Practice of Osteopathy
Charles H. Murray, D.O.
DISEASE AND ITS TREATMENT
Congestion Of The Lungs
Edema Of The Lungs
Pyopneumothorax, Hydrothorax, Hemothorax
Mouth, Diseases Of
The Gall Duct And Bladder
Cirrhosis Of The Liver
Perihepatitis, Acute And
Congestion Of The Liver
Passive Congestion Of The
Congestion Of Kidney
Acute Brights Disease
Chronic Bright's Disease
Fatty Degeneration Of The
Valvular Lesions Of The Heart
Endocarditis And Myocarditis
Hypertrophy Of The Heart
Progressive Pernicious Anemia
Infantile Spinal Paralysis
St Vitus' Dance
Diseases Of The Eye
Diseases Of The Ear
Kuatsu And Spondylotherapy
Cramps In The Legs
Disordered Sweat Glands
Acne And Comedo
Alcoholism And Drug Habits
Ivy Poisoning, Poison Oak
Of Deafness And Partial Deafness
We frequently find very serious cases of spinal curvature
which may be cured or greatly benefited by Osteopathic treatment.
There must be a process of building up muscles and ligaments, of restoring
and strengthening wasted parts. At the same time other muscles and
ligaments must be relaxed. Where the spine is ankylosed, that is,
where the vertebrae have practically grown together, it can not be straightened
but a false ankylosis, due to rigidity of the surrounding parts, may be
straightened, where there is a curvature.
The operator should remember that nearly all spines
have a little lateral curvature in the dorsal region, and in right-handed
persons this curvature is directed to the right, and in the case of left-handed
individuals the curvature bends toward the left. The more muscular
a person is and the more the arms are used the more pronounced will we
find this curvature. This is due to over-developed muscles pulling
the spine to one side. This will be true of numerous occupations
which tend to develop one side of the body more than the other. For
this reason we always ought to know the occupation of the patient and use
this information in determining the form and force of treatment needed.
Of course if both sides are equally developed muscularly
there will be no lateral deviation of the spine. In some cases of
spinal curvature, in addition to the Osteopathic treatment, it will be
well to give the patient some muscular exercises to develop the muscles
on the concave side of the curvature and thus help to straighten the spine.
There are three forms of spinal curvature, or scoliosis:
Functional, which is the result of faulty positions, assumed as a habit
or occupation, or as a result of a weak eve or ear. It may also be
caused by some deformity in some other part of the body. This often
appears before the age of ten. There are no pronounced symptoms and
it is often discovered accidentally. One of my cases had been under
treatment for a number of years, by a regular physician, for various troubles,
when her mother, in giving a bath, discovered a severe case of spinal curvature.
This first class of spinal curvature may be easily cured but if left, it
becomes Transitional curvature, when the case is progressing into what,
is called Structural curvature, in which the shape of the vertebrae is
changed. On account of this change in the structure and shape of
the bones which form the spinal column such
a case is very difficult to cure. This type of curvature is not
only caused by neglected functional cases, but may have begun before birth
and is congenital. Rickets, arthritis deformans, infantile paralysis
and pathological affections of the vertebrae act as a cause.
Many cases require a long course of treatment.
A great deal of preliminary work must be done. Where the tissues
are contracted in the back they must be loosened by some of the treatments,
as Nos. 34, 36, 44, 43, 58, 59, 60. The vertebrae must be frequently
worked over into their proper position. See Nos. 45, 57, 38, 39.
It is often well to begin at the lower vertebra that is out of position,
and force it over. Then the next and so on up the spine as far as
the curvature extends. Do not attempt to do too much at a time, but
it will be necessary in most cases to continue the work for from one to
three years, treating most of the time from two to three times per week.
Special attention must be paid to the ribs in many cases. See the
examination and treatment of the ribs.
In cases where the spine is too flexible it may be
necessary to use appropriate exercises to
strengthen the spinal muscles. They may be worked over and manipulated,
as in Nos. 47, 31.
In many cases of Pott's disease, where the destructive
processes have ceased and left the spine in a very stiff condition, much
can be done to correct the deformity and to restore the health.
If one wishes to be better informed on this subject
it will be well to secure Lovett's work on "Lateral Curvature of the Spine."
Many cases of structural Curvature require some form of casts or braces
to hold improvement gained, and this book enters into detail respecting
Kyphosis. This is a curvature of the
spine directed backwards. We find this condition in many elderly
persons, in persons who are naturally weak, and in children who have the
rickets. We must distinguish this condition from the sharp angle
of Pott's disease.
The treatment will be given as indicated in Nos.
34, 43, 37, 35, 38, 50. It will be necessary to give the treatment
for some time twice per week; later once per week will do. In elderly
people we may not expect to straighten the spine to a marked degree, but
the work will greatly improve the health, by securing a better blood supply
to the spinal cord.
Lordosis. This is an exaggerated curvature
of the lumbar region, the curve of which is directed forward. It
is frequently seen in women who have had frequent pregnancies and, those
who have dropsy. The treatment is directed to strengthening the ligaments
and muscles and the gradual correction of the curvature. See Nos.
64, 57, 63. Also see kyphosis.
This is a chronic inflammation of the spine in which
there is pain of a varying nature. There is rigidity and deformity.
The intervertebral disks atrophy and firm, bony unions form between the
vertebrae, which gradually extend to the whole spine. The muscles
atrophy and there is a forward bending of the whole spine. The pain
varies greatly and in some cases amounts to a severe neuralgia. This
is caused by the pressure of the vertebrae on the nerve roots, which they
are allowed to do on account of the absence of the intervertebral disks.
This disease is caused by violent injury to the spine,
from falls, blows and carrying heavy burdens when too young. Gonorrhoeal
infections and articular rheumatism act as causes.
When the spine has grown quite rigid from ankylosis
I have failed to loosen the joints, but the treatment has built up the
muscular tissue and has helped in overcoming pain. In cases where
such bony union had not taken place it could be prevented and the case
cured. The treatment consisted in a thorough spinal manipulation
three times per week, with a general treatment. See general treatment.
One case in which a number of vertebrae had become ankylosed I sent where
three Osteopaths could treat him at one time. He was very strong
and could stand heroic treatment. The vertebra were loosened in thirty
treatments, and after following up this treatment for some months, at intervals,
a good cure was effected.
This is a disease in which pain first appears in
the bones and is at first often mistaken for
rheumatism. The bones gradually soften, later bend and easily
fracture. Some writers claim that it is a disease of adults of from
twenty to forty years of age- But I have c very marked cases in children
and Young persons under twenty. When it occurs in older women it
is thought that childbearing is an exciting cause, as the first signs of
the disease often appear during pregnancy.
The symptoms begin with pain in the back of the neck,
thighs and sacral region. Then weakness develops in, the legs, so
that the person desires help in walking. After the deformity appears
in the lower limbs there is danger of spontaneous fracture. There
is a peculiar, uncertain, wabbling gait. The pelvis will be found
to be deformed. Later the whole skeleton is deformed. Some
writers claim that the urine has an excess of calcium salts.
In cases that I have treated Osteopathically the
disease was arrested and the patients enjoyed a fair degree of health afterward.
The cause of the disease is uncertain, and why the disease was arrested
under treatment I can only conjecture. A normal nerve and blood supply
was secured to all parts. A general treatment was given as far as
See general treatment. In only one case was any deformity corrected
- that of the lower legs.
Many cases are bedridden. They die from general
debility and pneumonia. Much can be
accomplished by the use of good food, pure air and baths.
(Bilious Remittent and Typho-Malarial.)
This type of fever occurs in temperate climates,
chiefly in the late summer and autumn. We find the more severe forms
in the Southern States and in tropical countries. There may be a
tired, weak feeling with a running off at the bowels for a few days before
the appearance of the fever. The symptoms are very irregular.
The paroxysms of fever average above twenty hours, instead of ten or twelve
as in malarial fever. It may be distinguished from typhoid fever
by the sudden rise and fall of the temperature at varying intervals.
There may or may not be a chill after the first preliminary weakness.
The urine is highly colored. There may be jaundice. The tongue
is furred and heavily coated. There is vomiting, in which there is
very much bilious matter. The patient looks very ill.
The treatment should be a general one (see general
treatment) paying considerable attention to the upper lumbar region and
the entire dorsal. Treat two or three times per day until the patient
is much better; then once a week for a while.
Typhoid fever is an infectious, variable disease,
caused by the bacillus of Eberth. This bacillus maintains its existence
for one or two weeks in water. It multiplies in water and milk, and
in these mediums it has been conveyed into the human system, causing the
disease. The bacillus may live for months in the soil and in ice,
as freezing does not kill it, but it may be destroyed by boiling for from
fifteen to thirty minutes. Persons with spines which are stiff and
in a posterior position in the lumbar region are predisposed to this disease.
This condition of spine weakens, through the nerve supply, the lymphatics
and drainage of the bowels and creates a lodging place for the proliferation
and development of these disease-producing germs.
The first stage of the fever comes on gradually.
There is oftentimes a general feeling of ill health for some time prior
to the more pronounced symptoms. There may be nosebleed, sense of
chilliness, slight fever, backache, sore throat. The fever rises
day by day, each succeeding day higher than the day before, until in four
or five days the highest is reached.
The highest will be 103 to 105 degrees. The
tongue is furred. There is no appetite. Constipation is present,
though it may alternate with diarrhea. The pulse is 90 to 110 per
minute. The patient is thirsty. There is headache and the skin
is hot and dry.
The secondary stage of the disease begins on the
fifth day and lasts about two weeks. The general symptoms are more
marked, the fever is high and continued, the pulse is faster and the headache
disappears, but there is mental dullness and there may be delirium.
The abdomen is tender, and about the eighth day rose-colored spots appear
on the trunk. The second week of this period is the most dangerous,
but varies with the severity of the case. Complications may now set
in, as lobar pneumonia, perforations and peritonitis.
If the disease is following a favorable course the
stage of decline in the fever begins on or about the twenty-first day of
the disease. The symptoms begin to disappear and the temperature
drops each day about one degree until the normal is reached.
In the treatment of this disease we must be very
careful that the utmost cleanliness prevails. The stools, urine,
vomit and sputum should be treated with a five per cent solution of carbolic
acid in order to destroy the bacilli, All clothes should be changed daily
and treated to a dip in the same solution, after which they should be boiled
for half an hour. During an epidemic it will be well for all water
and milk to be boiled, especially that used for drinking purposes.
All foodstuffs should be carefully cleaned.
Typhoid fever to a certain degree is contagious,
and it is advisable to keep the rest of the family, as far as possible,
away from the patient. The bed should have a rubber sheet beneath
the linen or cotton sheet, and the patient should be in a well-aired, sunny
room. The patient should not arise from the bed, so a bed pan and
urinal are absolutely necessary. The mouth should be washed two or
three times daily with a three per cent solution of boric acid. The
throat may be occasionally sprayed with the same. When the lips,
mouth and tongue are parched they may be moistened with equal parts of
glycerine and water. In case there is danger of bedsores the back,
hips and heels may be moistened with diluted alcohol in which there is
a mixture of alum and salt. Afterwards dust the parts with talcum
powder or boracic acid powder. The diet should be liquid. The
principal part of it should be milk. It may be diluted with water
or with lime water. A feeding of milk would be four ounces, diluted
with two ounces of lime water. This may be given every four hours.
