The Chiropractor
D. D. Palmer
    Biology is the science of life.  Life is intelligent action, movements guided by intelligence.  Life exists because of renitency and elasticity of tissue; these conditions not only permit, make it possible to receive, but actually create a response to an impulse.  Impulses are thoughts in transmission over the nervous system.  In telepathy thoughts are transmitted by the vibrations of ether; in spoken language they are transferred by the vibrations of the air.

    The soul is intelligent life; it is the product from uniting intelligence and material, spirit and body; the result of a combination of the immaterial with the material.  Vital makes possible organic functions, the power of motion and feeling.

    The amount of tension depends upon the relative position of the osseous frame, the neuroskeleton, the skeleton of the vertebrates.

    Health is a condition wherein all the functions are performed with a normal amount of force.  Disease is an existence in which the action of an organ or organs are improperly performed.  Death is a situation wherein action has ceased to be controlled by intelligence.  The state of dissolution, or the act of a rolling stone, is not that of intelligence.  Inflammation is a condition in which some local portion exhibits a higher temperature than any other, including the blood.  Do not forget, in order to disturb functions, there must be in-ordinate nerve tension, also, a change in heat production.  Fever is a state in which the whole body is above normal in temperature.  Fever is diffused inflammation.  Inflammation is associated with corns; the heat of which may be diffused, if so, the patient has fever.

    The neuroskeleton, when in normal position, is a protector of the nervous system, but, a nerve disturber when not properly placed.

    PRESSURE.  There are three kinds of pressure, impingement, pinch and stricture; two forms of injury, contusion and concussion; each are lesional.

    Pressure on any portion of the nervous system (the encephalon, spinal cord, the ganglionic chains, ganglia or nerves) increases or impairs its carrying capacity of impulses (motor or sensory), causing too much or not enough functionating: heat is one of those functions.

    To impinge is to press on one side.  Impinging and impinge are verbs, they denote action, something to be done, are always followed by on, upon or against.  A nerve may be impinged on, upon or against.  Impingement is a noun, denotes the act or condition of being impinged on, upon or against.

    Pinching or squeezing is an act done by pressure on two sides, a material placed between two harder substances.

    Spinal Adjustment displays two cuts on pages 146 and 147; the former is designed to “show the normal condition of the intervertebral discs.”

    In anatomy a disc is a circular organ or body which is plate-like.  The epiphyseal plates of bone are situated on the upper and under surfaces of the body of the vertebra and the intervertebral fibrocartilate are known as discs, because they are like a plate, flat and round.

    The cut on page 147 is “Showing compressed intervertebral discs and an impinged nerve from narrowing of the foramina.”

    The term foramina should be foramen, as nerve is referred to in the singular number.

    To compress is to press or squeeze together, to reduce in volume by pressure, to make more compact.

    The intervertebral cartilage is a connective tissue, nonvascular, contains no nerves.  It is surrounded by a fibrovascular membrane, in which blood vessels and nerves are freely distributed, by which it receives nutrition.  It contains a fibrous element, its base being of chrondin, a viscous, jelly-like substance which may be separated from the fibrous portion by boiling.

    In the living subject it may be destroyed, necrosed, by excessive heat.  Inflammation of the surrounding membrane liquifies, liberates the gelatin and very often destroys the fibrous portion.  Its size is not and cannot be reduced by compression as shown in the cut.

    A displaced vertebra, one whose articular surfaces are separated, enlarges the foramina, therefore, does not occlude the opening, does not pinch, compress or squeeze the outgoing nerves as they pass through the intervertebral foramina.  The spinal nerves and their branches may be impinged upon or against, or stretched because of displaced vertebra, but not pinched.

    “Impinged nerves from narrowing of the foramina.”

    The author here refers to nerves being pinched, not impinged.

    Constriction is a condition of being narrowed by a binding force applied around a tubular orifice.  A morbid contraction of a passageway, any hollow tube of the body.  Constriction and stricture mean one and the same.

    Illustrate stricture on board, contracture of nerve tissue, inflammation because of increased combustion of oxygen.

    Compression is to press together, to make more compact, to reduce in volume, to make narrower in one direction.

    A concussion is a shaking, a jarring, an agitation, or a shock caused by a collision.

    The real and direct cause of disease is more or less nerve tension than normal.  Displaced bones because of their pressure against, or non-resistance of nerves, or that of stretching, cause an extra or a lessened amount of tension.

    An abnormal performance of function of the body is denominated disease, the kind depends upon the tissue affected and the function disturbed.

    The subtile and nicely discriminating transmission of physiological impulses, in health, whether of cells, the elementary structure of which organic substances are formed, individual organs, or the body as an organism, is directed by an intelligence known as spirit.

    Sensory nerves are those nerve-fibers which carry sensory impulses from the exterior inward, to a nerve-center, resulting in sensation.  Sensation is the recognizance of nerve vibration.  Sensory nerve centers is where nerve vibration is identified.  A sensory nerve is an efferent nerve, one which transfers peripheral impressions to the sensoria, sense-centers.  Sensory ganglia are those masses of nervous substance which are thought to serve as a center of nervous influence.  The most prominent of the sensory nerves are those of the olfactory, optic, auditory, gustatory, tactile and thermal.  To these should be added that of cenesthesia, conscious existence, painful or pleasurable, depression or exaltation, the general sense of bodily, or self-existence, the subconscious sensation by the functioning of the internal organs.  Sensory impressions are the effects of external agents or bodies upon the organs of sense.  These external agents or bodies are always the same, impulses as originated are always perfect, if the nervous system is in a normal condition, the impressions, afferent impulses, can not be otherwise than normal.

    We have the spiritual and physical impulses, those from the creator and the mind.  All efferent impulses are motor.  All motor impulses, whether of the spirit or the mind, are normal, providing the nerves of transmission are of normal tension.

    All thoughts, orders, commands, directions of the mind, known as impulses, are normal if voluntary, the lines of communication are normal.

    All thoughts, orders, commands, directions of the spirit, a segment of the Universal Intelligence, contains in miniature all intelligence and qualities of the All-Wise Spirit, just as one drop of the ocean contains all the qualities of the briny deep.

    All spiritual impulses, those which cause intelligent organic action, life, are perfect when originated, as much so as their creator, as manifested in the new-born babe which has not been injured, whose impulses are carried over nerves of normal tension; but, if the tension-frame is displaced, luxated ever so little, nerves stretched, vibration modified, innervation increased or decreased, we have conditions known as disease.

    The body when diseased manifests no new functions, develops no new forms of energy, adds no new space or accommodation.

    While the larger share of diseases, abnormal functionating, are because of trauma, toxine and autosuggestion, there are minor causes such as inhalation of gas, smoke or flame, lack of food, water, or air, decompression of the atmosphere in tunnels and caisons, an excess or a deficiency of heat, local exposure to the extremes of heat or cold which induces necroses, and exposure to X-rays may lead to caries.