The Abdominal and Pelvic Brain
Byron Robinson, M. D.
PATHOLOGIC PHYSIOLOGY OF THE TRACTUS INTESTINALIS.
0, then beware; those wounds heal ill that men do give themselves.
The tractus intestinalis possesses three original segments - gastrium,
enteron, colon - which differ in form and dimension, anatomy and physiology;
however, every segment possesses the four common visceral functions - sensation,
peristalsis, absorption, secretion.
The physiology of the tractus intestinalis is peristalsis,
absorption, secretion and sensation; its object is to afford general corporeal
nourishment. One or all of the functions, the physiology of the tractus
intestinalis may present pathologic physiology without demonstrable pathologic
A typical example of pathologic physiology in the tractus intestinalis
is emesis, e. g., by some, from the observation of a fly in the soup.
This is disordered function introduced so rapidly that pathologic anatomy
had insufficient time to become established. The so-called reflexes
are pathologic physiology not pathologic anatomy. One may observe
pathologic physiology where a herd of cattle is placed on a boat and when
the boat starts the cattle become excited, nervous, a number having immediate
and frequent liquid stools. The peristalsis and secretion of the
tractus instestinalis liquefying the feces and expelling them-pathologic
physiology but not pathologic anatomy was detectable. A typical example
of the utility of pathologic physiology in the tractus intestinalis is
the diarrhea of puerperal sepsis - which frequently saves the patient.
Certain kinds of food produce pathologic physiology. It is an excessive
fermentation - gas. This may be observed the most certainly in the
digestion of leguminous substances, e. g., beans. Pathologic physiology
may be manifest by excessive, deficient or disproportionate peristalsis,
absorption, secretion and sensation. The practitioner observes and
treats the following conditions.
(1). PERISTALSIS (EXCESSIVF, DEFICIENT, DISPROPORTIONATE).
The tractus intestinalis possesses peculiar physiologic
movements known as peristalsis, vermicular motion passing through periodic
activity and repose. Though each segment (gastrium, enteron, colon)
possesses peristalsis in common, however, the structure, function and object
of each segment is so different that peristalsis in each segment - gastrium,
enteron and colon - is best studied separately. The factors which
initiate motion in the tractus intestinalis are: (a) blood supply; (b)
ingesta; (c) secretion; (e) temperature; (f) sensation.
(a) Excessive peristalsis (stomach).
Increased gastric movements (pathologic physiology) may arise from excessive
secretion of HCl, hence excessively rapid gastric evacuation. Increased
gastric movements or contractions may arise from pyloric obstruction.
Gastric, enteronic and colonic peristaltic unrest may be prominent without
known cause, with perhaps an irritable defective nervous system-a kind
of motor neurosis. The splanchnic nerves are perhaps the chief motor
nerves of the digestive tract. The peristaltic unrest (pathologic
physiology) is eminently manifest in certain individuals as evidenced by
the frequent gurgling, splashing sounds heard when standing in close proximity.
During fright excessive intestinal peristalsis may occur with sudden evacuation
of the colon. Excessive peristalsis may occur during pregnancy or
on observation of disgusting matters (as a fly in the soup), intense decomposing
odors, certain forms of food create peristaltic unrest. The frequent
wild and disordered peristalsis in the digestive tract of the child is
based on pathologic physiology - not pathologic anatomy. It rests
on disordered peristalsis due to the fact that Auerbach's plexus is not
fully developed or established in office. The cramps, and colic and
emesis, diarrhea, arise and disappear so quickly that insufficient time
exists for pathologic anatomy. Vomiting is pathologic physiology
as it forcibly, artificially dilates the cardiac sphincter of the stomach.
(b) Deficient peristalsis. The most
typical example in the tractus intestinalis of deficient peristalsis is
constipation - the so-called sluggish bowels. Evacuation of the digestive
tract (especially the stomach and colon) is defective, incomplete.