Albumen water may be given every four hours, which makes the time of feeding
every two hours. In making the albumen water the whites of one or
two eggs may be used and about the same amount of water. It may suit
the taste of the patient better if the juice of half a lemon or orange
be added or it may be flavored with vanilla. Sometimes the milk may
be flavored with a little tea, coffee or brandy. A small cup of coffee
may be given to the patient in the morning. Buttermilk or peptonized
milk may be substituted if the milk can not be taken or the milk is not
properly digested. Allow the patient all the ice water he wants.
As much strong lemonade may be given as the patient may desire, but use
very little sugar in it. As an agreeable change a cup of bouillon
or strained vegetable soup may be given. Ice cream may be given.
When the fever subsides the greatest care must be
exercised in the diet, as a return to solid food at too early a date may
result in a serious relapse. It is unsafe to allow any solid food
for ten days after the temperature has become normal. The intestines
are in a greatly weakened condition, ulcers have not healed and perforations
may result from the ingestion of solid food. The diet should be gradually
changed, still using the milk until it is replaced by solid food.
The following may be gradually and carefully introduced: Mutton or chicken
broth, junket, a very small piece of cream or milk toast, baked custard,
strained vegetable soup, wine jelly, the soft parts of three or four oysters,
meat soup thickened with egg, blancmange, calves' foot jelly, chicken jelly.
Two or three of the above articles of food may be allowed daily with the
Treatment. Osteopathic treatment may
be administered with very gratifying results. If begun early the
fever may often be aborted. If it is begun later the disease shows
favorable symptoms immediately. The musculature of the back should
be thoroughly but gently loosened. See Nos. 61, 62, 32, 53.
The spine may be gently sprung from the lower part to between the shoulders.
See Nos. 57, 61. The tissues in the neck must be relaxed
and treatment administered in the suboccipital fossae, just beneath
the skull either side of the spine. See Nos. 5, 7, 9, 11, 13.
Work in the lower part of the back helps to regain control of the circulation
in the abdomen where the typhoid bacilli are at work. See No. 61.
There must be no manipulation of the abdomen. 'This treatment or
a portion of it may be given two or three times per day with great benefit
to the patient.
Give strict attention to diet, bathing and the above
treatment, and many of the bad after effects of the disease will be overcome.
The drug treatment has been left out of this article, as drugs sap the
vitality of the patient and do no good. The greatest living authority
among the medical doctors of today says, "A great many of my cases do not
receive a single dose."
The use of water, both externally and internally,
has been found to be very beneficial, in its effects on the nervous system,
the kidneys, the heart, and decreasing the liability to bedsores.
It also assists in the reduction of the fever.
In using the cold pack the patient is placed in a
sheet wrung out of water at a temperature of 65 degrees, The water may
afterwards be sprinkled on the sheet. This treatment may be prolonged
for twenty minutes or more at a time.
In using the cold sponge bath a piece of gauze or
old toweling is better than a sponge. One portion of the body may
be bathed and dried at a time, beginning with the head. The water
may be as near ice-cold as the patient can stand it. Twenty minutes
or more should be consumed in giving the bath, and it should be thoroughly
When the temperature is 102 or more the patient may
be placed in the full bath, with the temperature at eighty degrees.
This should gradually be reduced to seventy degrees. If the bath
is given in an ordinary bath tub canvas supports should be arranged to
comfortably support the patient in the water, every part being covered
but the head. The patient may remain in the water for fifteen minutes,
unless there are signs of his being too cold, when he should be removed.
A little stimulant and food should be given after the bath. While
the patient is in the water the limbs and trunk should be thoroughly rubbed.
When taken out wrap the patient in a sheet and cover with a blanket.
Should constipation be present an enema should be
given every third day.
(Ague, Chills and Fever.)
This is an infectious disease, in which there is
fever every second, third or fourth day. Sometimes there is a continuous
fever, with remissions. The disease is caused by a specific microorganism,
often transmitted to man by the bite of a mosquito.
The preventative treatment calls for protection from
mosquitoes. Have the house well screened. Have all marshes,
ponds, and all stagnant water drained. In the malarial season petroleum
should be used freely on all stagnant water. This kills the larvae
of the pest.
Marked bony lesions are found oftentimes in persons
suffering from the disease. Great improvement follows their correction.
A thorough spinal treatment, giving special attention to the portions between
the shoulders and the center of the back, should be given. See Nos.
1, 2, 4, 5, 34, 35, 36, 37, 43, 44, 47, 48, 50. The abdominal treatment
should be given with vigor, as it assists in equalizing the circulation.
A general treatment may be given. See general treatment.
Osler claims that quinine is a specific for the disease,
and recommends that a person going to a malarial district should take ten
grains of quinine daily. When the fever is present he recommends
twenty or thirty grains daily for the first three days, to be given in
divided doses, and then continue in smaller doses for the next two or three
weeks. He further recommends that quinine should be given every spring
and fall for several years afterwards. Others claim good results
from the administration of two or three grains of quinine three times per
day. Quinine pills and tablets are not recommended, but it should
be taken in either a capsule or in solution.
Scarlet fever is an acute, infectious disease with
a general scarlet eruption, with high fever and sore throat.
The fever begins from two to four days after exposure
to the disease, though it may be from one to seven days. The fever
may reach 104 to 105 degrees on the first day. The eruption may be
seen on the second day, though sometimes it appears on the first day.
The skin is dry and very hot, tongue furred, throat is dry and face flushed.
The rash is scattered, red points on a red flushed
background, appearing first on the neck and chest and spreading rapidly
to the entire body. At its height it is a bright scarlet. This
persists for five or six days and then the skin begins to scale off.
This period lasts from eight to twenty days.
Treatment. The patient should be carefully
isolated and when possible other children should be sent from home.
The disease can not be cut short. The bowels should be kept open
and a light diet of broths, milk and fresh fruit should be given.
Let the room be well ventilated. As the patient gets better, the
fever becoming lower, the diet may be increased, but milk should largely
predominate to avoid the danger of Bright's disease, which sometimes attacks
the patient when convalescence is well under way. When the skin begins
to scale off it should be thoroughly rubbed with sweet oil or carbolized
vaseline each day.
Should the fever reach 103 a sponge bath is indicated.
If the fever be higher the child may be placed in a warm bath and the water
gradually reduced in temperature to 80 degrees. When there is delirium
present a cold pack is very beneficial. A rubber sheet is placed
on a thick layer of blankets, a sheet is wrung out of cold water and the
child wrapped in it and wrapped in the blankets. The cold water may
be renewed from time to time. An ice cap should be applied to the
head when the fever is high. None of this is necessary unless the
fever is high. A thorough relaxation of the muscles and other tissues
of the back and neck will be very helpful. See Nos. 5, 10, 13, 14,
31, 47, 50, 53.
La grippe is a very contagious disease. It
spreads with remarkable rapidity, and the symptoms begin in from one to
four days after exposure. It begins abruptly with fever and a profound
feeling of prostration.
The majority of cases begin with a cold in the bead,
with a profuse discharge from the nostrils. After these catarrhal
symptoms bronchitis may set in and the fever increase. There is a
tendency to pneumonia, which is a very dangerous complication. In
some cases the catarrhal symptoms are absent, but there is pain in the
joints, headache, and backache in the lumbar region. In other cases
there are severe stomach and intestinal symptoms with vomiting, pain in
the abdomen and diarrhea.
In some epidemics many patients have as a complication
heart trouble (pericarditis and
endocarditis). If there is a weakness in any part of the body
it is apt to be augmented by la grippe.
Treatment. A warm bath should be given
and the patient placed in a warm bed and confined there until the fever
has entirely left. An enema, in which there is a tablespoon of salt
to a quart of water, should be given and the patient instructed to retain
it as long as possible. If this cannot be done either Epsom or Rochelle
salts should be given. Some medical authors' advise a grain of calomel
to be taken, one-fourth of a grain each hour until the grain has been taken.
Then the salts should be taken after this, say about six hours.
The neck and back on palpation will be found to be
very tender, and a thorough osteopathic treatment will be the best possible
treatment. It prevents all of the many complications, such as heart
trouble and pneumonia, and quickly reduces the fever. In cases the
author has handled the patients were usually at their accustomed vocations
in two to three days, while the ordinary run of cases were being kept in
from ten days to two weeks under the ordinary treatment. The neck
tissues are to be thoroughly loosened. See Nos. 1, 4, 5, 9, 10, 11,
13. The tissues of the back must be relaxed. See Nos. 34, 36,
37, 38, 40, 43, 47, 50. Give strong stimulative treatment for the
fever at the base of the skull in suboccipital fossae. See No. 7.
Stimulate in the upper dorsal region as in Nos. 50, 53, 56. Raise
the ribs. See Nos. 81, 82, 84, 86. Work over the abdomen as
in Nos. 94, 95, 100. The treatment should be given two or three times
per day at first, and as the fever subsides and the patient is better,
once per day will be sufficient. When the fever is high an ice bag
should be applied to the head. The food should be liquid and nourishing.
Chicken pox is an acute, contagious disease.
It is characterized by a papular eruption, commencing with a slight fever
and a feeling of illness. The temperature may reach 103. The
papules soon become vesicles and may be umbilicated as in small pox, holding
a cloudy or clear fluid. These dry and form a crust, which drops
off, leaving no scar. In severe cases when the true skin is involved
scars may remain.
The eruption in chicken pox first occurs on the trunk
and neck, not on the forehead and face. The vesicles break easily
and form successive crops, so that papule, vesicle and crust may be seen
in the same locality at the same time. The papules do not feel like
small shot and do not disappear on pressure. After exposure the attack
may be expected in from fourteen to sixteen days.
Treatment. The bowels should be kept
open. A warm bath should be given when the eruptions first appear.
Avoid taking cold. Should the itching prove troublesome apply carbolized
Keep the skin clean and do not allow infants to scratch.
If the eruption is troublesome use a wash of a two per cent solution of
chlorate of potassium. Apply cold cream to the vulva if necessary.
Small pox is an acute, contagious and infectious
disease. In from nine to fifteen days, generally twelve days, after
exposure, the patient may be seized with a chill, which may be repeated
during twenty-four hours. Children sometimes have convulsions as
an initial symptom. Headache, pain in the lower part of the back,
and vomiting are common, while the fever rises to 103 or 104. If
the fever runs high there may be delirium and a flushed face, with clear
bright eyes. In other cases there may be sweats. The symptoms
are not always constant, but vary in the extreme.
Accompanying the fever there may be a red rash resembling
that of scarlet fever. In other cases it may assume a macular or
measly form. In some cases it may be altogether absent.
