D. D. Palmer
THE NORMAL AND ABNORMAL MOVEMENTS OF THE VERTEBRAL
Muscles or sinews, is one of the contractile organs
of the body by which the movements of the various organs and parts are
affected. They possess the power of contraction and relaxation.
One author says a muscle fibre is from one to five inches in length, another
states they vary from a fraction of an inch to many inches. Muscles
are directly attached to bones or indirectly by tendons or ligaments, or
more definitely speaking they are made fast to the periosteum, the thick
fibrous membrane which covers and adheres closely to the entire surface
of bones, except, where they are covered with articular cartilage.
Muscles in shape may be that of a cord, ribbon or sheet. The surface
of bones to which muscles are attached are rough, laborers have rougher
bones than those of clerks. The bones of females are smoother than
those of males. Bones become rougher as age advances. Muscles,
like nerves, are classed as voluntary and involuntary. The voluntary
are those whose actions are under the control of the will; the involuntary
control the functions of the internal organs, intestines, blood vessels,
etc. The part which is moved by contraction of the muscle is known
as the insertion, or distal, and the fixed or central attachment the origin,
or proximal. Skeletal muscles are connected at either or both of
their extremities with the bony framework (the tension-frame) of the body.
A muscle is attached to two objects; its contraction lessens the distance
between them. Motor and sensor nerves end in voluntary muscles.
The involuntary muscles are supplied form the sympathetic nerve system.
The tendinous portion of a muscle increases with age. The muscles
of an adult are stiffer than those of a child, therefore, the range of
joint movement is diminished with age, muscular extensibility is greater
in youth; as age advances the tendinous inextensibility is increased.
There are three layers of muscles in the back.
The superficial, the deep facia and the trapezius. The deep facia
is a dense fibrous layer attached to the occipital bone, the spines of
the vertebrae, the crest of the ilium and the spine of the scapula.
The trapezius muscle is attached to the external occipital protuberance,
the spinous process of the seventh cervical and the spinous processes of
all the thoracic vertebrae. To the atlas are fastened nine pairs
of muscles. To the axis are connected eleven liable to be pinched
between the articular surfaces.
Muscles are composed of bundles of reddish fibres,
the lean meat of the body, surrounded by a greater or lesser extent by
glistening, white connective tissue; they constitute about two-fifths to
three-sevenths of the weight of the body. They are known by 230 distinct
names. Authors differ as to the number of muscles in the human body,
some mention as low as 501, others as high as 682; this difference is accounted
for by the anomalous and variable number in different subjects.
A tendon is a nonelastic fibrous cord or band serving
to connect a muscle with a bone or other tissue, they are lubricated by
A ligament is a band or sheet of fibrous, inextensile,
pliable, tough and strong tissue connecting the articular extremities of
two or more bones, cartilages or other structure, they may serve as supports
for fasciae or muscles. Interosseous ligaments with the laminae of
the lower 23 movable vertebrae complete the roofing-in of the spinal canal,
permit variation in the width of the interlaminar spaces in flexion and
extension; they restore the articulating surfaces to their normal position
after each movement, and take the place of muscles which would be liable
to be pinched between the articular surface.
Fasciae covers, ensheaths, supports or binds together
internal parts or structures of the body. The word fascia means a
band or bandage. Fasciae are divided into superficial and deep.
Chiropractors are especially concerned with the deep fasciae which is pearly
white, dense, strong, flexible, inelastic, unyielding fibrous membrane,
forming sheaths for muscles and affording broad surfaces for attachment.
The inner or deep layer of fascia is continuous with the sheaths of nerves,
arteries and veins. They not only bind down collectively the muscles,
but give a separate cover to each, as well as to blood vessels and nerves.
In biology the term fascia is applied to any broad, tranvserse feathers,
hair or scales.
The intervertebral fibrocartilaginous disks are interposed
between the adjacent surfaces of the bodies of vertebrae from the axis
to the sacrum and between the vertebrae of the sacrum in youth until they
become fused; they are the chief bond of connection between these bones.
The compressible intervertebral disks constitute pivots round which the
bodies of the vertebrae can twist, tile or incline. The curve of
old age is due to the shrinking of the intervertebral substance.