Dilatation of the stomach (generally due to compression of the transverse
duodenum by the superior artery vein and nerve) results in series of consequences
as decomposion, fermentation, taxemia, inability to force food through
the pylorus. The acute gastric dilatation is simply an exacerbation
of a previous dilatation. I have shown in numerous cadavers that
no pyloric obstruction exists, that it is gastro-duodenal dilatation due
to compression of the mesenteric vessels. Gastro-duodenal dilatation
is a stage of enteroptosia.
(c) Disproportionate peristalsis consists
of non-uniform, irregular, disordered muscular movements. It is peristalsis
uncontrolled like the irregular invaginations of death and the test of
diagnosis is that the invagination is not pathologic anatomy-simply pathologic
(2). SECRETION (EXCESSIVE, DEFICIENT, DISPROPORTIONATE).
(e) Excessive secretion, pathologic physiology
is observed in diarrhen.. Many kinds of irritating foods induce it.
Doubtless excessive secretion is due to the variations in HCI. Chronic
supersecretion, is perhaps connected with superacidity. Excessive
secretion of the tractus intestinalis it frequently found in neurotic patients,
in neurasthenics, in hysteria. Hunger plays a role, e. g., when a
hungry subject views food. Abdominal secretion occurs in chronic
dyspepsia. Hypersecretion doubtless depends on the blood volume in
the stomach, enteron or colon. Hypersecretion frequently accompanies
gastroptosia (which is generally gastro-duodenal dilatation) because the
gastroptosia is accompanied by stagnation of food material and irritates
the gastric wall. The fasting stomach may present supersecretion
on reception of food known as alimentary supersecretion. Hyper chloridia
from an unknown cause. Infectious processes induce supersecretion
as well as ulceration and epithelial desquamation.
In the duodenum, the most important segment of the
tractus intestinalis, arrives the extra glandular secretion succus pancreaticus,
and succus bilis. These naturally abundant extraglandular secretions,
when possessing the pathologic physiology of excess, will present a wide
varying zone of effect on nutrition. The excess of biliary secretion,
pathologic physiology, is difficult to estimate as the bile is re-absorbed
and its excessive flooding stream prevents the formation of biliary concrements.
However, we know that in driving cattle several miles previous to slaughter
an excess of bile collects in the cholecyst - demonstrating a wide range
of variation in the time and quantity of biliary secretion. Excessive
biliary secretion may be the cause of glycosuria allowing insufficient
time for completion of processes.
The pathologic physiology of excess of pancreatic
secretions are equally difficult to estimate with that of biliary.
Excessive succus pancreaticus practically prohibits pancreatic calculus.
(Enteron and colon) excess of enteronic and colonic secretion is apparent
in diarrhea, in fluid evacuations. Abnormal,
excessive intestinal secretions are not well understood. The pathologic
physiology of excessive intestinal secretion rests chiefly on the kinds
of chemistry of food and bacteria within the digestive canal. The
multiplication of bacteria incites the intestine to extra secretion.
The abnormal bacteria process may continue within the intestinal lumen.
The number of bacterial residence usually constitute about one-third of
the weight of the dry fecal masses. It is evident from this view
that bacteria are a necessary part of the tractus intestinalis of higher
organisms. The child's tractus intestinalis possesses a bacterial
flora by the fourth day of extrauterine life. Excessive colonic secretion,
pathologic physiology, is well known in mucous colitis, or what I considered
better termed, secretion neurosis of the colon.
(f) (Stomach) deficient secretion of the tractus
intestinalis constitutes a frequent condition of pathological physiology.
The most evidently marked state of deficient intestinal secretion is constipation.
Deficient secretion of HCI, the most significant secretary gastric function
in the stomach, may exist, indicating malignancy, chronic gastritis, infectious
disease, acute functional disease, presenting a wide zone of pathologic
physiology. Deficient HCI is especially noted in gastric carcinoma.
(Stomach) deficient secretion HCI changes the bacterial process, as normal
gastric secretion is doubtless antiseptic. The most important means
to check microbic process in the stomach is continuous movements of food
and frequent evacuations. With deficient HCI the bacteria multiply
in stagnating stomach contents increasing lactic acid, which favors bacterial
growth. Deficient HCI enhances the decomposition
of albumen in the enteron and colon.
