The Chiropractor
D. D. Palmer
    Muscles or sinews, is one of the contractile organs of the body by which the movements of the various organs and parts are affected.  They possess the power of contraction and relaxation.  One author says a muscle fibre is from one to five inches in length, another states they vary from a fraction of an inch to many inches.  Muscles are directly attached to bones or indirectly by tendons or ligaments, or more definitely speaking they are made fast to the periosteum, the thick fibrous membrane which covers and adheres closely to the entire surface of bones, except, where they are covered with articular cartilage.  Muscles in shape may be that of a cord, ribbon or sheet.  The surface of bones to which muscles are attached are rough, laborers have rougher bones than those of clerks.  The bones of females are smoother than those of males.  Bones become rougher as age advances.  Muscles, like nerves, are classed as voluntary and involuntary.  The voluntary are those whose actions are under the control of the will; the involuntary control the functions of the internal organs, intestines, blood vessels, etc.  The part which is moved by contraction of the muscle is known as the insertion, or distal, and the fixed or central attachment the origin, or proximal.  Skeletal muscles are connected at either or both of their extremities with the bony framework (the tension-frame) of the body.  A muscle is attached to two objects; its contraction lessens the distance between them.  Motor and sensor nerves end in voluntary muscles.  The involuntary muscles are supplied form the sympathetic nerve system.  The tendinous portion of a muscle increases with age.  The muscles of an adult are stiffer than those of a child, therefore, the range of joint movement is diminished with age, muscular extensibility is greater in youth; as age advances the tendinous inextensibility is increased.

    There are three layers of muscles in the back.  The superficial, the deep facia and the trapezius.  The deep facia is a dense fibrous layer attached to the occipital bone, the spines of the vertebrae, the crest of the ilium and the spine of the scapula.  The trapezius muscle is attached to the external occipital protuberance, the spinous process of the seventh cervical and the spinous processes of all the thoracic vertebrae.  To the atlas are fastened nine pairs of muscles.  To the axis are connected eleven liable to be pinched between the articular surfaces.

    Muscles are composed of bundles of reddish fibres, the lean meat of the body, surrounded by a greater or lesser extent by glistening, white connective tissue; they constitute about two-fifths to three-sevenths of the weight of the body.  They are known by 230 distinct names.  Authors differ as to the number of muscles in the human body, some mention as low as 501, others as high as 682; this difference is accounted for by the anomalous and variable number in different subjects.

    A tendon is a nonelastic fibrous cord or band serving to connect a muscle with a bone or other tissue, they are lubricated by synovia.

    A ligament is a band or sheet of fibrous, inextensile, pliable, tough and strong tissue connecting the articular extremities of two or more bones, cartilages or other structure, they may serve as supports for fasciae or muscles.  Interosseous ligaments with the laminae of the lower 23 movable vertebrae complete the roofing-in of the spinal canal, permit variation in the width of the interlaminar spaces in flexion and extension; they restore the articulating surfaces to their normal position after each movement, and take the place of muscles which would be liable to be pinched between the articular surface.

    Fasciae covers, ensheaths, supports or binds together internal parts or structures of the body.  The word fascia means a band or bandage.  Fasciae are divided into superficial and deep.  Chiropractors are especially concerned with the deep fasciae which is pearly white, dense, strong, flexible, inelastic, unyielding fibrous membrane, forming sheaths for muscles and affording broad surfaces for attachment.  The inner or deep layer of fascia is continuous with the sheaths of nerves, arteries and veins.  They not only bind down collectively the muscles, but give a separate cover to each, as well as to blood vessels and nerves.  In biology the term fascia is applied to any broad, tranvserse feathers, hair or scales.

    The intervertebral fibrocartilaginous disks are interposed between the adjacent surfaces of the bodies of vertebrae from the axis to the sacrum and between the vertebrae of the sacrum in youth until they become fused; they are the chief bond of connection between these bones.  The compressible intervertebral disks constitute pivots round which the bodies of the vertebrae can twist, tile or incline.  The curve of old age is due to the shrinking of the intervertebral substance.  The pulp part of these disks form a central elastic pivot or ball, upon and around which the center of the vertebra rests and twists.  If it were not for the articular processes which give steadiness to the column the motion would be of a rolling character.  There are no fibrocartilaginous disks between the occiput and atlas, nor between the atlas and axis.  These rubber-like layers of fibrocartilage are adherent by their surfaces to a thin layer of hyaline cartilage which covers the upper and under surfaces of the bodies of vertebrae.