The pulp part of these disks form a central elastic pivot or ball, upon
and around which the center of the vertebra rests and twists. If
it were not for the articular processes which give steadiness to the column
the motion would be of a rolling character. There are no fibrocartilaginous
disks between the occiput and atlas, nor between the atlas and axis.
These rubber-like layers of fibrocartilage are adherent by their surfaces
to a thin layer of hyaline cartilage which covers the upper and under surfaces
of the bodies of vertebrae.
The intervertebral foramen is formed by the justaposition
of the upper and lower intervertebral notches or grooves; the upper and
anterior portion of which is arranged by the lower border of the pedicle
and the posterior lower corner of the body of the superior vertebra.
The posterior and lower portion of the foramen is formed by the articular
process of the inferior vertebra. The border of the intervertebral
foramen is one-fourth smooth and three-fourths rough. There are no
muscles, tendons or ligaments attached to the smooth portions of bone.
The upper portion of the border of the intervertebral foramen is smooth
and the remaining three-fourths roughened for the attachment of ligaments
or fasciae. An examination of an intervertebral foramen in the recent
state will disclose the trunk of a spinal nerve, which is one-fourth of
an inch in length, securely attached by muscles and ligaments to the body
of the upper vertebra and the articular process of the lower one adjoining
The vertebraterial foramina in the transverse processes
of the cervical vertebra form a passage way for the vertebral arteries,
veins and plexuses of the sympathetic nerves. This network of nerves
surround the arteries and accompany them through the transverse foramina,
entering at the sixth and traverse all above it. From the costotransverse
foramina of the atlas they enter the skull through the foramen magnum.
This interjoining of nerves supply filaments (vasomotor) to the muscle
fibres of the arteries and accompany them to the cerebrum and cerebellum.
The vertebral plexus communicates by delicate threads with the cervical
spinal nerves. The vertebral veins correspond to the extra cranial
parts of the vertebral arteries. They form by the union of offsets
from the intraspinal venous plexuses, issue from the spinal canal, pass
across the posterior arch of the atlas with the vertebral artery to the
foramen in the transverse process of the atlas. It then descends
through the vertebraterial foramina and breaks up into a plexus of venous
channels which surround the artery. These channels unite to form
a single trunk which issues from the transverse foramen of the sixth cervical
vertebra. Each vertebral vein receives offsets from the intraspinal
venus plexus which pass out of the spinal canal by the intervertebral foramina.
The long gap between the occipital bone and the atlas
and the intervening space between the atlas and axis are not foramina:
no possibility of nerves being pinched, squeezed, occluded, no narrowing
of the foramina, no settling in that region. The posterior portion
of the ring which surrounds the foramen magnum, the whole surface of the
posterior arch of the atlas and the superior of the lamina of the axis
are smooth; but few muscles are attached thereunto. There are two
distinct sets of articulations in the vertebral column; those between the
bodies and intervertebra disks and those between the articular processes.
Arthrodial joints admit of gliding movements: they
are formed by the approximation of two plane surfaces, one slightly concave
and the other correspondingly convex, the amount of motion between them
being limited by ligaments and osseous abutments. The articular surfaces
are covered with hyaline cartilage and the bones kept in contact by ligaments.
The transverse ligament of the atlas is a thick,
strong band, which arches across the ring of the atlas, and serves to retain
the odontoid process in firm connection with the anterior arch. This
ligament is flattened from before backward, broader and thicker in the
middle than at either extremity, and firmly attached on each side to a
small tubercle on the inner surface of the lateral mass of the atlas.
This ligament is supplied with a facet, the surface of which is covered
with hyaline cartilage. The odontoid process is smaller at the lower
part than at the upper portion; it is retained in close connection with
the atlas by the transverse ligament embracing tightly its narrow neck.
The vertebral column permits of three distinct movements,
gliding, circumduction and rotation. These movements are, however,
often, more or less, combined in the various joints and thusly produce
quite a variation. It is seldom that we find only one kind of motion
in any particular joint.
