.  The phrenic nerve, which may be reached by a pressure in front of the third, fourth, and fifth cervical vertebrae, controls the action of the diaphragm.  Thus viewing that great muscle of inspiration as a machine, whose action is controlled by the brain through the phrenic nerve, we are enabled to instantly cure hiccup.

TREATMENT
    1.  Stand behind the patient and with the fingers of each hand push the muscles at the side of the neck forward and press gently on the front of the transverse processes of the third, fourth, and fifth cervical vertebrae (cut 12).
    2.  Place the knee between the patient's shoulders and raise the arms high above the head, lifting strongly (cut 5).
    This will instantly cure any case of hiccup not caused by approaching death.
 



 
NEUROMATA
(Tumor of a nerve.)

SYMPTOMS
    Darting and shooting pain; paresthesia and anesthesia; muscular spasms; paresis, which deepens into paralysis.

TREATMENT
    1.  Manipulate the muscles very gently and carefully in the immediate region of the tumor, endeavoring as far as possible to give extension.
    2.  Place the hand or finger-tips over the tumor, and vibrate gently two minutes.
    Treatment should be given each day.
 



 
NEURITIS
(Inflammation of nerve.  May be acute or chronic.)

SYMPTOMS
    Boring or burning, pain, increased by movement, pressure, or position, and may extend to structures supplied by the nerve; skin over affected parts red, and may be edematons; wasting of the muscles; paresis or paralysis; may be eruptions in the course of the nerve.

TREATMENT
    1.  Manipulate very gently and carefully the muscles surrounding the diseased nerve, giving as much extension as possible.
    2.  Vibrate one minute over the seat of pain.
    Treatment should be given each day.
 



 
MULTIPLE NEURITIS
(Simultaneous inflammation of many nerves.)

SYMPTOMS
    Most frequently attacks nerves of the arms and legs; pain; swelling; tenderness; tingling; numbness.  The affected muscles lose power, waste, and show degenerative reaction.

TREATMENT
    This disease should be treated in a similar manner to Acute Articular Rheumatism, manipulating the muscles in the regions of the inflamed nerves gently but thoroughly; also giving thorough extension.
    In acute cases treatment should be given every day, and in chronic cases every other day is sufficient.
 



 
NEURO-PARALYTIC HYPEREMIA
(Excess of blood in the part, due to destruction of certain sympathetic or mixed nerve)

SYMPTOMS
    Destruction of the cervical sympathetic nerves by wound, tumor, or abscess, produces hyperemia of the side of the face; parts are swollen, red, and hot; elevation of temperature; and contraction of the pupil.
    No cure in Osteopathy.
 



 
PARESIS
(Partial paralysis, affecting muscular motion but not sensation.)

SYMPTOMS
    Weakness of the muscles, with certain motions still possible.

TREATMENT
    See Paralysis.
 



 
PARALYSIS, OR PALSY
(Loss or material diminution of the power of contractility in the voluntary or involuntary muscles, and sometimes of the power of perceiving sensation, in one or more parts of the body.)

SYMPTOMS
    Palsy is a disease principally affecting the nervous system, characterized by a loss or diminution of motion or feeling or of both in one or more parts of the body.  When one entire side of the body from the head downward is affected, it is distinguished among professional men by the name of hemiplegia; if the lower half of the body be attacked by the disease, it is named paraplegia; and when confined to a particular limb or set of muscles, it is called paralysis. Palsy usually comes on with a sudden and immediate loss of motion and sensibility of the parts.  It is sometimes preceded by a numbness, coldness, and paleness, and sometimes by slight convulsive twitches.  When the head is much affected, the eye and mouth are drawn to one side, the memory and judgment are much impaired, and the speech indistinct; if the extremities are affected, it not only produces a loss of motion and sensibility, but a wasting of the muscles of the affected parts. The attack is usually preceded by some of these symptoms, but occasionally the disease advances more slowly; a finger, hand, or arm, or the muscles of the tongue, of the mouth, or of the eyelids, being first affected.

CAUSE
    Paralysis in its various forms, while stubborn, can invariably be cured by our method if taken in time, and even in its last stages great good may be done the patient.  Osteopathy is the only rational method of treating this disease.  It is caused by a pressure on some of the various nerve-centers, or paralysis of any part may be caused by pressure on the nerves which control that part.  The brain, spinal cord, and nerves may justly be compared to an immense telegraph system, the nerves carrying messages to and from the brain.
    That the average reader may have a more correct understanding of the nervous system, of the power which causes the heart to beat, the blood to flow, the lungs to inhale, the alimentary canal to perform its allotted task, and the muscles to act, let us dwell for a moment on the brain, the spinal cord, and the vertebral or spinal column as it is on this line of thought that we must reach paralysis.
The nervous system is composed.
    First: Of a series of large centers of nerve-matter, called collectively the cerebro-spinal center or axis.
    Second: Of smaller centers, called ganglia.
    Third: Of nerves connected either with the cerebro-spinal axis or ganglia; and
    Fourth: Of certain modifications of the peripheral terminations of the nerves, forming the organs of external sense.
    The cerebro-spinal center consists of two parts, the spinal cord and encephalon, or brain; the latter may be subdivided into the cerebrum, cerebellum, pons varolii, and the medulla oblongata.
    The spine is a flexible and flexuous column, composed of thirty-three separate and distinct bones in the child, and twenty-six in the adult, articulating with each other and the ribs, enclosing and protecting the spinal cord, supporting the head and trunk, and permitting the escape through its numerous foramina of the nerves which control the body.  Is not this indeed a grand and wonderful piece of mechanism?  So strong, so delicate, so perfect!
    It is to this part of the human machinery that we trace half the ills that flesh is heir to.  It is here that we find centers on which a simple pressure of the hand will cure cholera morbus, flux, cramp in the stomach, vomiting, etc., and it is here we must search for the cause and cure of paralysis.
 
 
HOW TO MAKE THE EXAMINATION
 
    Place the patient on his face and carefully examine the spine; in perfect health the vertebrae are all in line.  If you find one of the spinous processes a little out of line, you have discovered the cause.  It may be the result of an accident, it may be turned slightly out of its normal position by a contracted muscle; be that as it may, we have here a pressure on the spinal cord, causing partial or complete paralysis.