Usually on the fourth day macules begin to appear
on the forehead, and within twenty-four hours may be seen on the face and
other parts of the body. There may be quite a few on the upper part
of the back, the hands and feet. They are a bright red color and
disappear on pressure. They feel as if a small shot was hidden beneath
the skin. On the fifth or sixth day these papules change to vesicles.
The summits are clear, elevated and circular, with a small depression in
the center, termed an umbilication. These change on the eighth or
ninth day to pustules. They become more elevated and the depression
disappears, and the appearance is a grayish-yellow from the contained pus.
The skin about the pustules becomes red and swollen.
There is a painful pulling sensation in the face, and the eyelids in a
severe case are closed.
The secondary fever arises and the first symptoms
return but the fever does not remain high longer than twenty-four hours.
In many cases it is entirely absent. The pustules dry rapidly in
the order of their coming and form scabs.
The small pox patient has a very peculiar odor, which
is a help in diagnosing doubtful cases.
Confluent Small Pox. The symptoms are
the same as above but of much greater severity. The macules are set
closer together. They are more abundant on the face, hands and legs.
The temperature does not entirely leave after the breaking out and when
the change is made to pustules the temperature rises to 103 to 104 with
the pulse from 110 to 120. The pustules have a tendency to run together
and to form large superficial abscesses.
Haemorrhagic Small Pox. In this form
the blood runs into the eruptions and is a very dangerous type of the disease.
Its severity depends largely on the early appearance of this symptom.
If it appears later in the disease there is much less danger.
Varioloid is not a different disease, but is a very
modified form of small pox. Even in mild cases the early symptoms
may be severe. The fever may rise to 103. The papules appear
on the third or fourth day and the fever drops and does not again appear.
The patient feels well and the papules and vesicles begin to disappear
with the drop in the fever.
Treatment. Drugs should not be given
to reduce the fever, as they greatly weaken and depress the patient.
When tee temperature is high, a cold sponge bath may be given and an ice
bag applied to the head. The diet should be light, mostly fluid,
consisting mostly of milk and soups. When there is no fever, poached
or soft-boiled eggs and toast may be added to the diet, with either tea
A gauze mask may be worn on the face, kept moist
with cold water containing mercuric bichloride enough to make a 1 to 5,000
solution. When the crusts form they should be kept moist with vaseline.
The eyes should be kept clean with a salt or boric acid solution.
More than enough boric acid crystals than will dissolve may be kept in
the water for this purpose. The mucous lining of the nose should
be kept moist with vaseline.
If the patient is constipated a salt water enema
should be given every other day. At the onset of the disease, if
no other treatment is available, a thorough purge with calomel may be taken.
A half grain in one-tenth grain doses at intervals of an hour should be
sufficient, in ordinary cases. Bed clothes should be soaked in a
1 to 4,000 solution of mercuric chloride, before going through the laundry.
All surplus furniture, such as rugs, curtains, etc.,
should be removed from the room.
(Malignant Purpuric Fever. Cerebro Spinal Meningitis, Petichial
Fever, Spotted Fever.)
This is an infectious disease, caused by a specific
microorganism, the diplococcus introcellularis. The coverings
of the brain and spinal cord (cerebrospinal meninges) are affected.
The course of the disease is very irregular. There is severe headache,
pain in the back and upper part of the spine, contraction of the muscles
in the back of the neck, and delirium.
There is a malignant type of this disease which proves
rapidly fatal. It comes on suddenly with violent headache, chills,
muscular spasms, light fever, but slow pulse, being 50 to 60 per minute.
A purple rash may develop slightly raised places on the skin which fills
with dark blood.
The common form sets in suddenly, usually between
noon and midnight, with a chill. There may be convulsions with headache.
There is pain in the back of the neck and sensitiveness to light and noise.
'There is great rigidity of spinal muscles and loss of control of bladder
and rectum. There are convulsions, delirium and set eyes. The
skin has various symptoms. Sometimes a dusty mottling may be present,
again rose-colored spots, as in typhoid fever. A purple rash, as
spoken of above, may appear. The disease may last from a few hours
to several months. Favorable symptoms of the disease are apparent
when the temperature falls. Muscles become less rigid and intelligence
There is an abortive type which sets in as above,
but the case begins to improve in a day or two and the patient is soon
Treatment. Use an ice bag or an ice
coil on the head. Use warm mustard baths for the feet and cold sponge
baths for the rest of the body. An enema of salt water should be
given daily, using a tablespoonful of salt to a quart of water. If
vomiting distresses, one drop of tincture of iodine, in sweetened peppermint
water, may be given every two hours. Let the food be liquid or semi-fluid
and nourishing. Have the sick room quiet and let it be darkened.
The patient may be greatly benefited and the course
of the disease shortened, with the prevention of the usual bad after effects,
by thoroughly, gently and persistently loosening the musculature of the
back, and especially of the back of the neck. See Nos. 5, 9, 11,
7B, 10, 13, 14, 47, 48, 50, 53, 57, 61. The abdomen may be thoroughly treated.
It will draw the blood away from the congested spine and spinal coverings.
See Nos. 94, 95, 98.
The author of this book fears a cold more than many
of the diseases that are regarded as being serious. Never be afraid
of breathing cold air or night air. Pure cold air will never cause
a cold. Nansen, the arctic explorer, said that there were no colds
among his officers or crew while they were in the Far North in the regions
of ice, but when they returned to civilization they nearly all contracted
Those leading an out-of-door life, though exposed
to the elements, seldom contract colds, but the persons who spend much
time in illy-ventilated rooms, which are overcrowded and overheated, frequently
have colds; or when these conditions exist, without the overcrowding, in
the houses of the rich, we find the inmates are very susceptible to colds.
When we are exposed to draughts while we are sitting
still the tissues of the upper part of the back and the neck become contracted.
This interferes with the circulation and any latent germs readily find
a lodging place. When a person is overworked, either mentally or
physically, or is suffering from some chronic illness he is more predisposed
to a cold.
The symptoms of a common cold are varied. There
may be pain on swallowing, loss of voice or severe hoarseness, cough and
expectoration, a slight fever with headache and a general aching over the
body, sneezing and running of the nose.
In treating a cold it is best to give a general treatment
rather briskly. Take a hot foot bath, an injection of warm salt water,
a tablespoon of salt to a quart of water, a hot lemonade and go to bed.
It will be best to remain in bed as long as the fever lasts. The
treatment equalizes the circulation. If you are liable to colds it
will be better to sleep in a cold, well-ventilated room. See that
the bowels have a free movement once each day. Take a daily cold
sponge bath each day. Discard furs and neck mufflers and. wear thin
underwear, keeping warm by the use of heavy outer garments. My objection
to the furs is that we are liable to leave them off on some occasion and
thus contract a severe cold. It would be well for those liable to
colds to take a course of Osteopathic treatments, build up their constitution,
and thus avoid colds.
(Lung Fever, Pneumonia, Croupous Fibrinous Pneumonia.)
This is an acute, infectious disease which produces
an inflammation of the lungs. It usually begins with a chill and
the fever rises rapidly to 104 or 105.
Some of the factors that predispose to the disease
are weakness of the lung tissue, caused by lesions to spine and ribs, affecting
the circulation which nourishes the substance of the lungs, old age, injuries,
operations, overwork, exposure, alcoholism, influenza, diabetes, tuberculosis
and colds. The immediate cause is the diploccocus lanceolatus, a
specific microorganism which is found in a very large percentage of the
Symptoms. On inspection we note that
the patient has a very bright eye, dilated nostrils, pale face or mahogany
flush on the cheek. 'The skin is harsh and dry. The respiration
runs from 30 to 60 in an adult and from 60 to 90 in a child per minute.
The inspiration and expiration are both brief, yet often separated by a
long pause. There is deficient expansion on the affected side, and
a pain stabbing in character beneath the nipple or axilla. The cough
is short, dry and painful. It sets in early and is usually attended
with a rusty or blood-stained sputum. It may be white, glairy and
scanty at first.
In elderly persons this disease is peculiarly dangerous.
The prostration is marked, but the fever is irregular and is not high,
the cough, pain and expectoration are very slight and may be altogether
absent. The disease may seem light, but with persons sixty years
of age the mortality rate is 60 to 80 per cent, under the regular medical
treatment, while at all ages Osler says that it is the most fatal of all
Treatment. The osteopathic treatment,
as outlined below, is very successful in the subjection of this disease.
If the patient is taken in hand early we may expect to abort the case.
At any stage it gives great relief. The patient may be turned on
the sound side and a very thorough relaxing treatment be given to all the
muscles of the back, particularly on the affected side. See Nos.
53, 57, 59, 61. The spine should be worked upon and sprung from one
end to the other. See No. 57. When this is accomplished turn
the patient on the back and treat the neck, both front and back, for the
purpose of relaxing all the tissues, both deep and superficial. See
Nos. 4, 5, 9, 18. Raise the clavicles. See No. 70. Depress
the first ribs, as in No. 76. Treat in the suboccipital fossae for
the purpose of reducing the fever. See No. 7B. Raise the ribs
on both sides. See Nos. 86, 87. Give a thorough abdominal treatment.
See Nos. 94, 96, 100, 101, 102. This helps to draw the blood away
from the lungs. This treatment may be given in full once per day, but the
ribs may be raised, treatment for the fever and some relaxing work over
the chest and abdomen may be given three or four times per day. Very
quick improvement is expected under this treatment. The treatment
should be moderate in strength when the patient is weak.
Dr. Osler says that there is no specific treatment
for the disease, and cautions that patients are more often damaged than
helped by the promiscuous drugging that is only too prevalent.
Some medical writers recommend when the symptoms
of pneumonia are present to give a laxative and tonic composed of
Calomel.................... 5 grains.
Quinine................... 10 grains.
to be given in one dose, and to give a warm mustard foot bath.
Should the heart be weak, good whiskey may be given at intervals during
the day. It is both a food and a stimulant and if necessary from
one fourth to a pint may be given in one day. It must be given to
those who have been drinking it prior to the attack of the disease.
Cold packs are splendid in their efficacy.
When the temperature is above 102 they should be applied every half hour.
When below that point every hour, and discontinued when the temperature
is at 99 1/2.
The compress should consist of three layers, when
applied, of old linen, cut in such a way that it will fit the entire chest,
both front and back, from the neck and over the shoulders and down to the
umbilicus. A piece of flannel should be so cut as to cover the linen.
'The linen is wet in water at 60 degrees and applied and covered by the
flannel and pinned with safety pins. There should be two compresses,
using one after the other.
Diet. The diet should consist largely of milk,
soft-boiled eggs, meat juices and egg albumen. Give plenty of cold
water, lemonade and soda water.
(Lobular Pneumonia, Capillary Bronchitis, Catarrhal Pneumonia.)
Broncho pneumonia is an acute disease, in which there
is an inflammation of the terminal bronchus and the air vessels connected
with it. The condition is due to an infection, which is allowed by
a weakened condition, which may be brought on by a number of causes.
There are two forms recognized. The primary
form sets in with a chill and a cough. A child may have convulsions.
There may have been no previous sickness, but there may have been a cold.