Abundant bacterial decomposition from deficient
HCI produces products which irritate the gastric mucosa, inducing pain,
colic vomiting, defective appetite, gas.
ABDOMINAL BRAIN AND COELIAC PLEXUS
This figure presents the nerves of the proximal part of the tractus intestinalis,
that is, the nerve plexuses accompanying the branches of arteria coeliaca.
1 and 2 abdominal brain surrounding the coeliac axis drawn from dissected
specimen. H. Hepatic plexus on hepatic artery. S. Splenic
plexus on splenic artery. Gt Gastric plexus on gastric artery.
Rn. Renal artery (left). R. Right renal artery in the dissection
was rich in ganglia. Dg. diaphragmatic artery with its ganglion.
G. S. Great splanchnic nerve. Ad. Adrenal. K. Kidney.
Pn. Pneumogastric (Ltleft). Ep. Right and Eps. Left epiploica artery.
St. Stomach Py. Pyloric artery. C. Cholecyst. Co. Cliole-dochus.
N. Adrenal nerves (right, 10, left, 10). The arterial branches and
loops of the coeliac tripod (as well as that of the renals) with their
corresponding nerve plexuses demonstrate how solidly and compactly the
viscera of the proximal abdomen are anastomosed, connected into single
delicately poised system with the abdominal brain as a center. Hence
local reflexes, as hepatic or renal calculus, disturb the accurate physiologic
balance in stomach, kidney, spleen, liver and pancreas. Food in
the duodenum (or HCI) will induce: (1) the bile to flow; (2) the succus
entericus to flow; (3) the duodenal glands (intestinal - especially Brunner's)
to flow; (4) secretion to flow - all from the same duodenal stimulant
(food or HCI), presenting a delicately poised nervous apparatus.
(Duodenum). The business segment of the digestive
tract is the enteron into which flows the succus bilis et succus pancreaticus.
Deficient biliary secretion may manifest itself by clay colored stools,
by icterus, by calculus obstructing biliary flow. Pathologic physiology
in deficient biliary secretion presents a frequent and an extensive range
of action. Deficient biliary secretion occurs with deficient amounts
of appropriate food, hence the necessity of rational dietetics. Deficient
biliary secretion lays the foundation for the most distressing of hepatic
diseases - hepatic calculus. The deficient hepatic secretion induces
a limited quantity of bile with a slow stream allowing ample opportunity
for crystallization and the formation of biliary concrements. The
hepatic calculus consists chiefly of cholesterine and calcium salts of
bilirubia. Naunyn has demonstrated that the quantity of cholesterine
and calcium salts of bilirubin are independent of the kinds of ingesta,
hence to I prevent biliary concrements we must employ visceral drainage
to maintain such salts in mechanical suspension and irrigate, flood, them
onward by powerful, large biliary streams. For dissolving cholesterine
the bile possesses powerful agents in cholate, sapo, adeps. Since
cholesterine appears in the bile as crystal, or in combination with desquamated
epithelial cells, the powerful, large biliary stream from ample visceral
drainage will flood, irrigate, the precipitated collected crystals and
concrements into the duodenum. Deficient biliary flow is liable to
become stagnant, favoring bacterial growth and bile channel infectiori
because the volume of bile stream, being diminished, does not excite the
biliary channels to vigorous peristalsis and consequent defective flushing
of the bile passages occurs. Deficient biliary secretion is accompanied
by the pathologic physiology of diminished bile stream; stagnation of bile
from diminished biliary peristalsis; defective irrigation of the biliary
passages; the precipitation, formation of cholesterine and calcium and
bilirubin crystals or concremenis; infection of the biliary passages, insufficient
quantity of bile for digestion (clay colored decomposed stools), icterus
from obstruction of bile passages and changed direction of bile stream
calculus in the biliary channels may produce disease only when infection
arises or the calculus becomes clamped (pain, colic). Inflammation
(cholecystitis) creates violent peristalsis of the biliary channels and
hence projects the calculus in various directions until it is finally impressed,
engaged, whence pain and colic.