TREATMENT
    1.  Free the muscles thoroughly (as shown in cut 7) on each side of the spine the entire length, particularly at the seat of trouble.
    2.  Let one assistant now take the patient's shoulders, another his feet, and pull steadily, slowly, and strongly, while the third presses the spinous process back in its place.  It may take several treatments, but you will gain a little every time and finally succeed.  There is absolutely no danger connected with this treatment if ordinary care is used.
    3.  Place the patient on his back; with one hand under the chin and the other under the back of the head, pull steadily until the body moves.  This must not be omitted, as it starts up circulation in the spinal cord, and even reaches the brain.
    4.  Raise the arms and ribs as in cut 4.
    5.  Treat the limbs for circulation.
    6.  Stretch the great sciatic, the largest nerve in the body, measuring three-quarters of an inch in breadth, and which is the continuation of the lower part of the sacral plexus; it passes out of the pelvis through the great sacrosciatic foramen below the pyriformis muscle and descends between the great trochanter and the tuberosity of the ischium, along the back of the thigh, to about its middle third, where it divides into two large branches, the internal and external popliteal nerves.
    To stretch the sciatic nerve, place the patient on his back, stand at the side of the table, and grasp with the right hand the right ankle, your left hand resting lightly on the patient's knee; now flex the leg slowly against the abdomen as far as possible, using as much strength as the patient can stand (see cut 32).  While in this position move the knee three or four times from right to left, without relaxing the pressure; now slowly extend the leg, throwing the knee to the right, the foot to the left, as shown in cut 36.  This should be repeated two or three times, and be reversed occasionally, throwing the knee to the left and the foot to the right.  Treat the left limb in a similar manner.
    A treatment should not occupy over fifteen minutes, and should be given every day.
    This treatment will benefit and usually cure paralysis in any of its varied forms.  If no dislocation is found, give the same treatment, as you may have overlooked it, and simply stretching the body will allow a very slight dislocation to slip back and free the spinal cord.
    Of the numerous cases of paralysis successfully treated by us, we might mention a little girl at Benjamin, northeastern Missouri.  She had been a bright, active child until two weeks before she was brought to us for treatment, when it was noticed that she was losing the use of her lower limbs.  We explained to the mother the cause of the trouble, a slip in the lumbar vertebra throwing a pressure on the spinal cord, thus partially cutting, off communication between the limbs and the brain.  Her old family doctor insisted that the child had worsened,  treated her for the same for four weeks, when the little sufferer had entirely lost the use of her lower extremities; he turned her over to us with the remark that he did not understand the case.  After four treatments as laid down in this work, the child could walk, and in three weeks was romping with her playmates.
    We will refer also to the case of a young lady of Galena, Kansas, suffering from creeping paralysis, or locomotor ataxia.  This dread malady is caused by a diseased condition of the posterior column of the spinal cord, and our treatment, stretching and rotating the spine thoroughly, frees the cord and starts the circulation.  The young lady in question was not only perfectly helpless, but her digestive organs and kidneys failed to act.  In connection with our usual Paralysis Treatment, we gave the Kidney and Constipation Treatment.  In a short time the lady could walk with assistance, and in two months was on the high road to perfect health.
 



 
ATROPHY (SHRINKING OF MUSCLES)

    Atrophy of any part might well be mentioned at this time, it being a form of paralysis.  It will be remembered that we mentioned the fact of the nerves controlling the caliber of the arteries, thus regulating the blood-supply.  In atrophy we are confronted with a condition in which the nerves controlling the arteries which feed the withered parts are interfered with.  The wires are down and the cry of hunger from the starving muscles never reaches the brain.
    But even assuming that the brain is apprised of the fact that certain muscles are starving, that they need more blood, its message to the arteries to expand never reaches its destination.  If it is the muscles of the leg that are starving, why not flex the leg, upon the abdomen (see cut 36), rotating it inward and outward, thereby stretching the muscles and freeing and stretching the nerves at fault?  We have absolutely never known this method to fail to restore shrinking limbs to their normal size.      We have cured case after case by this simple, reliable, and infallible method, and there is no reason why any of our readers should not be equally successful in cases not complicated.
    A good general rule in all cases of atrophy of the muscles is to use the affected member as a lever with which to stretch the muscles connecting it to the body in all possible directions, as it is here the obstruction is usually found, and by acting on these principles you will stretch the right muscle, thus freeing the nerve and permitting the blood to pass down and nourish the affected parts.  It is simply wonderful how quickly Nature will respond.  If a measurement of the shrunken member is taken, you will know exactly how fast you are progressing; and we venture the notion that in one month, giving a treatment every other day, you will have gained from one to two inches.
    One old gentleman treated by us in Baxter Springs, Kansas, whose leg had been shrunken for years, grew an inch and a half in one month's treatment, measured around the ankle.  Another, a young man of the same city, had his arm restored to usefulness in the same remarkable yet simple manner.  We would not be understood as saying the limb will gain much in length in the adult; the great improvement will be noticed in size and strength.
 



 
SPINAL ANEMIA
(Deficiency of blood in the spinal cord.)

SYMPTOMS
    Difficult to distinguish, except when associated with general anemia, or caused by sudden hemorrhage; paresis of the muscles; aching in the legs; and may be wasting of the extremities.

TREATMENT
    1.  Place the patient upon the back; one operator grasping the shoulders, the other the feet, give very thorough extension of the spine, continued one minute, pulling as hard as the patient can stand.
    2.  Place one hand under the chin, the other under the occipital; an assistant holding the feet, pull slowly but strongly one minute, being careful not to rotate the head.
    3.  Place the patient upon the side; beginning at the upper cervicals, move the muscles upward and outward very deeply the entire length of the spinal column.
    The above treatments free the entire circulation to the spinal cord.
    4.  It is always well to give flexion, extension, rotation, and manipulation to the limbs, if the condition would indicate the need of such treatment.
    Treatment will occupy about fifteen minutes, and should be given every other day until recovery.
 



 
SPINAL HYPEREMIA
(Excess of blood in the spinal cord.)

SYMPTOMS
    Feeling of fullness, weight, or aching in the back; motor weakness and feeling of heaviness in the limbs, relieved when the patient lies down.

TREATMENT
    See Spinal Anemia.
    This disease being an excess of blood in the spinal cord, it is obvious that freeing the entire circulation to and from the spine would be efficacious, the object of the osteopath being always to remove the cause.
 



 
ACUTE SPINAL MENINGITIS
(Inflammation of the spinal meanings.)

SYMPTOMS
    Pain in the back, increased by motion or pressure; numbness; tingling; twitching and spasms, accompanied by pain; rigidity of muscles; fingers drawn over the skin leave red streaks.

TREATMENT
    See Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis.
 



 
CHRONIC SPINAL MENINGITIS
(May follow acute attack.)

SYMPTOMS
    Same as acute form, but less painful, of longer duration and may be irritation of the head.