Fever rises rapidly and ranges from 102 to 104. The skin is dry,
hot and harsh. The cough is hard and painful. Breathing is
difficult. Respiration may be 60 to 80 per minute. The face
may become dusky and the finger tips and lips blue. The expectoration
is white, glairy, tenacious and is often tinged with blood.
The secondary form follows some other illness and
is the more common of the two. It is most frequently met with in
children. The symptoms are usually veiled by the previous sickness.
The initial chill is rare. The fever develops or increases suddenly.
Respiration quickly jumps to 60 to 80 per minute. The pulse is high.
Fever is 102 to 104. It may last from one to eight weeks.
Treatment. We may expect great relief
and a speedy recovery of the case by giving the osteopathic treatment as
outlined in lobar pneumonia. This is the best possible treatment.
In the case of children good hygiene and careful nursing are of the utmost
importance. Let there be plenty of fresh air. If possible let
the child be in one room while the other is being thoroughly aired.
Change the position frequently. Do not allow the patient to lie on
the back for too long at a time, as this predisposes to congestion of the
lungs. A warm bath and an enema should be given at the first symptoms.
When the nose and throat are dry pour into the nostrils
10 to 15 drops of salt water, three or four times per day from a teaspoon.
When the digestion is poor and the tongue is coated the following has been
Dilute hydrochloric acid .... one dram.
Essence of pepsin ........ two ounces
Give a teaspoonful four times per day.
If the osteopathic treatment is properly given no
drugs are ever necessary in any case.
In the treatment of this disease in an adult the feet should have a
hot mustard bath. The following is recommended to be given in one
dose in case the medical treatment is followed:
Calomel.................... 5 grains
Quinine................... 10 grains.
The patient may have whiskey, as indicated in lobar
pneumonia. In case there is trouble in raising the phlegm, raise
the foot of the bed six or seven inches.
Diphtheria is an acute, infectious and contagious
disease caused by the Klebs-Loeffler bacillus, without which it is a simple
membranous inflammation. The disease is characterized by a fibrinous
exudate or grayish-white membrane in the throat, extending over the tonsils
and soft palate. There is irregular fever and great prostration.
In many cases the fever may not be above 102 or 103,
while the pulse is from 100 to 120. As the disease advances the urine
becomes highly colored and scanty. The mind may sometimes remain
clear, but as the poison generated by the disease becomes more abundant
the patient become dull and listless.
Osteopathic treatment is very successfully given
in this disease. The tissues of the neck, both front and back, should
be kept thoroughly loosened. See Nos. 4, 5, 6, 7B, 8B, 10, 11, 13.
The clavicles should be raised. See Nos. 72, 73.
The first ribs should be depressed. See No.
76. Relax the tissues back of and beneath the
clavicles. This work should stop the growth of the membrane and
loosen that already formed. The thumb should relax the tissues in
front of the transverse processes of the vertebrae in the neck and the
cervical sympathetic ganglia should be stimulated. See No. 7C.
The back should be treated twice daily, paying particular attention to
the middle portions. See Nos. 34, 36, 35, 43, 53. Keep the
patient in a cool, sunny and well-ventilated room.
For cleaning the nostrils and pharynx a salt solution
may be used, a teaspoonful to a pint of water. A little of this may
be poured into the nostrils from a spoon every two hours. Should
the nostrils be stopped it may be necessary to use a syringe. For
this same purpose a mercuric bicloride solution may be used, in water 1
When the digestion needs aid the following prescription
is sometimes given:
Essence of pepsin.......... 2 ounces
Dilute hydrochloric acid... 1/2 drachm.
Give a teaspoonful three times per day.
When a stimulant is needed one-fiftieth of a grain
of strychnine three times per day, or give whiskey or Tokay wine.
In case there is incessant vomiting, give one to
two drops of tincture of iodine in sweetened peppermint water every two
hours until the stomach is quiet.
The diet is important. It should be nutritious
and easy of digestion, custard, eggnog, cornstarch. If the bowels
are too active give burnt flour soup. In addition there may be given
pineapple juice, milk, cocoa, eggs, cream and farina.
This term is from a Greek word, meaning to boil over.
There are a number of varieties of the disease. Several types may
be present at once or they may appear one after the other. There
is intense itching, burning, redness and swelling of the parts affected.
The skin is harsh, dry and thickened. The parts may become scaly.
On scratching, as the result of irritation, there is inflammation and crusting
of the surface. There is a papular type in which there is a number
of closely set, bright red papules, particularly about the joints, and
the itching is intense. The vesicular type begins with pinpoint vesicles,
very closely set together. Solid sheets of eruption form, the vesicles
break and there is a raw weeping, sometimes spoken of as weeping eczema.
Among the causes ascribed are rheumatism and gout,
digestive disturbances, general debility and a poor nerve supply; immoderate
use of food and drink, alcoholic beverages, tea and coffee drinking; exposure
to heat and cold, and overwork of a mental character.
In treating, the Osteopath has splendid success with
this disease. The treatment is thoroughly given, paying considerable
attention to that region of the spine from the atlas to the first lumbar
vertebra. With the heel of the hand the entire fascia of the spine
is relaxed from sacrum to occiput. See Figs. 48, 50 and 51.
Give a general treatment.
See general treatment. This should be given twice per week and
should take from twenty to thirty minutes to a treatment.
The diet should be plain and nutritious. Avoid
all meat, gravies and pastries, cheese, condiments and sauces. It
will be better to avoid tea and coffee, and all alcohol must be left alone.
Out of doors in good weather is best. The prognosis is very favorable.
The onset of catarrhal croup is sudden. It
comes on mostly at night. Generally it is preceded by a slight cough
and running at the nose the preceding day. The cough is very characteristic,
harsh, dry, metallic, loud and hoarse. The fright of the child in
having difficulty in breathing adds to the severity of the symptoms.
The lips and nails become bluish in color. The symptoms during the
following day have almost disappeared or are much milder.
Treatment. The osteopathic treatment
is the same as for diphtheria, which see.
An emetic, promptly administered, will generally
relieve the symptoms. The following is frequently used:
Triturate of antimony, 1-100 of a grain.
Ipecac................ 1-100 of a grain.
Give one every fifteen minutes until the patient vomits. Give
one every four hours during the day.
Coal oil, fifteen to twenty drops on sugar, given
every fifteen or thirty minutes, sometimes proves to be of great value.
This may be also used as an external application on the chest and throat.
Give the child plenty of fresh air and bathe the
child's chest with cold water.
(St. Anthony's Fire.)
Erysipelas is an acute, contagious disease characterized
by inflammation of the skin, which is red, tense and shining. Spots
form, which are reddish in color, which coalesce and small blisters appear.
There is a rapidly-rising temperature, often preceded
by a rigor. The constitutional symptoms are often marked. There
may be delirium, dry tongue and feeble pulse. The disease is often
confined to the face, but may wander (erysipelas migrans) to the neck,
chest and other parts of the body.
No medical treatment has any effect on the disease.
A two per cent solution of carbolic acid in cold water may be used, but
cold water is as good as any local application. The disease is caused
by a poor circulation in the part affected, and a lowered vitality which
allows the direct exciting cause of the disease (the streptococcus erysipelatosus)
to gain a foothold.
The quickest way to rid the patient of the disease,
if in the face, is to relax all the tissues of the neck. See Nos.
1, 3, 5, 8B, 9, 10, 11. Spring the lower jaws against resistance.
See No. 8. Give a thorough spinal and abdominal treatment, to quicken the
action of the bowels and kidneys and to aid in carrying off the poisons.
See Nos. 31, 32, 34, 35, 43, 48, 50, 94, 97, 100. Give a salt water
enema. Furnish the patient with a good, nutritious diet. As
in most acute cases, the patient should receive the osteopathic treatment
This is an inflammation of the tonsils which may
result in a cure, suppuration (quinsy), or in chronic enlargement.
This disease is contagious and is often a forerunner
of rheumatism. It affords a medium of entrance for various microorganisms.
It is preceded by a pain in the back and limbs, with a rapidly rising fever.
The tongue is coated and furred. Swallowing is difficult. The
urine is dark. The tonsils, which may be felt below the angle of
the jaw, are swollen and tender. On inspection they may seem to nearly
close the throat. They are red, with a glazed surface at first, but
later are covered with a thin layer of pus. This in some cases may
assume a grayish hue. If it spreads over the throat and upwards on
the roof the mouth diphtheria may be suspected. See diphtheria.
Treatment. The best possible treatment
is osteopathic. All the tissues of the neck are relaxed, both front
and back. See Nos. 1, 3, 5, 8B, 9, 10, 11, 13. The clavicles
are raised and corrected. See Nos. 72, 73.
The first rib is lowered. See Nos. 75, 76.
Many cases will be helped by a general treatment, which see. All
the above will insure a good circulation to the affected parts. All
neck lesions are to be removed, as in this portion of the spine arises
the nerve supply to the tonsils. In ordinary practice in (treating
tonsillitis one attack predisposes to another, but the author has treated
a number of patients osteopathically for the trouble and the disease did
not return. Of course the lesions affecting the circulation were
removed. Keep the bowels open. Salt water enema will be beneficial.
Drop salt water into the nostrils every two or three hours. Cold
compresses will prove helpful, placed on the throat. See cold compresses.
The inflammation is more deeply seated than in acute
tonsillitis. The patient is greatly prostrated. A high temperature
of from 104 to 105 degrees is common. The tendency is for the glands
to suppurate. The treatment will be the same as for acute tonsillitis.
The only difference is that hot fomentations will be better than the cold
pack in the latter stages. The glands should be opened early.
If taken early with osteopathic treatment the case may be aborted.
Enlarged tonsils are found in many children following
tonsillitis, diphtheria or some of the eruptive fevers. This condition,
in many cases, causes mouth breathing. The sense of taste, hearing
and smell is often impaired. In cases that are very marked the mental
faculties are impaired. Such patients take cold easily and are susceptible
to diphtheria. The osteopathic treatment is the same as outlined
in acute tonsillitis, with the exception of cold packs. It should
be given three times per week. When the case is better, then twice
per week for a while. In the chronic condition the tonsils may be
manipulated with benefit. See No. 8B.
In addition to the above treatment it will be well
to use pressure with the flat of the hand on the front and sides of the
neck for the purpose of opening up and freeing all vessels to and from
the tonsils. If these channels had been free there would have been
no chronic trouble with the tonsils. Most Osteopaths give a general
treatment, giving attention to the excretories.
The prognosis under Osteopathic treatment is very
favorable. The Osteopath keeps the drainage of the venous blood in
good condition and thus speedily cures the case. Of course quicker
results are secured in acute cases than in chronic ones.
Some persons are subject to attacks of tonsillitis
every year, developing into quinsy. In such cases when I commenced
treating them soon after the yearly attack began I found that the quinsy
wag aborted and the tonsillitis soon cured. But what was still better
the yearly attacks ceased entirely,
This is an acute, infectious, very contagious disease.