The movements of the vertebral column are controlled
by the shape and position of the articular processes. In the loins
the inferior zygapophyses are turned outward and embraced by the superior
of its neighbor below; this renders rotation, twisting, of the spinal column
in this region impossible. There is nothing to prevent, except, to
a certain extent, a sliding movement upward of one and downward of the
other, of the two surfaces in contact, known as flexion (bending) and extension
(straightening of a curve). In the thoracic region the articulating
processes by their direction and mutual adaptation, especially at the upper
part of the dorsal series, permit of rotation, but prevent flexion and
extension; while in the cervical region the greater obliquity and lateral
slant of the articular processes allow not only flexion and extension,
but also rotation.
There is only a slight degree of movement between
any two individual vertebrae, the atlas and axis excepted, although they
permit, as a whole, a considerable change of situation. This slight
alteration in the position of the two articular surfaces is allowable,
thus far and no farther is normal, a greater separation, or displacement,
more than usual, is disease creating. Vertebral displacement is the
normal gliding movement exaggerated. The separation of the articular
processes increases the distance between the body of the superior vertebra
and the articular process of the inferior segment to both of which the
spinal nerve trunk is securely moored by stays, known as faciae, which
are attached to three-fourths of the borders of the foramen; that of the
articular process of one vertebra which forms the inferior notch of the
foramen, and that of the body of which bounds one-third of the superior
notch. Displaced articulations are separated more than usual by oversliding
each other, sometimes the separation is complete and accompanied by fracture.
The only portions of the vertebral column which permit of being luxated,
subluxated, dislocated, displaced are the articular processes. To
displace does not mean to crowd together, to shorten the spine by thinning
the intervertebral disks or occlude the intervertebral disks or occlude
the intervertebral foramina; luxation of the articular processes increase
the size of the foramen and the distance between the two places of anchorage
of the nerve trunk and its branches, thereby stretching the ligaments and
fasciae whereby the trunk of the spinal nerve is secured to three-fourths
of the border which is roughened for their attachment, thereby modifying
the tension of the nerve trunk and its branches. The above holds
true in all intervertebral formania from the axis to the sacrum.
The gliding movement is the most simple kind of motion
that can take place in a joint: one surface gliding over another without
any angular or rotary movement. This motion is not confined to plane
surfaces, but may exist between any two contiguous surfaces, of whatever
form, limited by the ligaments which enclose the articulation. An
articular displacement increases the separation of the articular surfaces.
Rotation is produced by the twisting of the intervertebral
substance (the fibrocartilaginous disks) and a movement between the articular
surfaces; this twist and move, although only slight between any two vertebrae,
produces a considerable extent of movement when the whole length of the
vertebral column is considered. In rotation of the whole vertebral
column, the front of the upper part of the spine is turned to one side
or the other. There is only one vertebra, the atlas, which really
rotates, moves around an axis, the only example furnished in the backbone,
the odontoid process serving as a pivot around which the atlas turns.
The first and second spinal nerve trunks are anchored to the roughened
posterior surfaces above and below the articular processes of the atlas.
Any displacement laterally, the only direction in which the atlas can be
dislocated, would cause nerves to be stretched, a condition known as nerve
Circumduction is a movement in a circular direction,
it is a combination of anterior, posterior and lateral flexion--anterior,
posterior and lateral bending.
The normal movement of a vertebral joint may be increased
or decreased. Articular displacements, when they remain in a strained
position, are disease producers because of creating and continuing nerve
tension. Nerve stretching is caused by separating the articular processes,
enlarging the foramina, stretching the faciae and other tissue. The
intervertebral foramina are not occluded, closed up, narrowed or made smaller.
The intervertebral disks are not compressed, made thinner, the nerves are
not occluded, pinched or impinged upon. We, as chiropractors, have
no use for such unscientific terms as “The spinal windows are occluded,
Forward flexion is a bending of the spine so that
the concavity is increased, while the fibres of the opposite side are stretched.
The inter-space between the laminae of the cervical are widened, and the
inferior articular processes of the vertebrae above slide upward upon the
articular processes of the vertebrae below. Flexion is the most extensive
of all the movements of the vertebral column. Take your spine in
hand, bend it between two vertebrae (the only place it can be flexed) of
the dorsal until the articular surfaces are in contact half and half, and
you will have created a disease producing displacement, a subluxation,
a chiropractic dislocation. The gliding movement of the articular
processs can only be performed by extension as each vertebrae of the lower
six cervicals and the twelve dorsals are provided with a set of abutments
which prevent a downward movement past the normal of the superior articular
processes. If such a movement was possible, it would occlude foramina.