TREATMENT
    See Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis.
 



 
CERVICAL PACHYMENINGITIS
(Inflammation of the dura mater in the cervical region.)

SYMPTOMS
    Pain in back of head, neck, shoulders, and arms; wasting of groups of muscles of the arms and hands.  May lead to deformity.

TREATMENT
    1.  Place the patient on the back; one hand under the chin, the other under the occipital, give thorough extension of the neck, pulling until the body moves; also give gentle extension, at the same moment rotating the head quite strongly from side to side.
    2.  Place the left hand on top of patient's head, the right arm and hand under patient's head and neck, the fingers between the scapula, two on each side of the fourth or fifth dorsal; press hard with the ends of the fingers, moving the muscles toward the head, at the same instant pressing hard with the left hand upon and rotating the head, which should be continued, the fingers of the right hand gradually working towards the upper cervicals, until the first cervical is reached (cut 46).
    3.  Place the left hand under patient's shoulder, the fingers upon the right side of the first dorsal vertebra, and close to the spine; draw the right arm slowly and strongly above the head, lower the arm with a backward motion, pressing hard with the fingers at the same instant; move the fingers down to the next dorsal, raise the arm as before, and repeat until the sixth dorsal is reached.  Treat the opposite side in a similar manner.
    4.  Place the hand upon the sides of the neck, the fingers almost meeting over the upper cervicals; tip the head backward, pressing quite hard with the fingers three or four minutes.
    Treatment should be given each day, and will occupy about fifteen minutes.
 



 
EXTRA-MENINGEAL HEMORRHAGE
(Hemorrhage between the dura mater and the vertebrae, due to traumatism, convulsion,
 violent exertion, or rupture of an aneurysm.)

SYMPTOMS
    Resemble those of Spinal Meningitis, but are more sudden and violent; no fever; pain in the back opposite the hemorrhage; may be paresis, or paraplegia.
    Not treated successfully by Osteopathy.
 



 
SPINAL COMPRESSION
(Compression of the spinal cord, due to tumor, dislocation, fracture, etc.)

SYMPTOMS
    Local pain in back, aggravated by movement; loss of motion in parts supplied by the nerves which originate below the compression; increase of reflexes.
 
TREATMENT
    1.  Gentle and thorough manipulation of the muscles of the back in the region of the compression.
    2.  If due to a dislocation, place patient on the face; one assistant holds the shoulders, while a second grasps a limb, giving, strong extension, at the same time also moving the body gently in such a manner as may be directed by the operator, who, with thumbs upon the dislocated vertebra, works it gently back to its normal position (cut 37).
    Many remarkable cures have been effected in this manner.
    The following account of the marvelous cure of John Richter, of Osawatomie, by Dr. 0. C. Payne, a graduate of Dr. E. D. Barber's National School of Osteopathy at Baxter Springs, Kansas appeared in the Osawatomie Globe of February 6, 1896:
    "Three months ago John Richter, a boiler-maker in the employ of the Missouri Pacific at this place, was seized with a peculiar malady and became helpless.  He was practically paralyzed from the knees down and from the elbows down to the fingertips.  His limbs were numb and he could not use his hands or feet.  He went to Kansas City about the first of December and entered the company hospital at that place.  He was placed in charge of a renowned specialist, who pronounced his trouble locomotor ataxia. The specialist did everything known to science for the relief of Mr. Richter, but without any good results.  Richter grew rapidly worse, when, after eight weeks of treatment, he was informed that he was beyond human help and would be a hopeless invalid the rest of his days, which could not be long.  He came home a week ago and was placed under the care of 0. C. Payne, the osteopath who has created such a sensation in this section for several months by performing numerous cures without the use of medicine.  The Globe, from time to time, has given the public full details of his system of practice, and a small portion of the remarkable results in performing cures.  Dr. Payne diagnosed Richter's case and quickly determined that he was not suffering from locomotor ataxia, but from a spinal injury caused by concussion.  He began operations on him and yesterday gave him the fifth treatment, and, strange to relate, Richter is on the high road to recovery.  He was assisted by friends to get up to Payne's office Tuesday week, and used a crutch.  Yesterday he walked firmly up stairs alone and unattended, and confidently believes he could walk several miles, and expects to report ready for duty as boilermaker in a few days.  Richter is the happiest fellow in Osawatomie.  Two weeks ago a cheerless, helpless future was all he could see,  but today he is so near a well man again and is progressing so finely that he wants to place the credit where it is due, and credits skillful Dr. Payne for his restoration to health."
 



 
SPINAL TUMOR
(Tumor of the spinal cord.)

SYMPTOMS
    Pain and gradual paralysis; muscular spasms; girdle sensation; atrophy; pains darting, shooting, and paroxysmal.

TREATMENT
    1.  Very thorough, deep, and careful manipulation of the muscles in the region of the tumor.
    2.  Thorough extension of the spinal column.
    3.  Vibration over tumor two minutes.
 



 
SYRINGOMYELIA
(Abnormal dilatation of the central canal of the spinal cord, having abnormal cavities in the spinal marrow, due to the breaking down of its substance.)

SYMPTOMS
    Muscular weakness and wasting; alteration of sensation; sense of cold, heat, and pain are lost; sphincters usually involved.
    Not treated successfully by Osteopathy.
 



 
ACUTE MYELITIS
(Inflammation of the spinal cord.)

SYMPTOMS
    Elevation of temperature; pain in the back; loss of motion and sensation of parts supplied by the nerve arising below the seat of inflammation; reflexes in the distribution of the nerves arising from the inflamed region are lost, also control of the sphincter.  More common in males.

CAUSE
    This disease is caused by an obstruction of the circulation from the spinal cord.

TREATMENT
    Can be cured by such extension and manipulation as will best tend to free the circulation, thus reducing the inflammation of the cord.
    See Spinal Anemia.
 



 
CHRONIC MYELITIS
(May follow acute myelitis or chronic meningitis.)

SYMPTOMS
    Impairment of motion and sensation; dull pain in the legs; a decided girdle sensation; exaggeration of the reflexes; sphincters involved; of long duration.

TREATMENT
    This disease may be benefited by a thorough manipulation and extension of the spine.
    See Spinal Anemia.
 



 
HEMATOMYELIA.
(Hemorrhage of the spinal cord.)

SYMPTOMS
    Sudden severe pain in the back; loss of motion, sensation) and perhaps consciousness; girdle sensation; sphincters likely deranged.
    Not treated successfully by Osteopathy.
 



 
ANTERIOR POLIOMELITIS
(Inflammation of the anterior horns of the gray matter of the cord.)