In icterus the bile with its coloring material becomes
transfused through the body, in the blood and lymph - presenting typical
pathologic physiology. Icterus depends on complete closure of the
ductus choledochus communis but it may depend on hepatitis. For the
origin of icterus the kind of disease is less significant than its seat.
Deficient pancreatic secretion is diagnosed by the
undigested fat in the stools. In 700 personal autopsic inspections
I observed but one complete failure of pancreatic secretions. This
subject possessed a carcinomatous invasion of the ductus choledochus and
ductus pancreaticus, producing complete obstruction of both ducts.
In ten weeks the patient lost 113 pounds. The biliary passages (exclusive
of the cholecyst) were dilated seven times their original caliber and the
ductus pancreaticus was dilated some 20 times its original caliber.
The pancreas possesses two exit ducts, patent perhaps in 60 per cent of
subjects. If one becomes obstructed the other acts vicariously for
In the above cited case Santorini's duct no doubt conducted succus
pancreaticus into the duodenum. Deficient secretion from the pancreas
arises from partial and complete obstruction of its ducts by calculus,
neoplasm, or by degeneration of the organ.
Deficient secretion in the enteron is not understood.
Deficient secretion in the colon results in the well known disease, constipation.
The central nervous system, as well as the abdominal sympathetic, is influential
in diminishing secretion. In fact, the pure results of constipation
are preponderating, psychic and subjective. The assimilation of the
individual constipation does not suffer materially; however, defecation
is laborious and the care for the evacuation and anxiety as to food selection
increases the neurosis; with the evacuation the head becomes free, the
voice becomes cheerful, the effect is mainly suggestive.
(g) Disproportionate secretion is where the
secretions of the segments of the tractus intestinalis are irregular, non-uniform,
disordered. When such disordered secretions mingle, fermentation
occurs with consequent tympanitis meteorismus. The gastric secretions
may be disproportionate, resulting in disordered digestion. Biliary
secretion may be excessive, pancreatic secretions deficient, thus making
secretions disproportionate, and the same conditions may occur in the enteron
(3.) ABSORPTION (EXCESSIVE, DEFICIENT, DISPROPORTIONATE).
(h) Excessive absorption of the digestive tract
is difficult to demonstrate. However, it is conceivable that the
absorptive apparatus of the tractus intestinalis might work excessively,
absorbing substances which injure the system. Decomposing ingesta,
bacterial products, toxines, may be too rapidly absorbed. Excessive
absorption induces constipation.
(i) Deficient absorption in the tractus intestinalis
is not infrequent. We notice this factor when the food passes per
rectum undigested. Excessive peristaltic movements may be so rapid
that insufficient time is allowed absorption. Deficient pancreatic
secretion does not prepare the fats sufficiently for absorption - hence
deficient absorption, pathologic physiology, may rest on many factors,
neurosis, excessive or deficient peristalsis, unsuitable ingesta, infection.
(j) Disproportionate absorption occurs but
is difficult to demonstrate the non-uniform, unequal, disordered absorption
of the three segments - gastrium. enteron, colon.
(4.) SENSATION (EXCESSIVE, DEFICIENT, DISPROPORTIONATE).
Excessive gastric sensation (hyperesthesia of mucosa)
not infrequently arises. The healthy subject notices the digesive
organs only when hunger arises or the gastrium becomes excessively occupied
with ingesta or gas; one might state that it is a distinct function of
the tractus intestinalis to manifest hunger. The physical condition
is also of direct influence. Hunger and distension of the stomach
are related because subjects afflicted with super activity manifest hunger
shortly after ingesting meat, which is rapidly evacuated through the pylorus,
leaving an empty stomach with recurring secretions. Hunger and appetites
do not always correspond. One may feel hungry but does not eat, as the
appetite fails. The Scotch poetry tells much of a story.
Some have meat but cannot eat,
Some can eat but have no meat.
X-RAY OF DUCTUS BILIS AND DUCTUS PANCREATICUS
Presents the relations of the biliary and pancreatic ducts. These
ducts are ensheathed by a nodular network, or anastomosing, fenestrated
meshwork of nerves ruling finely poised balanced physiology dominated
by the abdominal brain.