    The intervertebral foramen is formed by the justaposition of the upper and lower intervertebral notches or grooves; the upper and anterior portion of which is arranged by the lower border of the pedicle and the posterior lower corner of the body of the superior vertebra.  The posterior and lower portion of the foramen is formed by the articular process of the inferior vertebra.  The border of the intervertebral foramen is one-fourth smooth and three-fourths rough.  There are no muscles, tendons or ligaments attached to the smooth portions of bone.  The upper portion of the border of the intervertebral foramen is smooth and the remaining three-fourths roughened for the attachment of ligaments or fasciae.  An examination of an intervertebral foramen in the recent state will disclose the trunk of a spinal nerve, which is one-fourth of an inch in length, securely attached by muscles and ligaments to the body of the upper vertebra and the articular process of the lower one adjoining it.

    The vertebraterial foramina in the transverse processes of the cervical vertebra form a passage way for the vertebral arteries, veins and plexuses of the sympathetic nerves.  This network of nerves surround the arteries and accompany them through the transverse foramina, entering at the sixth and traverse all above it.  From the costotransverse foramina of the atlas they enter the skull through the foramen magnum.  This interjoining of nerves supply filaments (vasomotor) to the muscle fibres of the arteries and accompany them to the cerebrum and cerebellum.  The vertebral plexus communicates by delicate threads with the cervical spinal nerves.  The vertebral veins correspond to the extra cranial parts of the vertebral arteries.  They form by the union of offsets from the intraspinal venous plexuses, issue from the spinal canal, pass across the posterior arch of the atlas with the vertebral artery to the foramen in the transverse process of the atlas.  It then descends through the vertebraterial foramina and breaks up into a plexus of venous channels which surround the artery.  These channels unite to form a single trunk which issues from the transverse foramen of the sixth cervical vertebra.  Each vertebral vein receives offsets from the intraspinal venus plexus which pass out of the spinal canal by the intervertebral foramina.

    The long gap between the occipital bone and the atlas and the intervening space between the atlas and axis are not foramina: no possibility of nerves being pinched, squeezed, occluded, no narrowing of the foramina, no settling in that region.  The posterior portion of the ring which surrounds the foramen magnum, the whole surface of the posterior arch of the atlas and the superior of the lamina of the axis are smooth; but few muscles are attached thereunto.  There are two distinct sets of articulations in the vertebral column; those between the bodies and intervertebra disks and those between the articular processes.

    Arthrodial joints admit of gliding movements: they are formed by the approximation of two plane surfaces, one slightly concave and the other correspondingly convex, the amount of motion between them being limited by ligaments and osseous abutments.  The articular surfaces are covered with hyaline cartilage and the bones kept in contact by ligaments.

    The transverse ligament of the atlas is a thick, strong band, which arches across the ring of the atlas, and serves to retain the odontoid process in firm connection with the anterior arch.  This ligament is flattened from before backward, broader and thicker in the middle than at either extremity, and firmly attached on each side to a small tubercle on the inner surface of the lateral mass of the atlas.  This ligament is supplied with a facet, the surface of which is covered with hyaline cartilage.  The odontoid process is smaller at the lower part than at the upper portion; it is retained in close connection with the atlas by the transverse ligament embracing tightly its narrow neck.

    The vertebral column permits of three distinct movements, gliding, circumduction and rotation.  These movements are, however, often, more or less, combined in the various joints and thusly produce quite a variation.  It is seldom that we find only one kind of motion in any particular joint.