SYMPTOMS
    Onset sudden, may be marked by fever and complete paralysis, which abates, leaving certain muscles paralyzed; sensation and sphincters are undisturbed.  Most common in children and in the summer.

TREATMENT
    Thorough manipulation and extension of the spine, with a view of freeing the circulation and thereby reducing the inflammation.
    See Spinal Anemia.
 



 
LOCOMOTOR ATAXIA, OR POSTERIOR SPINAL SCLEROSIS
(Degeneration of the posterior column of the cord.)

SYMPTOMS
    Lightning pains in the legs; absence of knee jerk; incoordination of movements, without paralysis or muscular wasting; unsteadiness of gait; girdle sensation; pupils do not respond to light; loss of sexual power.  More common in males.

TREATMENT
    1.  Place the patient on the side; beginning at the upper cervicals, move the muscles upward and outward, thoroughly and very deep, the entire length of the spinal column.  Treat the opposite side in a similar manner.
    2.  Grasping the patient beneath the shoulders, in the axilla, as he lies on the back, an assistant grasping the feet, give thorough extension of the spine, pulling hard one minute.
    3.  Place the patient upon a stool; the thumbs of the operator upon the angles of the second ribs, an assistant raising the arms high above the head, press hard with the thumbs as the arms are lowered with a backward motion (cut 11) move the thumbs down to the next lower ribs; raise the arms as before, and repeat until the eighth dorsal vertebra is reached.
    4.  Kneeling behind the patient, place the thumb of the left hand upon the right transverse process of the ninth dorsal vertebra; an assistant standing in front, places the hands upon the patient's shoulders and rotates the body as far as possible to the right; as the body turns, press very hard with the thumb of the left hand (cut 38); place the thumb of the right hand upon the left transverse process of the next lower vertebra, press hard as the body is rotated slowly as far as possible to the left, the patient relaxing all muscles; work in this manner until the last lumbar vertebra is reached.
    5.  If the patient is constipated, very thorough Treatment for Constipation should be given.
    6.  Flex the limbs very strongly against the chest, giving strong abduction, and extending with a light jerk.
    Treatment will occupy about fifteen minutes, and should be given every other day.
    A decided improvement should be noticed during the first month's treatment, and a cure should be effected in from three to six months.
    Osteopaths are very successful in the treatment of this disease, always benefiting the patient, and curing most cases, not the result of syphilitic troubles.
 



 
PRIMARY SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA
(Degeneration of the pyramidal tract of the spinal cord.)

SYMPTOMS
    Loss of motion in the lower extremities; absence of wasting; sphincters involved, but not sensation; exaggerated reflexes; and spasmodic contraction of the muscles.

TREATMENT
    See Locomotor Ataxia.
 



 
CONGENITAL SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA
(Degeneration of the pyramidal tracts of the cord, due to injury of the child during birth.)

SYMPTOMS
    Child late in learning to walk; peculiar gait; one foot being placed over or in front of the other; growth may be retarded; may be convulsions; defective mental development.
    No cure in Osteopathy.
 



 
ATAXIC PARAPLEGIA, OR PRIMARY LATERAL SCLEROSIS
(Degeneration of the posterior and lateral columns of the spinal cord.)

SYMPTOMS
    Loss of motion and coordinating  powers; absence of lightning pains; muscular reflexes preserved, and muscles do not atrophy; may be lack of control of sphincters; may be dull pains in the back and legs; sexual power lost.

TREATMENT
    See Locomotor Ataxia.
 



 
HEREDITARY ATAXIA, OR FRIEDREICHíS DISEASE
(Degeneration of the posterior and lateral columns of the spinal cord.)

SYMPTOMS
    Most frequent about the period of puberty; arms and speech involved; lightning pains absent; incoordination first in the legs, then in the arms; muscular reflexes abolished; oscillatory movements of the eyeballs.

TREATMENT
    See Locomotor Ataxia.
 



 
PROGRESSIVE MUSCULAR ATROPHY, OR AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS
(Degeneration of the multipolar cells in the gray matter of the anterior horns of the pyramidal tracts.)

SYMPTOMS
    Usually attacks an arm first, and muscles of either hand or shoulder, next the leg; feeling of soreness and weakness; atrophy, steadily progressive; respiration embarrassed, as the diaphragm becomes involved; sphincters not usually involved, but loss of sexual power.

TREATMENT
    1.  See Locomotor Ataxia.
    2.  Place the hands under the chin and occipital bone; give very strong extension of the neck, being careful not to rotate the head.
    3.  Give gentle extension, of the neck, at the same time rotating the head as far as possible from side to side; also manipulate thoroughly all muscles of the neck.
    4.  Manipulate in a very thorough manner the limbs in which atrophy has made its appearance,  giving flexion, extension, and rotation of the member.
    Treatment will occupy about twenty minutes, and should be given every other day.
 



 
PSEUDO-HYPERTROPHIC MUSCULAR PARALYSIS
(Loss of power of motion, with hypertrophy of muscles.)

SYMPTOMS
    Appears usually in childhood; may be congenital; calf muscles first involved; stumbles and falls on attempting to run; gastrocnemii much enlarged; other muscles gradually become involved; finally wasting of the latissimus dorsi and lower part of the pectoralis major.

TREATMENT
    If this disease is taken in its early stages, it can be cured by thorough extension and rotation of the spine, with thorough manipulation of the muscles involved, thus freeing the circulation to the spinal cord, also between the muscles involved and the heart.
    See Progressive Muscular Atrophy.
 



 
SIMPLE IDIOPATHIC MUSCULAR ATROPHY
(Similar to Pseudo-Hypertrophic form, except muscles do not hypertrophy.)

SYMPTOMS
    Wasting in arms, legs, and face, gradually extending to the rest of the body; reflexes enfeebled; deformities result.

TREATMENT
    See Progressive Muscular Atrophy.
 



 
ARTHRITIC MUSCULAR ATROPHY
(Wasting of the muscles about a joint.)

SYMPTOMS
    In the course of inflammation of a joint the contiguous muscles undergo a varying degree of atrophy, usually involving the extensors; if the arthritis continues for a long period, the reflexes in the region are heightened.