This gliding movement of the articular surfaces upon each other whether
performed in a normal amount or an excess can not do otherwise than enlarge
the foramina; this holds true in the lower six cervical, the twelve dorsal
and the five lumbar vertebrae. This gliding movement is the most
simple kind of motion that can take place in a joint, one surface gliding
or moving over another without any angular or rotary movement. This
sliding movement is the only one permitted between the articular processes
of vertebrae. As I have already said, this gliding movement can only
be increased in one direction in the vertebrae named, and such always increases
the size of the intervertebral foramina. The two articular surfaces
of the articular processes lie face to face in close contact. They
are held in this position by pliant, flexible, inextensile, strong, tough
ligaments and will not readily yield in any direction except that of the
usual gliding movement.
Backward flexion, the movement of the vertebral column
backward, an opposite disposition of the parts take place to that of displacement
by extension. This movement is very slight, being limited by the
imbrication of the laminae and spines, the anterior common ligament, the
osseous abutments on the lower six cervical, the twelve dorsal, and lumbar
vertebrae. In the dorsal region the close proximity of the spinous
processes to each other allow only a very slight extension, backward movement,
that which would close the foramina.
In lateral flexion, bending of the body sidewise,
the sides of the intervertebral disks are compressed, the extent of motion
being limited by the approximation of the transverse processs. This
movement may take place in any part of the vertebral column, but has the
greatest range in the neck and loins.
The extension movement is a backward flexion, a straightening
of the spine. This action is limited by the anterior common ligament,
the approximation of the spinous processes and the osseous abutments located
at the lower edge of the superior articular processes, so that in bending
backward the superior processes from the axis to the twelfth dorsal strike
against the junction of the transverse processes. The twelfth dorsal
is absent of the transverse processes, but more or less supplied with the
mammillary processes which serve an admirable purpose for preventing such
a movement as would close the foramina. Thus, there is a wise provision
throughout the vertebral colum to prevent occlusion of the intervertebral
Flexion and extension are greatest in the lower part
of the lumbar region between the third and fourth, and fifth lumbar vertebrae;
above the third they are much diminished, and reach their minimum in the
middle and upper part of the back. Flexion and extension increase
again in the neck, the capability of backward motion from the upright position
being in this region greater than that of the motion forward, whereas,
in the lumbar region the reverse is the case.
By palpation we determine the spinous process out
of alignment because of displacement of the articular processes.
Displacing the articular surfaces cause flexion; the bend is shown by the
projection of the spinous process above the luxation.
The articulating processes of vertebrae have thin,
loose ligamentous sacks, known as capsular ligaments, attached to the margins
of their articular surfaces through the greater part of their circumference.
They connect the two osseous structures on opposite sides of the intervertebral
foramen and hold the blood vessels and nerves in their respective position
as they pass through foramina. These thin sheets of pliable tissue
are lined on the inner surface with synovial membranes, the function of
which is to furnish synovia, a clear, thick, viscid fluid, like the white
of an egg, to lubricate the surfaces of these ligaments. The synovial
membranes of the vertebral articulations are well supplied with blood vessels
and nerves and may become inflamed, known as synovitis. A displacement
of the articular surfaces which create the intervertebral foramina, enlarges
the size of the aperture, stretches the intervening fasciae, augments nerve
vibration of the spinal trunk, causes the filaments to be on a stretch,
creates diseased conditions in those parts or organs in which these nerves
end. Adjusting, by sliding the articular surfaces back to their normal
position, closes the foramen to its normal shape and size, releases undue
nerve tension and all is well.
The articulation of the atlas with the axis is of
a complicated nature, comprising no fewer than four distinct joints.