    The movements of the vertebral column are controlled by the shape and position of the articular processes.  In the loins the inferior zygapophyses are turned outward and embraced by the superior of its neighbor below; this renders rotation, twisting, of the spinal column in this region impossible.  There is nothing to prevent, except, to a certain extent, a sliding movement upward of one and downward of the other, of the two surfaces in contact, known as flexion (bending) and extension (straightening of a curve).  In the thoracic region the articulating processes by their direction and mutual adaptation, especially at the upper part of the dorsal series, permit of rotation, but prevent flexion and extension; while in the cervical region the greater obliquity and lateral slant of the articular processes allow not only flexion and extension, but also rotation.

    There is only a slight degree of movement between any two individual vertebrae, the atlas and axis excepted, although they permit, as a whole, a considerable change of situation.  This slight alteration in the position of the two articular surfaces is allowable, thus far and no farther is normal, a greater separation, or displacement, more than usual, is disease creating.  Vertebral displacement is the normal gliding movement exaggerated.  The separation of the articular processes increases the distance between the body of the superior vertebra and the articular process of the inferior segment to both of which the spinal nerve trunk is securely moored by stays, known as faciae, which are attached to three-fourths of the borders of the foramen; that of the articular process of one vertebra which forms the inferior notch of the foramen, and that of the body of which bounds one-third of the superior notch.  Displaced articulations are separated more than usual by oversliding each other, sometimes the separation is complete and accompanied by fracture.  The only portions of the vertebral column which permit of being luxated, subluxated, dislocated, displaced are the articular processes.  To displace does not mean to crowd together, to shorten the spine by thinning the intervertebral disks or occlude the intervertebral disks or occlude the intervertebral foramina; luxation of the articular processes increase the size of the foramen and the distance between the two places of anchorage of the nerve trunk and its branches, thereby stretching the ligaments and fasciae whereby the trunk of the spinal nerve is secured to three-fourths of the border which is roughened for their attachment, thereby modifying the tension of the nerve trunk and its branches.  The above holds true in all intervertebral formania from the axis to the sacrum.

    The gliding movement is the most simple kind of motion that can take place in a joint: one surface gliding over another without any angular or rotary movement.  This motion is not confined to plane surfaces, but may exist between any two contiguous surfaces, of whatever form, limited by the ligaments which enclose the articulation.  An articular displacement increases the separation of the articular surfaces.

    Rotation is produced by the twisting of the intervertebral substance (the fibrocartilaginous disks) and a movement between the articular surfaces; this twist and move, although only slight between any two vertebrae, produces a considerable extent of movement when the whole length of the vertebral column is considered.  In rotation of the whole vertebral column, the front of the upper part of the spine is turned to one side or the other.  There is only one vertebra, the atlas, which really rotates, moves around an axis, the only example furnished in the backbone, the odontoid process serving as a pivot around which the atlas turns.  The first and second spinal nerve trunks are anchored to the roughened posterior surfaces above and below the articular processes of the atlas.  Any displacement laterally, the only direction in which the atlas can be dislocated, would cause nerves to be stretched, a condition known as nerve tension.

    Circumduction is a movement in a circular direction, it is a combination of anterior, posterior and lateral flexion--anterior, posterior and lateral bending.

    The normal movement of a vertebral joint may be increased or decreased.  Articular displacements, when they remain in a strained position, are disease producers because of creating and continuing nerve tension.  Nerve stretching is caused by separating the articular processes, enlarging the foramina, stretching the faciae and other tissue.  The intervertebral foramina are not occluded, closed up, narrowed or made smaller.  The intervertebral disks are not compressed, made thinner, the nerves are not occluded, pinched or impinged upon.  We, as chiropractors, have no use for such unscientific terms as “The spinal windows are occluded, closed up.”