TREATMENT
    1.  Thorough extension of the spine, and rotation.
    2.  Flex the limb strongly against the abdomen, giving strong abduction as the limb is extended; also manipulate the muscles thoroughly and deep the entire length of the limb, being exceedingly thorough with the atrophied muscles.
    3.  Should the atrophy be in the arm, place the thumb of one hand just above the first dorsal, upon the side of the spine where the atrophy exists, raise the shrunken arm gently but strongly above the head, and press hard with the thumb, moving the muscles upward, as the arm is lowered with a backward motion; move the thumb down to the next vertebra and raise the arm, and repeat until the lower border of the scapula is reached.
    4.  Give thorough extension of the neck, manipulating all muscles in the back and sides of the     neck.
    5.  Extend the arm, manipulating the muscles thoroughly and deep its entire length, being very thorough in the atrophied region.
    Treatment should be given every other day.
 



 
MYOTONIA CONGENITA, OR THOMSENíS DISEASE
(Congenital affection of the muscles.)

SYMPTOMS
    Muscular spasms on moving after rest, which relaxes if movement is continued; spasms intensify by emotion or fear.

TREATMENT
    This trouble is sometimes benefited by extension, rotation, and manipulation of the spine and muscles.
    See Arthritic Muscular Atrophy.
 



ANALGESIC PANARIS, OR MORVANíS DISEASE
(Painless inflammation and necrosis of the fingers.)

SYMPTOMS
    Pain, followed by analgesia and necrosis; usually curvature of the spine.
    Not treated by osteopaths.
 



 
ACUTE ASCENDING PARALYSIS
(Rapid and progressive paralysis, beginning in the feet and extending upward.)

SYMPTOMS
    Muscles of the trunk, chest, arms, and neck involved; swallowing and speech may be abolished; sensation unaffected; reflexes enfeebled.

TREATMENT
    See Locomotor Ataxia.
    1.  Place the patient upon the back; with one hand under the chin, the other under the occipital, give thorough and strong extension of the neck.
    2.  Give gentle extension of the neck, rotating the head gently but strongly from side to side; also manipulate thoroughly all muscles of the neck.
    The limbs should be flexed, rotated, and the muscles manipulated in a very thorough manner.
 



 CEREBRAL ANEMIA
(Deficiency of blood in the brain.)

SYMPTOMS
    Syncope; failure of vision; ringing in the ears; nausea; vertigo; pallor of the face; loss of consciousness; nystagmus; and may be convulsions.

TREATMENT
    1.  Place the hands under the chin and occipital, giving gentle extension and rotation to the neck.
    2.  Manipulate very thoroughly and deeply all the muscles of the neck, being very particular in the region of the large arteries that supply the head, thus freeing the circulation to the brain.
    3.  Place the patient upon a stool; the thumbs of the operator close to the spinal process of the     seventh cervical, the fingers resting upon patient's shoulders, with the thumbs pressing hard, move the muscles upward and outward as low as the fifth dorsal vertebra.
    4.  Place the knee between the scapulae, about the third or fourth dorsal vertebra, raise the arms strongly above the head as the patient inhales, and lower the arms with a backward motion, pressing hard with the knee at the same instant.
    Treatment will occupy about ten minutes, and should be given each day until recovery.
 



 
CEREBRAL HYPEREMIA
(Excess of blood in the brain.)

SYMPTOMS
    Dull headache, with feeling of fullness; florid complexion; slight dizziness; flashes of light; and may be loss of consciousness.

TREATMENT
    Thorough General Treatment to equalize the circulation.
    Treatment should be given each day until recovery.
 



 
CEREBRAL MENINGITIS
(Inflammation of the cerebral meninges.)
 
SYMPTOMS
    Headache; vomiting; convulsions; delirium; stiffness of muscles of back of the neck; coma; and paralysis.

TREATMENT
    See Brain Fever.
 



 
CEREBRAL TUBERCULAR MENINGITIS
(Inflammation of the cerebral meninges, associated with tubercle bacillus.)

SYMPTOMS
    Emaciation; peevishness; evening fever; evidence of tubercle elsewhere; headache; causeless vomiting; constipation; nightmare; irregular pulse; strabismus.
    Usually in children.
    Not treated successfully by Osteopathy.
 



 
CEREBRITIS, ENCEPHALITIS, OR PHRENITIS
(Inflammation of the brain structure.)

SYMPTOMS
    Fever; convulsions; headache; vertigo; and delirium.

TREATMENT
    See Brain Fever.
 



APOPLEXY, OR CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE
(Paralysis from rupture of a cerebral blood-vessel.)

SYMPTOMS
    Loss of consciousness; muscular relaxation; temperature depressed; pulse slow, hard, and full; reflexes abolished; may be convulsions, as consciousness returns; usually face, arms, and legs are paralyzed on the opposite side to the lesion; phonation and articulation affected.

TREATMENT
    This trouble can be greatly benefited by thorough General Treatment, omitting No. 9.
Treatment should be given each day.
 



 
CEREBRAL EMBOLISM AND THROMBOSIS
(Plugging of a cerebral blood-vessel.)

SYMPTOMS
    Loss of consciousness; sometimes convulsions; spasmodic disorder of movements; numbness; tingling; vertigo; and headache.

TREATMENT
    Benefited by General Treatment, omitting No. 9; given each day.
 



 
ACUTE CEREBRAL SOFTENING
(Softening of brain, as result of embolism or thrombosis.)

SYMPTOMS
    Resemble those of apoplexy; loss of consciousness not usually so profound, or as long in duration; coma and convulsions.

TREATMENT
    Sometimes benefited by General Treatment, omitting No. 9.
 



 
CHRONIC CEREBRAL SOFTENING
(Affection of the degenerative period of life.)

SYMPTOMS
    Impaired sensation; progressive loss of motion; mental deterioration.

TREATMENT
    See General Treatment, from which patient often derives great benefit.  Treatment should be given every other day.
 



 
CEREBRAL TUMOR
 (Tumor of the brain.)

SYMPTOMS
    Headache; vomiting; optic neuritis; vertigo; mental change.  More common in males.
    No cure in Osteopathy.
 



 
CEREBRAL ABSCESS
(Abscess of the brain, usually caused by traumatism.)

SYMPTOMS
    Fever, and rigor; localized headache; vertigo; vomiting; optic neuritis.
    No cure in Osteopathy.
 



 
INFANTILE  HEMIPLEGIA
(Acute cerebral paralysis, occurring in children, on one side, during first five years of age.)

SYMPTOMS
    Vomiting; convulsions; drowsiness or coma; as opposite side grows the affected side becomes shortened and wasted; sensation unimpaired.

TREATMENT
    The general health of the child can be greatly improved by General Treatment.
 


CEREBRO-SPINAL SCLEROSIS
(Chronic degeneration of the brain and cord.)

SYMPTOMS
    Nystagmus; scanning speech; reflexes exaggerated; jerky tremor; may be headache, vertigo, and optic neurosis.
    Not treated successfully by Osteopathy.
 