It is possible that activity of both motion and secretion
induces appetite which has a wide zone of pathologic physiology.
In excessive sensation or gastric hyperesthesia the sensation of gastric
pressure or fullness in eating arises sooner than it does in the healthy,
in fact sooner than the stomach becomes full. Occasionally one meets
a patient who on taking ingesta experiences gastric pain - this may be
neuralgia, superacidity, ulceration, carcinoma, pergastric peritoneal adhesions.
The superacidity, irritable gastric muscularis may experience pain from
direct effects on the sensitive nerves, i. e., superacidity induces muscular
colic. The fearful "gastric crises" in tabes and the other spinal
affections is founded on degeneration and irritation of the vagus.
It is well known that certain individuals are supersensitive not only in
general but as special organs, e. g., some will vomit on seeing a fly in
the soup. From sensitive stomachs appear to arise dizziness, sensory
waves, neuralgia, anomalies of cardiac innervation. Also unclear
functional disturbances - however I would suggest that such attributes
of numerous disturbances rather belong to the abdominal brain. The
innumerable "gastric reflexes" are receptions, reorganizations and emissions
of the abdominal brain. Vomiting, sooner or later after ingesta,
may occur from hyperesthesia of the gastric mucosa. I have had several
patients with excessive sensation, or hyperesthesia, of the gastric mucosa.
One patient vomited shortly after taking food for fourteen years.
Her stomach absorbed sufficient to maintain a fair condition of flesh.
Another vomited for two years almost immediately after eating. Excessive
sensation in the gastric mucosa presents a wide zone of pathologic physiology
in the various degrees of vomiting during gestation. Many subjects
possess an extraordinary delicacy and sensitiveness in regard to the stomach.
If such subjects exercise care in selection of food and prudence in eating
they remain relatively healthy. This pretended and acquired idiosyncrasy
is annoyingly manifest in practice when we are continually meeting people
who cannot take certain kinds of food, as eggs, milk, graham bread, fruits,
etc., etc., such patients cannot live in an ordinary boarding house.
Either by heredity or chiefly by habit the employment of certain kinds
of food have a wide range of pathologic physiology. The psychical
state perhaps plays the preponderating role of idiosyncrasy of foods.
The so-called nervous dyspeptic experiences all kinds of sensations in
the stomach. There is no structural change in the stomach to correspond
to all the functional manifestations - it is pathologic physiology.
The crawling of animals within the stomach and tractus intestinalis may
be interpreted as ingesta or gas passing over the hyperesthetic or supersensitive
(l) Deficient sensation in the tractus intestinalis
doubtless explains the so-called sluggish bowel, the constipation.
The absorption of the food is insufficient. It is not uncommon for
patients to tell me that the bowels are dead, no feeling in them.
(m) Disproportionate sensation is non-uniform,
irregularly located hyperesthesia and anesthesia of the mucosa in the different
segments of the digestive tract - gastrium, enteron, colon. In sensation
of the tractus intestinalis, excessive, deficient or disproportionate,
there is no relation between anomalies of function and anatomic structure.
Anomalies of function may present no recognizable anatomic changes - it
is simply pathologic physiology. The gastric mucosa rapidly changes
at death, hence cautious examinations are required in autopsies.
As regards the relations between the kind of anatomic changes and functional
disturbances, we are but little informed by any investigations.