    Forward flexion is a bending of the spine so that the concavity is increased, while the fibres of the opposite side are stretched.  The inter-space between the laminae of the cervical are widened, and the inferior articular processes of the vertebrae above slide upward upon the articular processes of the vertebrae below.  Flexion is the most extensive of all the movements of the vertebral column.  Take your spine in hand, bend it between two vertebrae (the only place it can be flexed) of the dorsal until the articular surfaces are in contact half and half, and you will have created a disease producing displacement, a subluxation, a chiropractic dislocation.  The gliding movement of the articular processs can only be performed by extension as each vertebrae of the lower six cervicals and the twelve dorsals are provided with a set of abutments which prevent a downward movement past the normal of the superior articular processes.  If such a movement was possible, it would occlude foramina.  This gliding movement of the articular surfaces upon each other whether performed in a normal amount or an excess can not do otherwise than enlarge the foramina; this holds true in the lower six cervical, the twelve dorsal and the five lumbar vertebrae.  This gliding movement is the most simple kind of motion that can take place in a joint, one surface gliding or moving over another without any angular or rotary movement.  This sliding movement is the only one permitted between the articular processes of vertebrae.  As I have already said, this gliding movement can only be increased in one direction in the vertebrae named, and such always increases the size of the intervertebral foramina.  The two articular surfaces of the articular processes lie face to face in close contact.  They are held in this position by pliant, flexible, inextensile, strong, tough ligaments and will not readily yield in any direction except that of the usual gliding movement.

    Backward flexion, the movement of the vertebral column backward, an opposite disposition of the parts take place to that of displacement by extension.  This movement is very slight, being limited by the imbrication of the laminae and spines, the anterior common ligament, the osseous abutments on the lower six cervical, the twelve dorsal, and lumbar vertebrae.  In the dorsal region the close proximity of the spinous processes to each other allow only a very slight extension, backward movement, that which would close the foramina.

    In lateral flexion, bending of the body sidewise, the sides of the intervertebral disks are compressed, the extent of motion being limited by the approximation of the transverse processs.  This movement may take place in any part of the vertebral column, but has the greatest range in the neck and loins.

    The extension movement is a backward flexion, a straightening of the spine.  This action is limited by the anterior common ligament, the approximation of the spinous processes and the osseous abutments located at the lower edge of the superior articular processes, so that in bending backward the superior processes from the axis to the twelfth dorsal strike against the junction of the transverse processes.  The twelfth dorsal is absent of the transverse processes, but more or less supplied with the mammillary processes which serve an admirable purpose for preventing such a movement as would close the foramina.  Thus, there is a wise provision throughout the vertebral colum to prevent occlusion of the intervertebral foramina.

    Flexion and extension are greatest in the lower part of the lumbar region between the third and fourth, and fifth lumbar vertebrae; above the third they are much diminished, and reach their minimum in the middle and upper part of the back.  Flexion and extension increase again in the neck, the capability of backward motion from the upright position being in this region greater than that of the motion forward, whereas, in the lumbar region the reverse is the case.

    By palpation we determine the spinous process out of alignment because of displacement of the articular processes.  Displacing the articular surfaces cause flexion; the bend is shown by the projection of the spinous process above the luxation.

    The articulating processes of vertebrae have thin, loose ligamentous sacks, known as capsular ligaments, attached to the margins of their articular surfaces through the greater part of their circumference.  They connect the two osseous structures on opposite sides of the intervertebral foramen and hold the blood vessels and nerves in their respective position as they pass through foramina.  These thin sheets of pliable tissue are lined on the inner surface with synovial membranes, the function of which is to furnish synovia, a clear, thick, viscid fluid, like the white of an egg, to lubricate the surfaces of these ligaments.  The synovial membranes of the vertebral articulations are well supplied with blood vessels and nerves and may become inflamed, known as synovitis.  A displacement of the articular surfaces which create the intervertebral foramina, enlarges the size of the aperture, stretches the intervening fasciae, augments nerve vibration of the spinal trunk, causes the filaments to be on a stretch, creates diseased conditions in those parts or organs in which these nerves end.  Adjusting, by sliding the articular surfaces back to their normal position, closes the foramen to its normal shape and size, releases undue nerve tension and all is well.