There is a pivot articulation between the odontoid process of the axis
and the ring formed between the anterior arch of the atlas, and the transverse
ligament and the posterior of the odontoid. The projection of the
axis aids in forming two joints--one in front between the posterior surface
of the anterior arch of the atlas and the front of the odontoid process;
and another between the anterior surface of the transverse ligament and
the back of the tooth-like process. Between the articular processes
of the two bones there are double arthrodial or gliding joints in which
the opposing surfaces are nearly planes in which there is a gliding motion,
which permits the atlas to rotate (and, with it, the cranium) around the
projection of the axis, the extent of rotation being limited by the odontoid
check ligaments. No rotation can occur between the occiput and atlas.
The condyle of the occiput is biconvex, it fits into the biconcave superior
articular surface of the atlas. The atlas is the only vertebra which
revolves around an axis.
Very rarely the atlas is displaced upward.
I saw one specimen which showed plainly two articular surfaces on the front
of the odontoid process. I have seen quite a number axeses whose
odontoid processes had been extended, lengthened one-sixteenth to one-eighth
of an inch by exostosis, a deposit of osseous material upon the apexes
of the odontoid processes, evidently for the purpose of preventing the
atlas from sliding upward and backward over the tooth-like process.
There is no provision made for a lateral movement
of the atlas. Any deviation from the median line, to the left or
right, displaces, more or less, four articulations, two of the odontoid
process, and two of the articular processes. No one of the four joints
can be displaced without a corresponding displacement of all. The
odontoid process stands midway between the two tubercles, of the lateral
masses, for the attachment of the transverse ligament. These tubercles
are in the adult five-eighths of an inch distant from each other.
The neck of the odontoid (transverse measurement) is one-fourth of an inch
in diameter, leaving a distance of three-sixteenths of an inch on either
side of and between the tubercles and the process void of osseous tissue.
Occasionally the atlas is displaced laterally to one side or the other,
stretching the ligaments, fasciae and nerves which unite the atlas and
axis and makes secure not only the spinal cord, but also, the nerves and
blood vessels during their passage through the long gaps and emergence
from the spinal canal. In all such cases the proper thing to do is
to replace the displaced bone, thereby relieve excessive muscle and nerve
tension. Between the occiput and axis there are no intervertebral
foramina, or intervertebral disks to blame for pinching nerves, abnormal
chemical combinations, obstructed currents or occlusion of stimuli.
While the rotary movements are specially arranged
for by the peculiar articulations between the atlas and axis, the nodding
or rocking motion of the head is permitted by the cups of the superior
articular processes and the projecting condyles of the occipital bone.
In no one of the skeletal articulations is there a greater diversity in
shape and size than in the occipital condyles and their receiving concavities,
so much so, that no one condyle can be found to fit in any other than its
life-long mate. This variation in size and shape is shown in the
condyles and their corresponding articular surfaces of the same occiput
In this region I never have had any reason for adjusting,
or trying to adjust, the skull or axis, although I have frequent need for
replacing the atlas and the third cervical. In adjusting I regard
the axis, seventh certical and sacrum as stationary. A displaced
atlas can be easily replaced by giving the thrust aginst the posterior
arch. If the force is thrown against the right half it will spring the
anterior arch from the odontoid process sufficient to allow the atlas to
move to the left and vice versa.
Vertebrae are occasionally forced out of alignment,
the cartilaginous disks torn loose from the bodies. Fractures and
osseous ankyloses usually make them immovable; such are surgical displacements
of which a chiropractor has nothing to do.
The special features of the above may be verified
by anatomical works and dissecting the backbone of human or brute beast.
The movements and displacements of the joints of
the foot are of so much concern to chiropractors that I insert a description.
A study of their structure, displacements and corrections given by adjusting
should relieve us of a lot of absurdities regarding articular displacements
which have crept into chiropractic literature.
The skeleton of the foot consists of tarsus, metatarsus
and phalanges. The bones of the tarsus are seven in number.
Their action is of a slight gliding movement against each other.
Like other joints, they are supplied with ligaments, fasciae and synovial
membranes. There are no foramina to be sensured for ailments, no
intervertebral disks to be thinned by compression. And yet, although
the ligaments which hold the tarsal bones together are of great strength,
dislocation occasionally occurs. Such displacements cause “sprained
feet” -- nerves stretched and inflamed. The portion of the plantar
surface in which the nerves end, form calluses and the part of the foot
in which the bone is displaced becomes quite painful. By replacing
the displaced bone the callus and distress disappears.