Before the eruption there will be a cough, cold in the head with running
at the nose and fever. This will be followed by a brownish-red eruption
at the end of the fourth day of the sickness. It appears first on
the neck, then on the face, forehead and trunk. One or more papules
may be seen on the hard palate twenty-four hours before it appears on the
Small red spots with a minute bluish-white center
may be seen on the inside of the lips and checks, from one to three days
before the eruption is seen on the body. This is known as Koplik's
If the rash is slow in appearing a general spinal
treatment should be given, paying particular attention to the upper part
of the neck. See Nos. 1, 5, 9, 10, 36, 43, 48, 50, 53. The
author has caused the rash to appear very quickly with one treatment, as
indicated above. This causes the headache and fever to disappear.
Treat the head, Nos. 14, 16; neck, Nos. 4, 6, 7B; throat, No. 8B; first
rib and clavicle, Nos. 76, 75, 72, 73. Raise the ribs to guard against
pneumonia, Nos. 81, 86, 87. Other than this nothing can be done to
lessen the severity or shorten a case of measles. It is best to have
the room darkened on account of the dyes. If the eves are sore, keep
clean with a saturated solution of boric acid. Cover with cloths
wet with ice water. The food should be liquid and light. When
the itching is troublesome anoint with plain or carbolized vaseline.
When the rash has abaied a warm bath should be given daily. Be careful
of the eyes for several weeks after convalescence.
This is a very mild, contagious disease. It
spreads with great rapidity. There is a very mild fever and there
is a headache, pain in the back and limbs and sore throat, with swelling
of the cervical glands.
The symptoms are very mild, and it is much less serious
as a disease than measles. There is a macular rose-red eruption on
the throat, which extends to the face and chest and then to all parts of
the body. Sometimes the eruption is confined to the upper part of
the body only; again it may even invade the soles of the feet, and the
palms of the hand. The rash reaches its height on one part of the
body while it fades on another. Its duration is from two to five
days or longer. When the rash leaves, the skin is pigmented with
a brownish color, which disappears in a few days. It is well for
the patient to remain in bed. The diet should be light. Drink
plenty of water for the sake of the kidneys.
Keep the bowels open. The tissues about the
neck and throat should be relaxed. See Nos. 1, 5, 6, 8B, 10, 7B.
The entire musculature of the back should be relaxed and a spinal treatment
given. This helps in keeping the skin more active, which aids in
bringing the disease to a speedy termination. For the spinal treatment
see Nos. 34, 36, 43, 48 49, 52, 59, 61.
This is a very highly contagious disease, caused
by a specific microorganism. It is characterized by a catarrhal inflammation
of the respiratory passages, with a peculiar series of spasmodic coughs,
which end in a long-drawn inspiration, or "whoop." In infancy it is a very
severe disease, but in childhood it is mild. The nervous symptoms
may become so severe as to become apparent in convulsions. Broncho
pneumonia is one of the frequent complications.
There is no remedy in the drug line for this disease.
Holt says that much harm is done by
indiscriminate drugging. Keep the child out of doors as much
as possible, and keep the rooms in which the child lives as well aired
and as fresh as possible. Unless this is done the disease may be
unduly prolonged by reinfection. The bowels should be kept open)en
and keep to a liquid diet as far as possible.
Should the case be severe the tissues in the neck,
both front and back, should be carefully loosened. The first rib
should be depressed and the clavicle, or collar bone, raised. See
Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8B, 9, 72, 73, 75, 76. The other upper ribs should
be raised. See Nos. 86, 82.
This stimulates the lungs and eases respiration,
and prevents pneumonia by keeping up a good circulation. Thorough
and careful manipulation of the tissues of the back will benefit the case,
See Nos. 34, 43, 44, 47, 48, 50. Keep the hyoid bone free. See No.
Tuberculosis is the greatest scourge and most widespread
malady of the human race. It has aptly been termed a social disease,
for it prevails more largely in the great cities and in those spots where
humanity has been crowded together.
According to the United States census report of 1900
more than ten per cent of deaths were attributed to the White Plague.
More than 150,000 in our country die annually of this dread disease.
So prevalent is the disease, that no less an authority than Dr. William
Osler says that few persons reach maturity without infection and that none
reach old age without a focus or infected area somewhere.
When we consider that every tubercular patient, when
the disease is active, throws off countless millions of the germs of tuberculosis
daily, that these germs have extraordinary vitality, and can withstand
freezing, that they may survive months in water, and have great power to
resist active chemical agents, even nitric acid, and still retain power
to infect for mouths, when we further consider the carelessness, both of
the public and the victims, it is a wonder that we are not all infected
early in life and the earth swept clean of mankind. As it is one-seventh
of all deaths, the world over, are the result of these germs.
The parts of the body most frequently attacked are the lymphatic glands,
the lungs, the intestinal tract, bones, skin, brain, joints, uterus, Fallopian
tubes, spleen and testicles.
(Chronic Pulmonary Tuberculosis.)
The disease may be latent in the system for some
time in the form of rniliary tubercles, which are small, gray, hard nodules
ranging in size from a mustard seed to a bean. These break down and
scatter the bacilli through the system, which sets up new points of infection.
An injury, a severe cold or some acute disease may cause them to break
up and disseminate. Some of them may lodge in weakened lung tissue.
The infection may come from without and the onset, whether it be abrupt
or gradual, will depend on the number and activity of the bacilli at work
and the weakness of the tissues which they attack.
When the onset is sudden the symptoms may resemble
those of lobar pneumonia, only the fever is more irregular, the expectoration
is more abundant and blood-stained and the bacilli are present. Chills
and fever may be the first symptom noted, and in malarial regions mistakes
in diagnosis are frequently made. The first warning may come with
hemoptysis (a bleeding from the lungs), which is bright red in color and
is to be distinguished from blood from the stomach, which will be dark
in color. In many cases much blood will be lost and frequent hemorrhages
follow, but after the first there may be an absence of this symptom for
years. Every case exhibiting this symptom should be regarded as having
tuberculosis, and treatment should be commenced and every precaution taken
to ward off the disease.
The disease may come on gradually with symptoms of
bronchitis, p ,pleurisy, stomach and intestinal disorders. About
one-third of all cases of pleurisy terminate in tuberculosis. The
stomach and intestinal disturbances cause loss of weight and general debility,
which lowers the resisting powers of the body.
Cough. In a very few cases this symptom
may be absent. In the beginning of this disease it is dry and hacking
and is most pronounced on retiring and rising from bed in the morning.
The cough in some cases becomes very distressing and weakening, and may
be so pronounced as to cause vomiting.
Pain. This symptom varies considerably.
Pain in the chest may be absent, or it may be an early and nagging symptom.
It may be sharp and stabbing and more or less constant, or only present
Sputum. This varies in character as
the disease progresses. At first it is white, glairy and scanty.
Later it may be tinged with blood. As the case advances there are
larger quantities and it becomes more purulent, with greenish gray masses
and sinks in water.
Expansion. There should be a difference of
not less than three inches in the measurement of the chest in inspiration
and expiration. Less than this points to tubercular tendencies.
Fever is often an early indication of the progress
of the disease. The high temperature occurs about five o'clock in
the afternoon, the low about five in the morning. It should be taken
on rising and every two hours afterwards until retiring. This should
be done for several successive days. A part of the time it may fall
below normal. If it rises to 99.6 F. at night for several successive
evenings the diagnosis of tuberculosis. is strongly confirmed.
Emaciation. On account of the fever,
loss of appetite and cough, the loss of flesh, both fat and muscle, is
oftentimes rapid and may be marked early in the disease. This symptom
with the cough, expectoration, fever and the flattening of the chest on
the affected side, loss of expansion and dullness on percussion just above,
over or below, the clavicle are the principal points of diagnosis.
To be certain of the diagnosis in the early stages the bacilli must be
found by microscopic examination. This can only be done in a well
Treatment. Preventative measures are
of the greatest importance. Children of families in which there is
a taint of the disease should be taken in hand early and every effort made
to build them up in order to resist the inroads of the bacilli. If
there are any anatomical deviations from the normal they should receive
osteopathic treatment. This will insure the proper nourishment to
the part, or parts, liable to be infected.
Particular attention should be paid to catarrhal
troubles. Let the child be out of doors as much as possible.
The underclothing should be woolen. Have the diet plain and substantial,
with plenty of milk and fat.
Those suffering from the disease should not be allowed
to spit anywhere but in some receptacle, which can be thoroughly cleaned
and the contents burned. Paper receivers have been recommended.
The utmost cleanliness, in this respect, is necessary for the welfare of
He should never swallow any of the sputa, as he is
liable to start new foci of infection. The open-air treatment is
of great value. This has been emphasized in the case of rabbits which
have been inoculated. Those confined in cellars died, while those
allowed to run out recovered. Fresh air and sunshine are invaluable.
The patient should remain out most of the day. If he has fever he
must be quiet, but still he may be out of doors. Cold should not
be allowed to drive him in, and arrangements should be made for sleeping
out of doors. If he must stay inside let him sleep alone in a large,
Osteopathic Treatment. Its value can
hardly be overestimated. The nerve supply to the lungs, of course,
governs the blood supply to the lung tissue. When the spine is rigid
in the upper dorsal region, or when the vertebrae are misplaced, or when
the ribs are out of proper relationship with the spine, or too close together,
or twisted, or drooping, they press upon and interfere with nerves closely
related with the vasomotor nerves of the lungs and pleura. When derangements
occur, as spoken of above, other organs, as heart, stomach, liver, bowels,
kidneys, etc., may be affected, and this in turn weakens the general system
and has an indirect effect on the lungs. We cannot be too careful
of the general health. To build up the resisting power of the patient
is of the greatest importance.
The spine should be carefully examined, paying particular
attention to the dorsal region. Examine the ribs and clavicles.
The work should be directed to the removal of all lesions found.
In the general treatment of this disease a thorough
spinal treatment should be given for the purpose of toning up the entire
system. See treatments Nos. 32, 34, 35, 36, 38, 43, 51, 53, 57, 47.
The ribs should be raised, giving special attention to the first and second
ribs. See Nos. 78, 80, 81. Raise the clavicles. See Nos.
72, 73. All tissues of the neck should be thoroughly relaxed.
See Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8B, 9, 10, 11, 13. The abdomen should
be treated as in Nos. 94, 95, 96, 98, 100. The treatment should be
given gently and carefully at first, and its severity increased as the
patient grows stronger and is able to stand it. About three times
per week is sufficient in most cases, for the treatment
Drugs. Medical texts are almost in accord
as to the uselessness of drug therapy. The cough is nature's effort
to expel a foreign substance, but when it becomes irritating at night and
exhausts the patient by preventing sleep a fourth of a grain of morphine
is frequently advised or one-tenth of a grain of heroin. Before resorting
to drugs for this purpose use osteopathic measures as advised in Nos. 5,
6, 7, 8B, for treating the throat and hyoid bone.
Deep Breathing. It will be well for
the patient to secure all the oxygen possible. At the same time the
muscles of the chest may be built up and its capacity greatly enlarged.