    The articulation of the atlas with the axis is of a complicated nature, comprising no fewer than four distinct joints.  There is a pivot articulation between the odontoid process of the axis and the ring formed between the anterior arch of the atlas, and the transverse ligament and the posterior of the odontoid.  The projection of the axis aids in forming two joints--one in front between the posterior surface of the anterior arch of the atlas and the front of the odontoid process; and another between the anterior surface of the transverse ligament and the back of the tooth-like process.  Between the articular processes of the two bones there are double arthrodial or gliding joints in which the opposing surfaces are nearly planes in which there is a gliding motion, which permits the atlas to rotate (and, with it, the cranium) around the projection of the axis, the extent of rotation being limited by the odontoid check ligaments.  No rotation can occur between the occiput and atlas.  The condyle of the occiput is biconvex, it fits into the biconcave superior articular surface of the atlas.  The atlas is the only vertebra which revolves around an axis.

    Very rarely the atlas is displaced upward.  I saw one specimen which showed plainly two articular surfaces on the front of the odontoid process.  I have seen quite a number axeses whose odontoid processes had been extended, lengthened one-sixteenth to one-eighth of an inch by exostosis, a deposit of osseous material upon the apexes of the odontoid processes, evidently for the purpose of preventing the atlas from sliding upward and backward over the tooth-like process.

    There is no provision made for a lateral movement of the atlas.  Any deviation from the median line, to the left or right, displaces, more or less, four articulations, two of the odontoid process, and two of the articular processes.  No one of the four joints can be displaced without a corresponding displacement of all.  The odontoid process stands midway between the two tubercles, of the lateral masses, for the attachment of the transverse ligament.  These tubercles are in the adult five-eighths of an inch distant from each other.  The neck of the odontoid (transverse measurement) is one-fourth of an inch in diameter, leaving a distance of three-sixteenths of an inch on either side of and between the tubercles and the process void of osseous tissue.  Occasionally the atlas is displaced laterally to one side or the other, stretching the ligaments, fasciae and nerves which unite the atlas and axis and makes secure not only the spinal cord, but also, the nerves and blood vessels during their passage through the long gaps and emergence from the spinal canal.  In all such cases the proper thing to do is to replace the displaced bone, thereby relieve excessive muscle and nerve tension.  Between the occiput and axis there are no intervertebral foramina, or intervertebral disks to blame for pinching nerves, abnormal chemical combinations, obstructed currents or occlusion of stimuli.

    While the rotary movements are specially arranged for by the peculiar articulations between the atlas and axis, the nodding or rocking motion of the head is permitted by the cups of the superior articular processes and the projecting condyles of the occipital bone.  In no one of the skeletal articulations is there a greater diversity in shape and size than in the occipital condyles and their receiving concavities, so much so, that no one condyle can be found to fit in any other than its life-long mate.  This variation in size and shape is shown in the condyles and their corresponding articular surfaces of the same occiput and atlas.

    In this region I never have had any reason for adjusting, or trying to adjust, the skull or axis, although I have frequent need for replacing the atlas and the third cervical.  In adjusting I regard the axis, seventh certical and sacrum as stationary.  A displaced atlas can be easily replaced by giving the thrust aginst the posterior arch. If the force is thrown against the right half it will spring the anterior arch from the odontoid process sufficient to allow the atlas to move to the left and vice versa.

    Vertebrae are occasionally forced out of alignment, the cartilaginous disks torn loose from the bodies.  Fractures and osseous ankyloses usually make them immovable; such are surgical displacements of which a chiropractor has nothing to do.

    The special features of the above may be verified by anatomical works and dissecting the backbone of human or brute beast.

    The movements and displacements of the joints of the foot are of so much concern to chiropractors that I insert a description.  A study of their structure, displacements and corrections given by adjusting should relieve us of a lot of absurdities regarding articular displacements which have crept into chiropractic literature.

    The skeleton of the foot consists of tarsus, metatarsus and phalanges.  The bones of the tarsus are seven in number.  Their action is of a slight gliding movement against each other.  Like other joints, they are supplied with ligaments, fasciae and synovial membranes.  There are no foramina to be sensured for ailments, no intervertebral disks to be thinned by compression.  And yet, although the ligaments which hold the tarsal bones together are of great strength, dislocation occasionally occurs.  Such displacements cause “sprained feet” -- nerves stretched and inflamed.  The portion of the plantar surface in which the nerves end, form calluses and the part of the foot in which the bone is displaced becomes quite painful.  By replacing the displaced bone the callus and distress disappears.