The only movements in the phalangeal (toe) joints
are flexion and extension. These joints are very liable to be dislocated
and calluses appear over or on the sides of the joints known as corns.
Those between the toes are called soft corns because of being kept moist.
By adjusting the displaced joints the corns will disappear. This
may be accomplished at one sitting, or it may take much time, because of
illshapened joints and bony or fibrous adhesions.
Medical men can and osteopaths will accept the above
facts without due credit -- better for the world that is so than not at
all. Can you name the chiropractor who will lay claim to being “the
developer” of these ideas?
Is it not better to write of what we know, than of
that which we know nothing?
A vertebra consists of an anterior solid segment,
the body, and a posterior section, the neural arch. The arch is formed
of two pedicles, two laminae and seven processes, the two transverse, one
spinous and four articular.
The articular processes, four in number, two on either
side, each of the two face each other, have a certain amount of movement,
which is normal; when this gliding motion becomes increased beyond the
normal, it is said to be displaced, dislocated, luxated, the amount depending
upon the articular surface exposed. There are two sets of articulations
between the movable vertebrae, those between the bodies and those between
the articular processes.
Dislocation between two vertebrae (I am speaking
of the vertebrae as defined in this article) is almost, if not impossible,
such could not occur without a tearing of the intervertebral cartilaginous
disks from the bodies of the vertebrae. No chiropractor pretends
to replace displaced intervertebral disks. There is no place for
a chiropractic displacement, a dislocation, a luxation, except between
the articular surfaces of the articulating processes. All vertebrae,
except those which deviate from the common vertebral type, present two
sets of articulations. The vertebrae are articulated between the
centra, known as intercentral, and a pair of articulations beteween the
neural arches called interneural.
The intervertebral disks are located between the
vertebral bodies to which they are firmly attached.
The ligaments which unite the component parts of
the vertebrae together are so strong, and these bones are so interlocked
by the arrangement of their articulating processes, that dislocation of
the vertebrae, itself, is very uncommon, unless accompanied by fracture.
Nerves are never pinched or impinged upon in the
foramina. Foramina are never narrowed. WE DO NOT ADJUST THE
VERTEBRA. The vertebra itself, so far as a chiropractor knows, is
never displaced, dislocated or subluxated.
Any extreme movement of the articular surfaces enlarges
the foramen or foramina, causes the nerves and blood vessels to become
stretched, irritated, increasing its carrying power.
Nerves are never shut off by the closure of the foramina.
There are no dams or obstructions that restrict. Impulses are never
Reducing the luxated intervertebral articulation;
diminishing the displacement of the articular processes, replacing the
two articular surfaces, returns the enlarged foramen to its normal size,
removes tension and irritation. Irritated nerves cause muscular contraction.
The location and amount of disturbance depends upon the portion of the
nervous system involved.
A displacement is known by the contour of its angularity,
the spinous process will appear to be slightly elevated to the chiropractor
who will hold his hand crosswise of the body and run his fingers along
the spinal column -- not too fast or too slow. Don’t do as osteopaths,
who run their fingers along on each side of the spinal column to determine
what processes are bent to the left or right -- these have been foolers
to the osteopaths, and chiropractors have dropped into the same rut --
don’t do anything as an osteopath does. The sliding of the upper
surface upward beyond its normal limit causes the spinous process to become
more prominent and a slightly greater space will be found between the spinous
process of the two vertebrae whose articular surfaces are displaced.
The medical method of reducing a dislocation is,
extension, counter extension and coaptation. The chiropractor uses the
latter only, the adjusting of two displaced surfaces to each other.
Occasionally one of the spinous processes deviates
from the median line, more especially, the center six of the dorsal region,
a fact that should be remembered in practice, as they are not significant
to a chiropractor, having existed as such since birth and have nothing
whatever in common with disease.
Disease is too much or not enough function.
About 95 per cent of all diseases are accompanied by slightly displaced
articulations -- the vertebra is not displaced -- the sliding movement
of the articulations are increased beyond the normal -- consequently, increasing
the size of the foramen on one, or the foramina on both sides. The
balance of ailments are because of displacement of other joints.