 
GLOSSO-LABIO-LARYNGEAL PARALYSIS, OR BULEAR  PARALYSIS
(Chronic degeneration of the nuclei of the medulla.)

SYMPTOMS
    Loss of power of articulation and deglutition; atrophy of the muscles involved; inability to close the lips; food enters larynx; reflex action lost sensation not affected.
    Not treated successfully by Osteopathy.
 



 
 PARALYSIS AGITANS, OR SHAKING PALSY
(Paralysis occurring in old age. More common in males.)

SYMPTOMS
    Muscular tremor, beginning in hands and extending to arms, then to legs; sensation of increased heat in affected parts; no pain; mind unaffected; general weakness and wasting.

TREATMENT
    The patient can be greatly benefited by thorough General Treatment.
    Also see Paralysis.
 



 
PARETIC DEMENTIA
(Progressive paralysis of the insane.)

SYMPTOMS
    General change in character and disposition; habits hasty and irregular; loss of coordinating powers for delicate tasks; speech becomes defective; gait becomes shuffling; tremor; delusions; paroxysms.

TREATMENT
    Give treatment for Insanity (see below).
 



 
INSANITY
(A persistent morbid condition of mind due to some derangement of the brain or nervous system, usually characterized by deficiency or loss of volitional and rational control, by excessive activity of the fantasy, and by perverted action of one or more of the mental faculties.)

TREATMENT
    1.  Place the patient on the side; beginning at the upper cervical, move the muscles upward and outward, thoroughly and deep, the entire length of the spinal column, being very thorough in the cervical and dorsal regions.  Treat the opposite side in a similar manner.
    2.  Place the patient on the back; one operator holding the shoulders, an assistant the feet, give gentle but very strong extension two minutes.
    3.  Place one hand under the chin, the other under the occipital; give strong extension of the neck one minute, being particular not to rotate the head when giving strong extension; pull gently, rotating the head as far as possible from side to side.
    4.  Manipulate very thoroughly, carefully, but deep, all the muscles of the neck.
    In case of other complications, such as paralysis, constipation, poor circulation, kidney troubles, etc., give such additional treatment as conditions indicate.
    The treatment will occupy ten or fifteen minutes, and should be given each day.
    We have known of a large number of cases of insanity having been treated osteopathically, and while none were violent, the results were so very beneficial, and such speedy cures were effected, we believe that almost all forms of insanity would yield readily to this method of treatment, which, removing obstruction, and freeing, as it does, the circulation to the brain and spinal cord, seems the only rational method of treatment for this disease.
 



 
EPILEPSY ("FALLING SICKNESS" OR "FITS")
(A chronic brain and nerve disease, characterized in its most violent form by paroxysms recurrent at uncertain intervals, attended by difficult, stertorous breathing, convulsions of the limbs, foaming at the mouth facial distortion, and loss of consciousness and sensation.  In the milder form there may be loss of consciousness without the spasm, or vice versa.)

SYMPTOMS
    Mental deterioration; during paroxysm the face is pallid, then flushed, finally cyanotic, pupil dilated and insensible to light; urine may contain albumin.

TREATMENT
    This disease is often caused by partial dislocation of the atlas, or some of the other upper cervical vertebrae.  In such instances, if the dislocation can be discovered and reduced, the patient can be cured.
    We find in our practice that about 25 per cent of the cases of epilepsy come under the above head; all others are incurable.
    1.  Place the patient upon the back; the left hand of the operator upon the top of the patient's head, the right hand and arm beneath the head and neck, the fingers, two upon each side of the fourth dorsal vertebra, pressing the muscles upward, toward the head, with the left hand, pressing rather hard upon the top of the head, rotating it from side to side, as the fingers of the right hand are worked gradually upward, moving the muscles very deep until the occipital is reached (cut 46).
    2.  Place one hand under the chin, the other under the occipital; give thorough extension of the neck, pulling until the body moves; also manipulate thoroughly all the muscles of the front and sides of the neck.
    3.  See Dislocation of the Atlas (see below).
 



 
DISLOCATION OF THE ATLAS

    The spinous process of the atlas is very small, and not always easily discovered; its lateral masses, however, are easily distinguished, even upon very fleshy people, if they are slightly out of line.  If through accident, or otherwise, it is partially turned upon its articulation, the transverse process can be felt upon one side, a little posterior to its normal position, at its articulation with the condyle of the occipital; while upon the other it will be discovered too far forward.
    To reduce this dislocation, after having given the foregoing treatment:
    Stand behind the patient, who should be seated upon a stool; the thumb of the left hand upon the right transverse process of the atlas (should the right side be thrown backward), place the right hand under patient's chin, the patient's head resting against operator's breast and shoulder; In this position the operator can give strong extension, rotating the head to the left, strongly but gently, and with still greater extension rotate slowly to the right, pressing hard with the thumb upon the transverse process (cut 40).
    Care must be exercised to give no unnecessary pain, and to move the atlas but a little each treatment, which should be given every other day until recovery.
    In case either of the spinous processes of the cervicals are discovered out of line, the same treatment will apply, placing the thumb upon the side of the spinous process, and pressing it toward its normal position, as extension and rotation are given.
 



CHOREA, OR ST. VITUS' DANCE
(Spasmodic neurosis, with involuntary muscular twitching and irregular movements of the limbs.)

SYMPTOMS
    Occurs most frequently in girls between the ages of five and twenty.  Incoordinate muscular movements, aggravated by excitement; sensation unimpaired; heart regular; temperature slightly elevated.  May be inherited.

TREATMENT
    1.  Place the patient on the side; beginning at the upper cervicals, move the muscles upward and outward the entire length of the spinal column, being very particular in all regions where contracted muscles, tenderness to the touch, or any irregular temperature is detected.
    2.  Place the hands under the chin and occipital, giving thorough extension of the neck; also rotate the neck as far as possible from side to side, without giving extension; manipulate thoroughly all muscles of the neck.
    It is usually well to apply such parts of General Treatment, as symptoms would indicate.
    This disease usually responds very readily to osteopathic treatment, which will require fifteen or twenty minutes, and should be given every other day until recovery.
    We sometimes find St. Vitus' Dance caused by a slip or partial dislocation of some of the vertebra. Careful examination of the spine should always be made, and if any irregularity is found, it must be corrected before we can hope to effect a cure.  See Spinal Dislocations.
 



HYDROCEPHALUS
(Collection of water within the skull.)

SYMPTOMS
    In congenital form is present at birth.  Progressive enlargement of the skull; mental weakness; convulsions; vomiting; wasting; and eyeballs prominent.
    No cure in Osteopathy.
 