PATHOLOGIC PHYSIOLOGY OF THE TRACTUS NERVOSUS IN REGARD TO THE TRACTUS
The tractus nervosus influences two spheres, viz.:
corporeal and mental. The nervous system extends to the deepest and
most profound secrets of life - mental and physical, hence, it possesses
the highest differentiation of all visceral tracts. The functions
of the tractus intestinalis vary within a wide zone of pathologic physiology,
e. g., many subjects pass a week without defecation or subjects may practice
defecations daily. The tractus intestinalis is preponderatingly controlled
by the abdominal sympathetic or nervus vasomotorius. It requires
a decade for the nervus vasomotorius to
DUODENUM WITH ITS TWO DUCTS - BILIARY AND PANCREATIC
Illustrates the duodenum, the most important segment of the tractus intestinalis,
receiving the ductus bilis and ductus pancreaticus. The nervous
system controlling the secretion of the tractus intestinalis must be delicately
poised, balanced, as the secretions of one gland (as the liver) is a complement
of the secretion of another gland (as the pancreas). The succus
pancreaticus multiplies the power and utility of the bile in digestion
if the two glandular secretions become mixed immediately on entrance into
establish its control, its more independent rule. The wild and
disordered peristalsis of a child is due to the cerebrum and Auerbach's
ganglionic plexus not being completely balanced, in control. A child
is frequently subject to peristaltic unrest, intestinal invagination (pathologic
physiology). Frequently not long before death in adults the cerebrum
and Auerbach's ganglionic plexus lose their complete balance (especially
the cerebrum being less influential) and the invagination of death arises.
I have observed 4 to 6-inch invaginations in subjects - absolute pathologic
physiology - no pathologic anatomy. Though the function of the nervus
vasomotorius is beyond the control of the will, digestion proceeds in spite
of us or while we sleep. The five abdominal visceral tracts (tractus
genitalis, urinarius, intestinalis, lymphaticus, vascularis) exist in an
exquisitively balanced or poised state, hence, the so-called reflexes,
from one visceral tract to another, accomplished through the nervus vasomotorius,
exert extensive influence in producing pathologic physiology - yes many
conditions of pathologic physiology arise in different visceral tracts.
The essential conditions of a reflex are: (a) an intact sensory periphery
(receiver); (b) an intact ganglion cell - pelvic or abdominal brain - (reorganizer);
(c) an intact conducting apparatus (transmitter). A pure reflex consists
of a sensation transmitted to a reorganizing center which emits it over
a motor apparatus.
A reflex is independent of will. The abdominal
viscera are not only intimately connected, associated by means of the tractus
vascularis, tractus lymphaticus, tractus nervosus but especially by the
peritoneum. Any excessive irritation in any one of the exquisitively
poised visceral tracts immediately unbalances the others - at first producing
pathologic physiology and perhaps later pathologic anatomy. Hence
the sensory apparatus in each visceral tract is significant. The
reflex from one visceral tract to the other disorders: (a) the blood circulation;
(b) lymph circulation; (c) absorption; (d) secretion; (e) peristalsis;
(f) sensation. E. G., when the gestation contents distends the uterus,
uneven expansion stimulates, irritates the sensory apparatus of the uterus.
The sensation is transmitted over the plexus interiliacus and plexus ovaricus
to the abdominal brain where reorganization occurs whence the stimulus
is emitted over the plexus gastricus to the gastrium with end results of
excessive gastric peristalsis and vomiting. Other abdominal visceral
tracts are likewise effected by this uterine reflex, but do not manifest
such prominent symptoms as vomiting. Vomiting is pathologic physiology.
Ordinary function as gestation will induce pathologic physiology in the
tractus intestinalis by: (a) reflexes; (b) robbing it of considerable blood
- the extra amount required for the tractus genitalis to gestate the child;
(c) instituting indigestion and constipation, from limited blood supply.
A calculus in the tractus urinarius (ureter) will produce numerous reflexes
with consequent pathologic physiology in the several abdominal visceral
tracts - viz.: disordered peristalsis, absorption, secretion, sensation
- not pathologic anatomy.
TREATMENT OF PATHOLOGIC PHYSIOLOGY OF THE TRACTUS INTESTINALIS.
Since pathologic physiology is the zone between physiology
and pathologic anatomy it should be practically amenable to treatment.
First and foremost, the diagnosis should be made and the cause removed,
as a ureteral calculus, anal fissure, hepatic calculus or any point of
visceral or dietetic irritation. The most essential feature of subjects
suffering from pathologic physiology of the tractus intestinalis is deficient
visceral drainage. The blood is excessively waste-laden from insufficient
elimination. The secretions are scanty. The urine is concentrated,
its crystallized salts are evident to the eye. The skin is dry from
insufficient perspiration. Sleep is defective from the bathing of
the innumerable ganglia with waste laden blood. Constipation, deficient
urine, limited perspiration, capricious appetite and insomnia characterize
subjects with pathologic physiology of the tractus intestinalis.