Proper breathing will help. To do so properly your clothing must
he loose. Relax your muscles. Stand easily with the hands on
the abdomen. Now take a full, deep breath slowly, allowing the abdomen
to swell out. Then exhale slowly, forcing the abdomen in. The
abdominal type of breathing brings into full play the diaphragm, which
increases the capacity of the chest and aids in expelling the air.
When you can breathe correctly in this manner, and it will take practice,
you may inhale a long, deep breath, bringing the arms slowly from the sides
until they meet over the head, at the same time rising on the
tiptoes. Exhale slowly, bringing the arms back to the sides again.
Do this several times per day, ten or fifteen minutes at a time, preferably
in the open air. When you walk see that your breathing is correct.
Diet. The diet should be nourishing
and ample. The battle against the disease depends largely on the
ability of the patient to digest his food. It should consist largely
of the following: Oyster, clam, barley, bouillon and chicken soups.
Also heavy soups made of peas, beans, tomatoes, celery, flavored with meat
extracts. Rare roast beef, beefsteak, lamb or mutton, chicken, turkey,
eggs, ham, tongue, oysters, herring, cereals of all kinds, butter, olive
oil on lettuce or raw tomatoes, cream on everything with which it is palatable,
fat bacon, potatoes, green peas, string beans, spinach, cauliflower, asparagus,
onions, green salads, milk, buttermilk, honey, coffee, chocolate, cocoa,
puddings, ice cream, etc.
Keep the bowels open, eat five times per day, not
too much at a time. Five drops of dilute
hydrochloric acid taken in a wineglass of water, twice per day, will
This is a specific, contagious disease characterized
by pain, swelling and inflammation of the parotid glands. This gland
is located on the side of the face, immediately below and in front of the
external ear, the lobe of which is lifted up when the swelling occurs.
The pain is increased by chewing, swallowing and taking acid substances
into the mouth. The pain often precedes the swelling. Both
sides may be involved at the same time. It may occur in only one,
or one may be several days later than the other. The symptoms generally
last for from three to five days, as the disease is self-limited.
If the pain is severe, apply warm applications.
The hot water bottle or bag is the best. The diet should be liquid.
The gland may be supported by cotton held in position by a bandage.
Keep the bowels open and the room well aired.
Osteopathic treatment is excellent in this disease.
It adds to the comfort of the patient and shortens the malady. The
spine should be thoroughly treated, paying especial attention to the neck.
See Nos. 1, 5, 9, 34, 36, 43. Very careful, relaxing work may be
performed over the glands. Have the patient open and close the mouth
against resistance. See No. 8.
This is an affection of the upper air passages, not
unlike a bad cold in the head, with varying symptoms, often with asthmatic
attacks. It occurs mostly in the warm weather, generally in the late
summer. It occurs each year at about the same time, often to the
very day. It is very abrupt in its attack. There is a copious,
thin, watery discharge from the nose. The eyes are red, swollen and
suffused. The sense of taste and smell may be impaired. The
appetite is poor and there is frequently a slight fever. The attack
continues for from four to six weeks, or until a hard frost appears.
The first cause is an impairment of the circulation
to the mucous membrane of the upper air passages, and is generally caused
by lesions in the neck, upper dorsal, clavicle and ribs, as low as the
fifth, affecting the vaso-motor and sensory nerves and also the blood vessels.
Cases of many years' standing have been cured by removing these real
first causes. Particular attention must be paid to these lesions.
All of the muscles of the upper part of the thorax. the spinal and neck
muscles should be thoroughly relaxed. See Nos. 1, 2, 5, 7B, 9, 10,
11, 36, 34, 43, 44, 47, 48. The ribs and clavicles should be raised.
See Nos. 72, 73, 86. Relax all the tissues of the face and forehead
and about the eyes. See Nos. 14, 16, 20, 17, 21. Exert pressure on
the head, as in No. 15. Open the mouth against resistance.
See No. 8. Treat along the sides of the nose. See No. 18. Give
deep abdominal treatment. See Nos. 94, 95, 100.
Have the patient avoid overwork. Treat three
times per week. Treatment should be commenced a month or more before
the attack is expected.
(Cold in the Head.)
This trouble is an inflammation of the upper air
passages, accompanied by a catarrh. It sometimes precedes another
disease, as in measles. It is often epidemic and there is supposed
to be a specific microorganism as the cause.
When the disease is frequent it leads to chronic
Treatment. A general osteopathic treatment
should be given with vigor. See general treatment. Give special
attention to the bowels. See Nos. 94, 95, 100, 97. Such a treatment
will keep the cold from becoming serious and will abort a case of la grippe
or pneumonia. Special attention should be given to the head and neck
treatment. See Nos. 1, 5, 7, 9, 14, 7B. It will be well to
take a hot lemonade on retiring. Some writers recommend snuffing
from the hand every two or three hours some witch hazel (fluid extract
of hamamelis), or Pond's extract. The bowels should be kept open.
This disease is an acute inflammation of the Mucous
membrane lining the larynx. It often appears with cold in the head,
or may appear as a result of a blow or the effects of burning by hot drinks
or poisons. Or it may be the result of the over use or improper use
of the voice. It is very frequently due to lesions affecting the
nerve and blood supply of the larynx. The above causes are then the
Treatment. The specific lesion must
be removed as soon as possible. All of the tissues of the neck must
be thoroughly relaxed. See Nos. 1, 2, 5, 9, 10, 11, 8B, 7B.
The muscles of the upper part of the chest and back must be manipulated
for the purpose of restoring them to normal, that there may be no pressure
on nerves and that the circulation may be free. See Nos. 34, 36,
43, 86. Open the mouth against resistance. See No. 8. Work
deeply along the trachea and larynx. See Nos. 6, 8B.
If there is an irritating cough at night some medical
authorities would give ten grains of Dover's powder.
(Laryngismus Stridulus. False Croup.)
This trouble is often associated with acute laryngitis
in children, and has its origin in an affection of the nerves. The
osteopathic treatment should be a relaxing one and should follow that for
laryngitis. By inserting the finger into the throat and tickling
the fauces the patient may be made to vomit, which will prove helpful.
A warm bath will assist in breaking up the spasm. A cold sponge bath
should be given daily. The treatment should be directed to building
up the general health of the patient. See general osteopathic treatment.
In ordinary cases it should be given twice per week. When the patient
is better once per week will be sufficient.
This disorder is a catarrhal inflammation of the
bronchial tubes. It follows coryza (cold in the head), and is often
a continuation of that cold by a continuity of tissue. It is frequently
called "cold in the chest."
The Osteopath looks for tightened tissues in the
upper part of the back and neck and finds them. The tissues of the
neck, both front and back, are thoroughly relaxed. See Nos. 1, 5,
9, 10, 11, 8B, 7B. The muscles and ligaments of the back are well loosened.
See Nos. 34. 34, 36, 43, 44. Relax all the tissues over the chest.
The ribs are to be raised. See Nos. 62, 86. The clavicles should
be adjusted, generally by raising them. See Nos. 72, 73. In
a severe case of bronchitis, with coughing, an ice bag applied to the spine
from the fourth dorsal to the first lumbar will prove helpful. A
hot mustard foot bath, with a mild mustard plaster on the chest, will also
give relief. Give hot lemonade.
Some medical authorities would recommend a laxative
and at bedtime a ten grain Dover's powder for the cough.
The aged are afflicted with this disease when there
has been a number of attacks of the acute form. The osteopathic treatment,
as outlined for acute bronchitis will be found very helpful. It may
be given twice per week.
Asthma is a chronic affection of the bronchi, in
which there are paroxysms of difficult breathing, supposed to be due to
the muscular contraction of the smaller bronchial tubes. It may last
for a few minutes or for several hours, and often occurs nightly for a
few days or up to two weeks. Some patients have warning symptoms
peculiar to each, while in other cases the attack comes suddenly, without
Asthma is supposed to be a nervous affection.
Heredity plays an important part. There are many exciting causes
acting as irritants, such as reflex irritations from other parts of the
body, as stomach, bowels, ovaries, uterus, etc. Chemical vapors,
dust, fog, smoke, the smell of certain animals, as cat, horse, dog, also
the pollen of plants, also colds, anger and fright may also excite the
disease to activity.
The real cause of the disease is to be found in anatomical
derangement of the spine and ribs. This is proven by the fact that
many who have had the disease for years and have tried everything in the
form of treatments, without benefit, were cured when the anatomical maladjustments
were removed. There will generally be found in the neck, clavicles,
first to the sixth ribs and corresponding vertebra some lesion that will
account for the disease.
When we wish to relieve the patient the spinal muscles
are relaxed, as are the tissues of the neck. See Nos. 1, 5, 7B, 9,
10, 11, 13, 34, 36, 43, 44. The clavicles and ribs are raised.
See Nos. 72, 73, 82, 83, 88. Great relief should follow at once.
When there is no paroxysm the treatment may be given once in ten days.
Find and remove any vertebral or rib lesion present. See treatment
of spine and ribs. See Nos. 52, 53, 57, 58, 86. Give the relaxing
treatment as above.
In addition to this a thorough general treatment
may be given.
Medical Relief. A few whiffs of chloroform
will give temporary relief. The patient may inhale a solution of
nitrite of amyl, three to four drops on a handkerchief. For the prevention
of the disease fifteen grains of iodide of potassium, given three times
per day, is recommended. Hot coffee or hot whiskey toddy will (sometimes)
ward off an attack. Tobacco smoke inhaled has proven helpful.
If the attack is caused by overeating or a disordered condition of the
stomach or bowels or both they should be emptied.
Diet. It will be well to be careful
with the diet. The heavy meals should be taken not later than noon.
The sweets, or any article of food that tends to form gas in the stomach,
should be interdicted.
CONGESTION OF THE LUNGS.
The blood vessels of the lungs are engorged.
This causes difficult breathing, with coughing, during which bloody sputum
is raised. The active form may be caused by over-exertion or exposure
to the extremes of heat and cold. The passive form may be secondary
to a weak heart, or to valvular heart trouble, or to continued lying on
the back. The Osteopath finds lesions in the upper dorsal vertebrae
and upper ribs.
The treatment is directed to a stimulation of the
nerves by a thorough treatment of the upper dorsal vertebrae. See
Nos. 43, 50. Relaxing of all tissues of the chest, especially between
the ribs, also the tissues of the upper part of the back. See Nos.
1, 5, 34, 36, 37, 43. Raise the ribs. See Nos. 82, 84, 86.
The pneumogastric nerve and the superior cervical sympathetics should be
treated. See Nos. 7, 7C. Let there be thorough work over the
abdomen. Nos. 94, 96, 100. This will assist in drawing the
blood away from the lungs to the vessels of the bowels. Flex and
rotate the limbs. Immediate relief may be expected.
EDEMA OF THE LUNGS.
In this trouble there is a transudation of the serum
from the capillaries into the air cells. The prognosis is not favorable.
The treatment is the same as for congestion of the lungs. In acute
cases medical treatment calls for a free movement of the bowels.