 
INTRACRANIAL ANEURISM
(Rupture of a blood-vessel in the skull.)

SYMPTOMS
    Headache; vertigo; convulsions; optic neuritis; and palsies.
    No cure in Osteopathy.
 



 
NEURASTHENIA, NERVOUS DEBILITY, OR NERVOUS PROSTRATION
(Exhaustion of nerve-force.)

SYMPTOMS
    In the cerebral form, sensation of weight and fullness in the head, with flushes of heat; neck-weariness; aching in the back of the head or neck; weariness in the eyeballs after reading.  In the spinal form, tenderness along the spine; aching in the cervical region; backache and pain in the legs; weariness on slight exertion.

TREATMENT
    1.  Place the patient on the face; the hands of the operator under the chin and occipital bone, give gentle extension for one minute, pulling until the body almost moves.
    2.  Placing the hands upon the patient's neck just below the occipital, move the muscles slightly upward, but strongly outward from the spine, the entire length of the spinal column, being very particular and thorough in all regions where an aching or tired feeling is manifest.
    3.  Beginning at the upper cervicals, with one hand upon each side of the spine, as close to the processes as possible, press gently downward upon each vertebra a few seconds the entire length of the spinal column, being very particular over each of the great nerve-centers.
    This treatment has proved very beneficial in all the cases of neurasthenia in which it has been applied.
    In case of other complications it is always necessary to apply such accessory treatment as the conditions indicate, which should be given before the Treatment for Neurasthenia.
 



HYSTERIA
(Functional nervous affection, with abnormal sensation, emotions, or with paroxysms.  Peculiar to females, usually most frequent at the catamenial period, and in the unmarried.)

CAUSE
    Grief; disappointed affections; overspoiling; indolent and luxurious habits; errors in diet; nervous debility, and womb disease.

SYMPTOMS
    Tendency to laughter or tears without apparent cause; spinal tenderness; intense pain in the head at times; surface of the skin may be cool and pale, or hot and red; deficiency of will-power; may be convulsions; eructation of gas and copious discharge of pale urine; sensation of ball in the throat; palpitation of heart; may become cold and lose consciousness.

TREATMENT
    This affection is usually easily and quickly cured by osteopathic treatment.  See Neurasthenia.
Change of scene and associations; general care of bodily health, particularly as regards diet.
    Hysteria is often the result of female trouble, in which case we must remove the cause before a cure can be expected.
    See Gynecology.
 



 
EXOPHTHALMIC GOITER, GRAVESí OR BASEDOWíS DISEASE
(A vaso-motor affection, characterized by great rapidity of heart action; enlargement of the thyroid gland and protrusion of the eyeballs.)

SYMPTOMS
    Thyroid gland gradually enlarges, is painless, soft, and may pulsate; gradual protrusion of the eyeball, may be inflamed, and to the extent of preventing the closure of the lids; pulse small and irregular, and may beat 150 to 175; appetite impaired; loss of flesh and strength.

TREATMENT
    1.  Place the hand under the chin and occipital, and give thorough extension of the neck, using sufficient strength to move the body.
    2.  Give gentle extension, rotating the head slowly but quite strongly from side to side.
    3.  Manipulate the muscles in the sides and front of the neck very thoroughly, working under and kneading the goiter as much as possible.
    4.  Place the patient upon a stool; extending the right arm around the neck, place the right thumb under the left clavicle at about its middle, grasping the patient's left arm, with the disengaged hand, at the elbow, the arm flexed; press the arm upward, thus throwing the clavicle upward and forward, and permitting the right thumb to slip under it at about its center; still pressing upward, move the arm forward, outward, and backward, at the same instant springing upward on the clavicle with the thumb.  Treat the opposite clavicle in a similar manner (cut 41).
    5.  Place the hands on the sides of the patient's neck; tip the head backward, and press hard with the fingers, which should almost meet over the spinous processes of the upper cervicals, three or four minutes (cut 35).
    6.  Place the hand rightly over the goiter, and vibrate gently two or three minutes.
    If there are any accompanying disorders, such treatment should be given as symptoms indicate.
    Exophthalmic goiter is often benefited by this method of treatment, which will occupy about fifteen minutes, and should be given every other day.
 



 
LOCAL ASPHYXIA, SYMMETRICAL GANGRENE, OR RAYNAUD'S DISEASE
(A vaso-motor and vascular affection of the limbs, characterized by tonic contraction of the coats
of the blood vessels, followed by local asphyxia and gangrene.)

SYMPTOMS
    Similar to those of Frost-bite; fingers on both sides become pale, numb, and cold; its onset may be marked by the presence of blood in the urine.

TREATMENT
    This disease is often benefited and sometimes cured in its early stages by a General Treatment.      Treatment should be given every other day.
 



WRITER'S CRAMP
(Painful cramping of the fingers while attempting to write.  Due to long-continued movements in a strained position, involving the muscles of the arm and hand.)

SYMPTOMS
    Act of writing becomes slow and labored; fingers and hands ache from weariness; spasm increases in intensity; writing finally impossible; tremor rare.

TREATMENT
    1.  Place the patient upon a stool; with the thumb of the left hand close to the spine, upon the right side, above the first dorsal vertebra, with the right hand draw patient's right arm high above the head, pressing upward with the thumb as the arm is lowered with a backward motion (cut 43); move the thumb down to the next lower dorsal; raise the arm as before, and repeat until the fifth dorsal is reached.
    2.  Place the hand upon the top of the patient's head, the left thumb upon the right side of the spine at the seventh cervical; press the head downward as far as possible, rotating it slowly but strongly to the left; rotate and raise slowly to its normal position, with the thumb pressing hard,  moving the muscles outward from the spine; place the thumb upon the next upper cervical; rotate the head as before, and repeat until the first cervical is reached.  Treat the opposite side of the neck in a similar manner.
    3.  Place one hand under the chin, the other under the occipital; give slow but strong extension of the neck.
    The above treatment frees and stimulates the Brachial Plexus (cut 42), which controls the arm.
    4.  Holding the arm firmly with one hand, with the other beginning at the axilla, rotate the flesh very deeply the (entire length of the arm, endeavoring to move the muscles to the bone (cut 44).
    Treatment should be given every other day, and will occupy about ten minutes.
 



 
TETANUS, TRISMUS, OR LOCK-JAW
(In this class five varieties are noted: (1) Trismus, or Lock-jaw limited to the throat and lower jaw; (2) Tetanus, affecting the extensor and flexor muscles of the body in general, with persistent, painful contractions or spasms, either idiopathic or, more frequently, traumatic; (3) Emprosthotonos, where the body is flexed forward; (4) Opisthotonos, backward; and (5) Pleurothotonos, laterally or to one side only.  Trismus is the most common form.)