    The only movements in the phalangeal (toe) joints are flexion and extension.  These joints are very liable to be dislocated and calluses appear over or on the sides of the joints known as corns.  Those between the toes are called soft corns because of being kept moist.  By adjusting the displaced joints the corns will disappear.  This may be accomplished at one sitting, or it may take much time, because of illshapened joints and bony or fibrous adhesions.

    Medical men can and osteopaths will accept the above facts without due credit -- better for the world that is so than not at all.  Can you name the chiropractor who will lay claim to being “the developer” of these ideas?

    Is it not better to write of what we know, than of that which we know nothing?

    A vertebra consists of an anterior solid segment, the body, and a posterior section, the neural arch.  The arch is formed of two pedicles, two laminae and seven processes, the two transverse, one spinous and four articular.

    The articular processes, four in number, two on either side, each of the two face each other, have a certain amount of movement, which is normal; when this gliding motion becomes increased beyond the normal, it is said to be displaced, dislocated, luxated, the amount depending upon the articular surface exposed.  There are two sets of articulations between the movable vertebrae, those between the bodies and those between the articular processes.

    Dislocation between two vertebrae (I am speaking of the vertebrae as defined in this article) is almost, if not impossible, such could not occur without a tearing of the intervertebral cartilaginous disks from the bodies of the vertebrae.  No chiropractor pretends to replace displaced intervertebral disks.  There is no place for a chiropractic displacement, a dislocation, a luxation, except between the articular surfaces of the articulating processes.  All vertebrae, except those which deviate from the common vertebral type, present two sets of articulations.  The vertebrae are articulated between the centra, known as intercentral, and a pair of articulations beteween the neural arches called interneural.

    The intervertebral disks are located between the vertebral bodies to which they are firmly attached.

    The ligaments which unite the component parts of the vertebrae together are so strong, and these bones are so interlocked by the arrangement of their articulating processes, that dislocation of the vertebrae, itself, is very uncommon, unless accompanied by fracture.

    Nerves are never pinched or impinged upon in the foramina.  Foramina are never narrowed.  WE DO NOT ADJUST THE VERTEBRA.  The vertebra itself, so far as a chiropractor knows, is never displaced, dislocated or subluxated.

    Any extreme movement of the articular surfaces enlarges the foramen or foramina, causes the nerves and blood vessels to become stretched, irritated, increasing its carrying power.

    Nerves are never shut off by the closure of the foramina.  There are no dams or obstructions that restrict.  Impulses are never interrupted.

    Reducing the luxated intervertebral articulation; diminishing the displacement of the articular processes, replacing the two articular surfaces, returns the enlarged foramen to its normal size, removes tension and irritation.  Irritated nerves cause muscular contraction.  The location and amount of disturbance depends upon the portion of the nervous system involved.

    A displacement is known by the contour of its angularity, the spinous process will appear to be slightly elevated to the chiropractor who will hold his hand crosswise of the body and run his fingers along the spinal column -- not too fast or too slow.  Don’t do as osteopaths, who run their fingers along on each side of the spinal column to determine what processes are bent to the left or right -- these have been foolers to the osteopaths, and chiropractors have dropped into the same rut -- don’t do anything as an osteopath does.  The sliding of the upper surface upward beyond its normal limit causes the spinous process to become more prominent and a slightly greater space will be found between the spinous process of the two vertebrae whose articular surfaces are displaced.

    The medical method of reducing a dislocation is, extension, counter extension and coaptation. The chiropractor uses the latter only, the adjusting of two displaced surfaces to each other.

    Occasionally one of the spinous processes deviates from the median line, more especially, the center six of the dorsal region, a fact that should be remembered in practice, as they are not significant to a chiropractor, having existed as such since birth and have nothing whatever in common with disease.

    Disease is too much or not enough function.  About 95 per cent of all diseases are accompanied by slightly displaced articulations -- the vertebra is not displaced -- the sliding movement of the articulations are increased beyond the normal -- consequently, increasing the size of the foramen on one, or the foramina on both sides.  The balance of ailments are because of displacement of other joints.