This disease is an abnormal condition of the lungs,
in which air has been retained, weakening the lung cells. The vesicular,
or hypertropic form of the disease, is when the cells and smaller tubes
have been stretched by pressure of the air and consequently weakened.
The chest is enlarged and the breathing is difficult. On percussion
the note is hyperresonant.
The disease comes on gradually. It may be well
advanced before it is noticed. A shortness of breath, a slight lividity,
may be noticed on slight exertion. The chest presents a barrel shape
and in respiration moves as if it were in one piece. The heart sounds
Bronchitis and asthma are often associated with this
disease. These are frequently the cause of the most distressing symptoms.
The tendency is for the patient to grow worse as cold weather advances.
The disease also grows worse as the patient grows older.
In interstitial (interlobular) emphysema the air
escapes from the ruptured vesicles into the interlobular tissue.
Treatment. The patient's condition may
be improved under osteopathic treat ment, but not cured. Osler says,
"No remedy is known which has any influence over the progress of the condition
itself." Of course this refers to drugs. The osteopathic treatment
will be the same as for bronchitis, with the addition of a stimulating
treatment between the second and seventh dorsal to improve the heart action
and help the circulation. See Nos. 34, 37, 43. It will help
the patient to raise the ribs when he is taking a full breath and to compress
the thorax as he expels the air. See Nos. 82, 86. Stimulate
the vagi nerves. See No. 7. Treat three times per week.
There are two main forms, which may be specified
as dry or adhesive pleurisy, and pleurisy with effusion.
The disease is an inflammation of the pleura, the
lining of the lung. In the dry pleurisy a friction murmur may be
heard. There is a slight fever and pain in the side over the point
In pleurisy with effusion there is frequently a chill,
followed by a fever which rises to 102 to 103 and remains for a week or
for several weeks. The pain is very sharp and may be referred to
the nipple, or to the axilla, or to the back, or to the abdomen.
There is difficult breathing and the pain is aggravated
Treatment consists in the removal of all vertebral
and rib lesions. Clavicle and rib lesions are often the actual cause
of the disease. All of the spinal and intercostal muscles should
be relaxed. See Nos. 34, 36, 40, 43, 44, 53. The tissues of
the neck should be thoroughly treated. See Nos. 1, 5, 7B, 6, 8B.
Ribs and clavicles should be raised. See Nos. 72, 73, 82, 84, 86,
88. A thorough spinal treatment should be given, with special attention
to the tenth. eleventh and twelfth dorsal vertebrae. See Nos. 49,
50, 57, 48, 51, 52. Give a treatment over the bowels. See Nos.
94, 96, 100. The treatment may be given daily for a while.
The chronic case may be treated for about three times
per week. Hot water bottles or bags should be applied over the seat
of the pain. Some cases are benefited by wearing a moist compress,
wrung out of cold water and changed every two hours.
Under medical treatment the patient who has pleurisy
with effusion is given saline purges in the hope of reducing the fluid.
This failing the patient is tapped.
HYDROPNEUMOTHORAX. PYOPNEUMOTHORAX. HYDROTHORAX. HEMOTHORAX.
In all of the above conditions in which there is
air or gas, water and gas, pus and, gas, water or blood in the pleural
cavity the osteopathic treatment will be the same, which is the same practically
as for pleurisy.
The relaxation of muscular tissues, both front and
back of the chest. See Nos. 34, 36, 40, 43, 44, 53. Raise all
the ribs and clavicles. See Nos. 72, 82, 84, 86, 88. Give a
thorough spinal treatment. See Nos. 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 57.
All of this work will give more room for the lungs and make the breathing
In many of these cases there is some disease acting
as a primary cause. It may be of the lungs, kidneys, liver, blood
or heart, or it may be the result of some accident. In such cases
the primary disease needs treatment in connection with the active symptoms
caused by it.
These cases are very serious and may need the assistance
of the surgeon.
This is an infantile disease, in which the body is
poorly nourished and changes appear in the growing bones, which tend to
deformity. The disease comes on slowly about the time of teething.
Restlessness at night, sweating of the head, constipation and beading of
the ribs are early symptoms. The beads spoken of are at the junction
of the costal cartilages and the ribs. If the child has walked he
does not want to walk now. The body is sore and he does not wish
to be moved. There may be a slight fever. The skin is pale,
the tissues are soft and flabby. The sternum projects, causing the
child to become chicken-breasted.
The head is larger than it should be, owing to a
thickening of the bones. The face looks small, the forehead is broad
and square. In some cases there is a deformity of the bones of the
arms and legs, and in some cases there is not a bone in the body that escapes.
Some children grow thin, some fat, but in the latter case the flesh is
soft and flabby.
Osteopathic treatment will stop the deformity and
give better nutrition. The treatment is general in its scope, with
special attention paid to reducing the deformities and removing spinal
and rib lesions. See general treatment.
Some medical writers recommend one-one hundred and
twentieth of a grain of phosphorus dissolved in olive oil, given twice
per day. Cod liver oil in teaspoonful doses is also recommended.
Diet. Do not allow candy, sugar, etc.,
but give eggs, milk, cream and good meat.
The child should be in the open air as much as possible
and have a warm bath about three times per week.
Obesity is an excessive amount of fat, that not only
becomes an inconvenience but seriously impairs the health by infiltrating
and weakening the heart muscles, also the lungs, liver and kidneys.
The controlling factors may be heredity, bad habits
of eating and drinking, lack of exercise, and spinal lesions which interfere
with the proper work of the liver, pancreas and lymphatic system.
This condition must not be overcome too suddenly.
The lesions may be removed as soon as possible. The clavicles are
to be raised and the first rib lowered. See Nos. 72, 73, 75, 76.
A thorough spinal treatment must be given for the stimulation of the liver,
pancreas and kidneys. See Nos. 32, 43, 57. Vigorous treatment
over the fat tends to its absorption. Give a general treatment, which
Diet. The diet must be restricted.
Starches, fats and sweets are to be eliminated as much as possible.
The use of water is to be restricted and alcoholic drinks are to be prohibited.
Regular exercise must be taken. If the heart is weak begin moderately
and gradually increase the exercise. Walking is very beneficial.
Some medical authorities give from three to five
grains of the dry, powdered thyroid gland, three times per day. It
must be discontinued when it causes any heart disturbance. , It should
not be taken if there is any heart trouble.
My experience in treating obesity along Osteopathic
lines has been very satisfactory. One lady about twenty-four years
of age, who was a teacher, weighing over two hundred pounds, had a valvular
heart lesion and I concluded that her weight ought to be reduced.
The patient was put on a diet as follows: For breakfast
and supper, one soft-boiled egg and one piece of toast, and for dinner
the same, with the addition of some green vegetable which grew above the
ground. This diet was adhered to with Osteopathic treatments three
times per week for two months. In this time the patient lost fifty-two
pounds. Her appetite was too large before she began to diet, and
she had considerable trouble in adhering to the menu. As the odor
of cooking food made her ravenous, she left the house while meals were
being prepared. At about the end of two months she asked if she could
have all the hot biscuits and honey she wanted. The request was granted,
the food prepared, and her capacity was one half a biscuit.
She ate what she desired afterward. Her appetite
was more moderate and she still holds her light weight, though she is married
and has one child. She was treated four years ago.
Another case was that of a lady about thirty.
She weighed something over three hundred. She had apparent good health
and was quite muscular. This patient was put on a restricted diet
by simply telling her to eat much less. The Osteopathic treatment
was given about three months. The patient lost some during the treatment,
but lost more after the treatment. In six months her loss in weight
was sixty pounds, which made a great change, for the better, in her personal
appearance. In both of the above cases the good results were secured
by improving the lymphatic circulation. This is done by raising the
clavicles and lowering the first rib and paying considerable attention
to the spinal treatment in the upper dorsal region. In addition to
this a general treatment was given. In giving Osteopathic treatment
for different troubles you will find that if the treatment is adapted to
each case in a proper manner, it tends to restore the patient to the normal
in weight as well as restore the health. A thin person would take
on flesh and a heavy one
would be reduced.
This is a chronic condition, in which large quantities
of urine are passed daily of low specific gravity, and without sugar or
albumen. While the disease occurs most frequently among the young,
there has been no definite cause given by medical writers. It is
often accompanied by nervousness and may be caused by an injury to the
spinal cord or brain.
As in diabetes mellitus, the disease may come on
suddenly as a result of fright or injury, but generally it is gradual in
its appearance. There is great thirst and the patient drinks great
quantities of water. The skin is dry and harsh and the appetite is
good, and the general health does not seem to be impaired. It is
incurable from the medical standpoint, but cases have been greatly benefited
and many have been cured under osteopathic treatment.
Lesions are found in the middle of the back, from
which the kidneys are enervated. The neck also furnishes some lesions
where the medulla would be affected through nerves in that region.
The treatment should be a thorough general one, as in neurasthenia, paying
especial attention to the lesions in the middle of the back and in the
neck. See Nos. 34, 36, 37, 43, 48, 51, 52, 1, 4, 5, 7B, 9, 11, 13.
See general treatment.
This a constitutional disease, characterized by a
copious amount of urine, in which there is a large percentage of sugar.
A disordered nutrition allows the sugar to accumulate in the blood, from
which it is eliminated by the kidneys. It is not a disease of the
It is claimed that in some cases it is hereditary.
Males and Jews and the better classes are afflicted with the disease more
frequently than others. The real cause is unknown from the medical
standpoint. It often follows worry, Mental shock, and severe nervous
strains and diseases or injury to the spinal cord. Some writers believe
the disease to be conta-gious. Osteopaths find lesions in the middle
and lower part of the back with occasional neck lesions.
Symptoms. An unusual thirst and the
passing of urine frequently are generally the first symptoms noted.
The onset of the disease is gradual, but may be sudden, following fright,
shock, etc. The tongue is dry, red and glazed. The gums are
tender and bleed easily. The appetite is enormous. Patient
grows progressively weak and thin. Skin is dry and harsh. The
urine may amount to two or three quarts or as high as four or five gallons
Boils, carbuncles, eczema and gangrene, associated
with arteriosclerosis, constipation, enlarged liver and profuse sweating
are some of the complications of the disease.
Treatment. The osteopathic treatment is most
valuable. It should be general and thorough, suited to the strength
and requirements of the patient. See general treatment. The
lesions are generally in the lower and middle part of the back and sometimes
in the ribs, over the liver. Spinal lesions must be removed.
See Nos. 34, 36, 43, 51, 52, 57, 58, 98.
Diet. The diet is of the utmost importance.
All starches and sugars in all forms should be
eliminated. Avoid everything made of flour, as much as possible,
such as cake, pie, pastry,
pudding, macaroni, also rice, tapioca, oatmeal, corn meal, hominy.
Avoid potatoes, peas, beans, turnips, cauliflower.
The patient must not eat oysters, clams or liver. Avoid sweet fruits,
chestnuts and peanuts, beer and sour wine.
Good Things to Eat.
Clear soups made of any kind of meat. Eggs
in all styles. Fresh fish. Fresh meats of all kinds except
livers. Fats of all kinds. Vegetables such as lettuce, tomatoes,
spinach, cress, radishes, asparagus, cucumbers and celery.