SYMPTOMS
    Stiffness of the jaw, with tonic spasms; stiffness of the tongue; muscles of the face, neck, spine, and trunk gradually become rigid; grinning countenance; respiration embarrassed; face livid; perspiration.

TREATMENT
    1.  Place the patient on the side; beginning at the upper cervicals, manipulate the muscles, moving them upward and outward thoroughly and very deeply along the entire length of the spinal column, being particular to manipulate and knead the muscles until they become soft and flexible.  Treat the opposite side in a similar manner.
    2.  One operator grasping the shoulders, another the limbs, give thorough extension of the spine.
    3.  Place the hands under the chin and occipital bone; an assistant holding the feet, pull slowly and strongly, using as much strength as would be deemed safe.
    4.  Manipulate all the muscles in the neck, working as far as possible up under the jaws; be particular to knead the muscles until they become soft and flexible.
    5.  Giving very gentle extension, rotate the head as far as possible from side to side.
    6.  Flex the arms and limbs strongly but slowly, giving them strong abduction, adduction, rotation, and extension, kneading the muscles in a very thorough manner.
    7.  Draw the arm strongly above the head, pressing hard with the disengaged hand upon the angle of the second rib; lower the arm with a backward motion; move the fingers down to the next vertebra; raise the arm as beforehand repeat until the sixth dorsal is reached.  Treat the opposite side in a similar manner.
    This treatment will occupy about one hour, and should be given twice a day until recovery.
 



 
TETANILLA, OR TETANY
(Tetanic spasms of muscles in the arm and leg, affecting the fingers and toes.)

SYMPTOMS
    Headache; vomiting; spinal pain; numbness and tingling; burning and itching may precede spasm, which generally attacks hands first, then feet; muscles of other parts may become involved.
 
TREATMENT
    See Tetanus.
 



 
PLUMBISM
(Lead poisoning.  Peculiar to those who work in metals or mines, or from drinking water from lead pipes.)

SYMPTOMS
    Abdominal colic; constipation; wrist-drop; blue line on the gums; impaired nutrition; anemia; cramps in the legs; delirium and convulsions; multiple neuritis.
    No cure in Osteopathy.
 



 
DELIRIUM TREMENS
(A mental derangement attended by extreme nervous agitation and hallucinations, caused by the excessive use of narcotics or alcoholic liquors.)

SYMPTOMS
    General disturbance of functions; fear; tremor and undecided muscular action; feeble but rapid action of heart; depression: all indicative of the most depressed condition of all the vital functions; anorexia; insomnia; irritability of the stomach; talkativeness; delusion; may be elevation of temperature, and albumin in the urine.
    Not treated successfully by Osteopathy.
 



INSOMNIA
(Inability to sleep.)

CAUSE
    May be due to mental or physical overwork, or strain, indigestion, tobacco, drugs, tea, coffee, constipation, or excitement.

TREATMENT
    1.  Remove all the above causes.
    2.  Thorough and very careful General Treatment to equalize the forces of the entire system.
    3.  Place the patient on the face; press gently between each of the transverse processes close to the spine, the entire length of the spinal column.
    4.  Hold the vaso-motor three or four minutes.
    5.  Exercise an hour just before going to bed.  After retiring, take several deep breaths very slowly.
    Treatment should be given each day.  A speedy recovery may be expected, provided the patient exercises due caution in avoiding the causes which lead up to the condition.
 



 
STAMMERING
(A halting, defective utterance; especially the involuntary, rapid repetition of a sound or
syllable, attributable to nervousness.)

TREATMENT
    This is usually a habit, rather than a disease.
    1.  Encourage the patient; instruct him to stop the instant he begins to stammer.  The patient should be instructed to fill the lungs with air before endeavoring to speak.
    2.  Instruct the patient to count after the operator, being particular to draw a full breath before each articulation.
    In a very short time the patient will be able to count up to one hundred without difficulty.
    3.  It is always advisable to give a thorough General Treatment of the Neck to free the circulation to the head, being particular to manipulate the laryngeal muscles thoroughly.
    4.  Place the finger in the mouth, manipulating thoroughly the muscles under the tongue, and vibrate over the spheno-palatine, or Meckells ganglion, one minute.
    This entire treatment will occupy about one hour and should be given each day, until a cure is effected.
 



 
IMPOTENCY
(Partial or complete loss of sexual power).

CAUSE
    May be due to excesses, impairment of the blood-supply or nerve-wave to the parts involved, general debility, or syphilitic affection.

TREATMENT
    1.  In case of general debility, thorough General Treatment.
    2.  In case of impairment of blood-supply and nerve-wave to the parts involved, place the patient on the face; with the thumbs on each side of the spine, beginning at the last dorsal, move the muscles upward and outward very deep through the lumbar and sacral regions.
    3.  Place both hands on the same side of the spine; beginning at the first lumbar, move the muscles slightly upward and strongly outward, permitting the muscles to slip under the hand, through the lumbar and sacral regions.  Treat the opposite side in a similar manner.
    4.  With the patient lying in the same position, the operator removing his left shoe, places his left foot upon the sacrum, the right between the limbs of the patient; grasp the patient's ankles, and, while pressing hard with the foot upon the sacrum, draw the limbs slowly but strongly upward as high as the patient can stand without much pain (cut 45).
    The spinal erection center lies in the lumbar region, and the motor nerves for the deep artery of the penis arise from the first to the third sacral nerves, while the motor nerves for the ischlo-cavernosus and the deep transverse perineal muscles arise from the third to the fourth sacral nerves.
    The spinal ejaculation center lies at the fourth lumbar vertebra, and the motor fibers for the bulbo-cavernosus muscle which ejects the semen from the bulb of the urethra, lie in the third and fourth sacral nerves.
    The above treatment, therefore, stimulates these centers, and frees the action of these nerves, permitting them to per form their functions.
    5.  Place the patient on his side with the limbs flexed, dip the finger in vaseline, passing it carefully up the rectum; manipulate gently but thoroughly the prostate gland, which will usually he found enlarged, thus obstructing the escape of the semen from the ejaculatory ducts.
    6.  It is always advisable to manipulate thoroughly the penis and testicles, giving strong extension to these parts.
    Treatment should be given every other day, and rarely fails to effect a cure in from four to twelve weeks.
    Impotency caused by excesses and syphilitic affections is often benefited, and sometimes cured, by the above treatment.