    A displacement displaces the articular surfaces, does not crowd, the normal movement is exagerated.

    Chiropractors have demonstrated that nerves which innervate certain organs, proceed from one or the other side of the spine.  A proven fact: the neuroskeleton is a regulator of tension when its articular surfaces have not been forcibly displaced, separated from their normal bearings, but, articular processes not in normal contact, partially displaced are disease producers.

    A surgical luxation has been known to the medical fraternity for centuries, but, a chiropractic luxation was discovered by D. D. Palmer.  Chiropractic is unlike any other method or system--don’t you forget it.

    The ingenuity manifested by chiropractors placing vertebrae in cuts just to suit their fancy is not only amusing but borders upon the ridiculous.

    I am making an important distinction between a surgical displacement of vertebrae and a chiropractic dislocation of the intervertebral articular surfaces.  I copy a few terms of chiropractors who refer to the vertebrae as defined in this article and by all anatomists.  But few chiropractors realize the difference between the two luxations.

    In the many cuts of vertebrae I have on hand their abnormal relative position (always made so by hand), the vertebrae are shown as being displaced out of their normal alignment.  Judging from the following quotations I am not mistaken in the above statement.

    Spinal adjustment.  Subluxated spine.  Vertebrae depressed.  Displaced vertebrae.  Vertebral subluxation.  Displacement of vertebrae.  Vertebrae become displaced.  Vertebrae become luxated.  Adjusting spinal vertebrae.  Adjustment of a vertebra.  Vertebrae out of alignment.  Partially displaced vertebrae.  We adjust displaced vertebrae.  Subluxations in the spine.  The vertebrae are wrenched, displaced.  Chiropractic is the adjustment of vertebrae.  Spinal adjustments replace vertebrae into line.  Stimulus occluded, normal and abnormal foramina.  Vertebral luxations the cause of disease.  Shut off the flow of impulses.  Do vertebrae stay in place when adjusted?  These displacements may be in many directions.  Adjustments restore the vertebrae to their normal position.  The vertebrae are liable to subluxations or partial displacements.  The vertebrae of the spinal are replaced in proper alignment.  When vertebrae become luxated, they pinch nerves and they shut off nerve force.  It is positively proven that vertebral subluxations are the cause of disease.  Cut No. 3 show spines and vertebrae in and out of place.  In this cut the lower vertebrae is racked to one side, subluxated, displaced.  (Under a cut).  Showing how vertebrae can be out of line, pinching nerves.  A vertebral subluxation is a mechanical interference with flow of the nerve supply.  Between the vertebrae is the only places where the nerves pass between movable bone structures.  From subluxations comes the pressure which holds back from the organs and tissues the vitalizing currents.  In Cut 1, the second vertebra has been moved backward presenting a partial displacement or subluxation.  An accident or strain will cause a displacement or luxation of any one of these vertebrae.  A chiropractor with one dextrous thrust adjusts the vertebrae into its natural position, removes the subluxation.  In cuts B and D the superior vertebra is luxated (displaced) the spinal openings are occluded (nearly closed).

    A prominent writer says: “The clicking resulting from adjustment can never be shown to be ‘that bone has been thrown in place,’ as they so strenuously maintain.

    “The sudden separation of the facets takes place, and the ‘clicking’ sound is produced.

    “Separating the facets of the two bones -- that is the articular surfaces -- and lets the air in and gives the sound.”

    His Alma Mater taught, “We find great use for atmospheric pressure to hold bones far enough apart to let the ‘joint water’ pass freely over the opposing ends of bones.”

    Many persons have had the articular surfaces of vertebrae replaced of themselves -- accidental chiropractic.  These replacements of articular surfaces are accompanied by audible clicks or snaps.

    The audible click heard when adjusting is the upper articular process striking against the osseous abutments, the laminae in the lumbar, the shoulders of the laminae in the dorsals, except the 10th, 11th, and 12th, which may vary in having the transverse processes broken up into external, superior and inferior tubercules; the superior tubercules answering an admirable purpose of an abutment in preventing the occlusion of the foramina.  The atlas strikes against the odontoid process, thereby, causing the audible click.