A displacement displaces the articular surfaces,
does not crowd, the normal movement is exagerated.
Chiropractors have demonstrated that nerves which
innervate certain organs, proceed from one or the other side of the spine.
A proven fact: the neuroskeleton is a regulator of tension when its articular
surfaces have not been forcibly displaced, separated from their normal
bearings, but, articular processes not in normal contact, partially displaced
are disease producers.
A surgical luxation has been known to the medical
fraternity for centuries, but, a chiropractic luxation was discovered by
D. D. Palmer. Chiropractic is unlike any other method or system--don’t
you forget it.
The ingenuity manifested by chiropractors placing
vertebrae in cuts just to suit their fancy is not only amusing but borders
upon the ridiculous.
I am making an important distinction between a surgical
displacement of vertebrae and a chiropractic dislocation of the intervertebral
articular surfaces. I copy a few terms of chiropractors who refer
to the vertebrae as defined in this article and by all anatomists.
But few chiropractors realize the difference between the two luxations.
In the many cuts of vertebrae I have on hand their
abnormal relative position (always made so by hand), the vertebrae are
shown as being displaced out of their normal alignment. Judging from
the following quotations I am not mistaken in the above statement.
Spinal adjustment. Subluxated spine.
Vertebrae depressed. Displaced vertebrae. Vertebral subluxation.
Displacement of vertebrae. Vertebrae become displaced. Vertebrae
become luxated. Adjusting spinal vertebrae. Adjustment of a
vertebra. Vertebrae out of alignment. Partially displaced vertebrae.
We adjust displaced vertebrae. Subluxations in the spine. The
vertebrae are wrenched, displaced. Chiropractic is the adjustment
of vertebrae. Spinal adjustments replace vertebrae into line.
Stimulus occluded, normal and abnormal foramina. Vertebral luxations
the cause of disease. Shut off the flow of impulses. Do vertebrae
stay in place when adjusted? These displacements may be in many directions.
Adjustments restore the vertebrae to their normal position. The vertebrae
are liable to subluxations or partial displacements. The vertebrae
of the spinal are replaced in proper alignment. When vertebrae become
luxated, they pinch nerves and they shut off nerve force. It is positively
proven that vertebral subluxations are the cause of disease. Cut
No. 3 show spines and vertebrae in and out of place. In this cut
the lower vertebrae is racked to one side, subluxated, displaced.
(Under a cut). Showing how vertebrae can be out of line, pinching
nerves. A vertebral subluxation is a mechanical interference with
flow of the nerve supply. Between the vertebrae is the only places
where the nerves pass between movable bone structures. From subluxations
comes the pressure which holds back from the organs and tissues the vitalizing
currents. In Cut 1, the second vertebra has been moved backward presenting
a partial displacement or subluxation. An accident or strain will
cause a displacement or luxation of any one of these vertebrae. A
chiropractor with one dextrous thrust adjusts the vertebrae into its natural
position, removes the subluxation. In cuts B and D the superior vertebra
is luxated (displaced) the spinal openings are occluded (nearly closed).
A prominent writer says: “The clicking resulting
from adjustment can never be shown to be ‘that bone has been thrown in
place,’ as they so strenuously maintain.
“The sudden separation of the facets takes place,
and the ‘clicking’ sound is produced.
“Separating the facets of the two bones -- that is
the articular surfaces -- and lets the air in and gives the sound.”
His Alma Mater taught, “We find great use for atmospheric
pressure to hold bones far enough apart to let the ‘joint water’ pass freely
over the opposing ends of bones.”
Many persons have had the articular surfaces of vertebrae
replaced of themselves -- accidental chiropractic. These replacements
of articular surfaces are accompanied by audible clicks or snaps.
The audible click heard when adjusting is the upper articular
process striking against the osseous abutments, the laminae in the lumbar, the
shoulders of the laminae in the dorsals, except the 10th, 11th, and 12th, which
may vary in having the transverse processes broken up into external, superior
and inferior tubercules; the superior tubercules answering an admirable purpose
of an abutment in preventing the occlusion of the foramina. The atlas
strikes against the odontoid process, thereby, causing the audible click.