For many years I have applied a treatment to such subjects which I term:
Visceral drainage signifies that visceral tracti
are placed at maximum elimination by dietetics, fluids, appropriate hygiene
and habitat, exercise. The waste products of food and tissue are vigorously
sewered before new ones are imposed. The most important principle
in internal medication is ample visceral drainage. The residual products
of food and tissue should have a maximum drainage in health. I suggest
that ample visceral drainage may be executed by means of: (A) fluids; (B)
X-RAY OF DUCTUS BILIS, DUCTUS PANCREATICUS AND ARTERIA HEPATICA
Illustrates the vast nerve supply it requires to ensheath the channels
of the liver and pancreas with a nodular network, a fenestrated meshwork,
of nerve plexuses. The tractus nervosus of the tractus intestinalis
is solidly and compactly anastomosed.
(A.) Visceral drainage by fluids.
The most effective diuretic is water. One of
the best laxatives is water. One of the best stimulants of renal
epithelium is sodium chloride (1/2 to ¼ physiologic salt solution).
Hence I administer 8 ounces of half normal salt solution to a patient six
times daily, 2 hours apart. Note - NaCl is contraindicated in parenchymatous
nephritis. 48 ounces of 1/2 normal salt solution efficiently increases
the drain of the kidney, it sustains in mechanical suspension the insoluble
uric acid, it stimulates other matters, it aids the sodium, potassium or
ammonium salts to form combination with uric acid, producing soluble urates.
The 1/2 normal salt solution effectively stimulates the peristalsis and
epithelium of the tractus intestinalis inducing secretions which liquify
stool, preventing constipation.
(B.) Visceral drainage by foods.
The great functions of the tractus intestinalis -
peristalsis, absorption, secretion - are produced and maintained by food.
To drain the tractus intestinalis foods which leave an indigestible residue
only are appropriate. Rational foods must contain appropriate salts
whose bases may form combinations which are soluble as sodium and potassium
combined with uric acid and urates to form soluble urates. The proper
foods are: cereals, vegetables, albuminates (milk, eggs), mixed foods.
Meats should be limited, as they enhance excessive uric acid formation.
In order to stimulate the epithelium of the digestive tract (sensation) with
consequent increase of peristalsis, absorption and secretion, I use a part or
multiple of an alkaline tablet of the following composition: Cascara sagrada
(1/40 grain), aloes (1/2 grain), NaHCO3 (1/2 grain), KHCOL3
(1/3 grain), MgSO4 (2 grains). The tablet is used as follows: One-sixth
to one tablet (or more, as required to move the bowels once daily) is placed
on the tongue before meals and followed by 8 ounces of water (better hot).
At 10 A. M., 3 P. M., and bedtime 1/6 to 1 tablet is placed on the tongue and
followed by a glassful of any fluid. In combined treatment 1/3 of (NACI)
the sodium chloride tablet containing 11 grains and (1/6 to 3) alkaline tablets
are placed on the tongue together every 2 hours followed by a glassful of fluid.
This method of treatment furnishes alkaline bases (sodium and potassium and
ammonium) to combine with the free uric acid in the urine, producing perfectly
soluble alkaline urates and materially diminishing the free uric acid in the
urine. Besides the alkaline laxative tablet increases the peristalsis,
absorption and secretion of the intestinal tract, stimulating the sensation
of the mucosa aiding evacuation. I have termed the sodium chloride and
alkaline laxative method the visceral drainage treatment. The alkaline
and sodium chloride tablets take place of the so-called mineral waters.
I continue this dietetic treatment of fluid and food for weeks, months, and
the results are remarkably successful in pathologic physiology. The urine
becomes clarified like spring water, and increased in quantity. The tractus
intestinalis becomes freely evacuated, regularly daily. The blood is relieved
of waste laden and irritating material. The tractus cutis eliminates freely,
and the skin becomes normal. The appetite increases. The sleep becomes
improved. The patient becomes hopeful, natural energy returns. The
sewers of the body are well drained and flushed.