Fruits. All acid fruits.
Drinks. Lemonade, tea, coffee, chocolate, cocoa.
The above may be sweetened with saccharin, but no sugar. Buttermilk
and sour milk may be used.
Bread. Gluten and bran bread and breads made
of aleuronat and reborat flours are to be
In families predisposed to the disease, starches
and sugars should be interdicted. The patient should avoid worry
and colds. Lukewarm or cold baths may be taken daily.
(Acute Articular Rheumatism.)
This is an acute, noncontagious fever, most likely
caused by a germ, and manifesting itself by an attack on one or more joints.
In the joint afflicted there will be heat, pain, redness and swelling,
the fibrous tissue being inflamed.
The disease sets in quickly, though it may be preceded
by slight, irregular pains in the joints, sore throat and tonsillitis.
The fever rises to 102 to 105, the pulse is generally above 100 and one
or more joints become very painful. The urine is highly colored,
scanty and acid. There is a very profuse, acid, sour-smelling sweat,
which has a very characteristic odor. The tenderness, redness and
swelling subside in one joint as the pain begins in another. There
is prostration, loss of appetite and considerable thirst.
The most serious complications of this fever are
the heart affections, endocarditis, pericarditis and myocarditis, inflammations
of the inner and outer lining and heart muscle, respectively. Osler
quotes several writers who say that it is a self-limited disease and that
medicine has no influence on its duration or course.
Treatment. Osteopathic treatment performs
wonders in cases of rheumatism. The treatment begins at the nerve
supply of the joint affected, which is in the lower part of the spine in
case the joints of the lower limbs are affected, and in the neck and upper
dorsal region in case the joints of the arms are attacked. In case
the knee joint was the part that suffered the most, the treatment would
begin in the lower dorsal region and lumbar region of the spine, thoroughly
loosening the muscles and working there as in Nos. 61, 48, if possible.
Then work gradually down the limb, as in Nos. 113, 116. When you
reach the knee it will be generally ready for a firm, careful, relaxing
treatment. Loosen all the tissues about it and end this part of the
treatment by grasping the calf of the leg and the tissues below the knee
with both hands and giving the leg a careful pull, thus stretching the
joint and allowing a better circulation. After this is completed
a general treatment will be in order, giving attention to the middle of
the back, in the lower dorsal and lumbar regions. See general treatment.
Raise the ribs. See Nos. 86, 87. Give a stimulating treatment
in the upper dorsal region for the purpose of stimulating the heart.
This treatment, given in connection with the compresses, spoken of below,
will be found to be satisfactory and no drugs will be needed.
On account of the profuse sweating, flannel night-gowns
should be worn and blankets used instead of sheets. The diet usually
used in fevers is best, being sure that the foods are light and nutritious.
Lemonade and oatmeal water may be very freely used.
Cold compresses are used with a great deal of satisfaction
in Germany. Old linen or worn-out cotton sheeting should be so folded
that when applied there will be only three or four thicknesses of the material.
This, wet in very cold water, placed snugly on the joint and covered closely
with flannel. To avoid changing too frequently the flannel may be
removed and cold water allowed to drip on the bandage, after which the
flannel is replaced.
Another treatment is the hot fomentation. Preparation
is made for by securing two pieces of old woolen blanket, fifteen to eighteen
inches square. One of these is to be used at a time and is to be
saturated in boiling water. That it may be wrung out well, so that
but little water will remain, take a strong crash roller towel. Fasten
two strong sticks at either end of the towel and place the blanket between
the layers of towel. Immerse in boiling water and remove, wringing
as dry as possible by twisting on the sticks. Place the blanket on
the joint and cover with another piece of blanket. The part to receive
the hot application should be anointed with olive oil or vaseline.
The compress should be renewed every fifteen minutes for an hour, when
the part should be carefully dried and
wrapped in cotton batting or woolen.
Another treatment: If the pain in any joint is severe,
hot cloths wrung out of the following solution may be applied:
Carbonate of soda 6 drachms.
Laudanum 1 ounce.
Glycerine 2 ounces.
Water 9 ounces.
Chloroform liniment is also recommended as an external
The medical internal treatment is very unsatisfactory.
The best for the pain and for general relief is salicin, twenty grains
of which may be taken every hour and a half until the pain is reduced.
Another treatment is twenty grains of salicylic acid, given every two hours
in a capsule until the pain is relieved. Still another is twenty
grains of salicylate of soda, every two hours until the pain is reduced,
and then every five hours after until the temperature begins to be reduced.
Still another, in case any of the above are tried and fails to agree, is
twenty minims of oil of wintergreen given every two hours in milk.
(Rheumatic Gout, Rheumatoid Arthritis.)
Rheumatic arthritis is a chronic disease of the joints.
The disease is believed to originate in the spine. The fact that
after making an attack on any particular joint of one hand it will next
attack the corresponding joint of the other hand, indicates that the disease
is of central origin, which is referred back to the spine.
Another theory is that the disease is caused by a
specific microorganism and is the result of this infection.
The bone in the joint enlarges. The cartilages
and the muscles waste. The skin becomes pigmented and glossy, which
intensifies the appearance of the deformity. In most cases there
is intense pain, while in others the disease may progress and the deformities
increase with little or no pain. In the early stages the disease
often resembles acute articular rheumatism, but the disease persisting
in joints first attacked is an important point in the diagnosis.
The disease is rarely curable, but is not dangerous
Treatment. Any lesion found in the spine
should be removed. The articulation should be kept pliable, and the
joints affected should be stretched to facilitate circulation. When
the joints are inflamed, cold compresses should be applied. When
taken off the parts should be thoroughly massaged. This tends to
reduce the swelling and builds up the wasted cartilages and muscles.
In addition to the above a general treatment should be given to build up
the system. See general treatment. The patient should have
a generous diet, as much as can properly be digested of wholesome, nutritious
food, such as roast beef, beefsteak, mutton, chicken, eggs, milk, cod liver
oil, olive oil, butter, cream, etc. Alcoholic beverages in small
amounts may be taken with the meals for their tonic effect, and malt liquors
are allowable. Of course alcohol in any form is not admissible in
cases of rheumatism, as it tends to aggravate the disorder. In
the disease under consideration, alcoholic or malt liquors should not be
allowed when there is fever or much pain in the joints.
Gout is a nutritional, constitutional disease, accompanied
by attacks of inflammation of the joints. Most generally only the
joints attacked are those of the great toe, but the joints of the ankle,
knee, hands and wrist may be attacked as well.
The disease is often hereditary, generally on the
male side. Alcohol, rich food and lack of exercise are predisposing
causes, though poor food and bad hygiene, with an excess of malt liquors,
may cause what is known as "poor man's gout." If a person is
susceptible to the disease it may be brought on by worry, fright, mental
shock, or surgical operation.
The attack usually comes on at night or early in
the morning. There is insomnia, fever and
restlessness. The joint is swollen, tender, and exceedingly painful.
The urine is scanty and high colored. Constipation is a varying symptom
and dyspepsia is often present.
The Treatment. The spine should receive
a treatment, especial attention being paid to the lower and lumbar region.
The kidneys should be stimulated. See Nos. 34, 43. A general
treatment should be given in many cases. See general treatment.
If the great toe is painful begin the treatment in the lower part of the
back and work slowly, carefully, and thoroughly down the limb to the toe.
See Nos. 113, 116, 117, 118, 119. Move all the tissues to the bone
to assist circulation. The joint may be gently manipulated from side
to side and carefully stretched. This, if carefully done, will eliminate
the pain and assist the circulation to carry away the deposit in the joint.
The part in which the pain is present should be carefully protected from
the cold and kept elevated. Those who are susceptible to this disease
should be very careful with the diet, and should abstain from alcohol in
all its forms.
An outdoor life, with plenty of exercise, is best.
Keep the skin active by frequent bathing. If the patient is strong,
have him use cold baths in the morning, followed by a vigorous friction
with a coarse towel. If the patient is weak, warm baths should be
taken on retiring at night. Straining efforts, both mental and physical,
must be avoided.
Flannels should be worn next to the skin at all times.
A glass or two of water, taken on retiring and the same on rising, helps
to rid the system of waste material. Plenty of water should be taken
during the day. The great value of the various mineral waters is
the water and not the substance it contains. If one will drink the
same amount of water at home the benefit will be the same. Of course
the change in environment is often desirable.
The diet should be restricted, as overeating and
drinking and the indulgence in meat, rich food and liquors, predispose
to the disease. Let the living be plain. Meat once per day,
with vegetables preponderating, will be best. String beans, salads,
cabbage, spinach, peas, fresh green vegetables, fruits, except bananas;
tomatoes, strawberries, farinaceous foods, as rice, hominy, sago, tapioca,
cracked wheat, butter, milk and stale bread, are all good and indicated
for use for one subject to gout.
Avoid highly seasoned foods, pastry and sweets.
When there is fever use milk, farinaceous foods and
plenty of water. Peppermint water may be given.
MOUTH, DISEASES OF.
The mouth should be kept clean. Left to itself
it is the foulest cavity in the body. A dirty mouth is a prolific
cause of disease, by harboring germs that cause constitutional diseases.
We should do this when well, but should be doubly sure to keep the mouth
absolutely clean when sick. Take good care of the teeth, and do not
kiss on the mouth, nor allow children to be kissed there.
Stomatitis Acute, resulting from local irritation
or intestinal disturbances, may affect the gums or the entire surface of
the tongue or mouth. At first there is heat, redness and dryness,
followed by active secretion and swelling. There is often pain in
mastication. Cleanse the mouth frequently with a two percent boric
Stomatitis Aphthous is a more severe form than the
above. Vesicles appear and there is considerable pain. The following
washes will prove efficient:
Alum one teaspoonful.
Water one-half pint.
Or the following:
Tannic acid one drachm.
Glycerine one ounce.
Use thirty drops of this to a wineglass of water.
Geographical Tongue (eczema of the tongue), circular
patches of the superficial skin of the tongue become loosened and fall
off. As it heals in the center the sore grows and enlarges about
the healed part. The patches sometimes look like a map, hence the
name. The cause of the disease is unknown, but in the case of adults
it proves very obstinate. The following mouth wash may be used:
... one part.
. 500 parts.
A weak solution of nitrate of silver will relieve
This is an acute catarrhal condition of the pharynx.
The condition generally follows exposure and cold. It may be also
due to the constant use of the voice, to excessive smoking, the use of
certain drugs. It may be caused by a valvular disease of the b eart
or by an anurism or tumor.
There is dryness of the throat, at first, with pain
on swallowing, followed by a profuse secretion and a yellowish discharge.
The best treatment is to thoroughly relax all the
tissues of the neck, both front and back. See Nos. 1, 2, 5, 6, 7B,
8B, 9, 11, 13. Depress the first ribs and raise the clavicles.
See Nos. 75, 77, 72, 73.
Give a spinal treatment. See Nos. 34, 43, 48,
53, 57. Work over the abdomen. See Nos. 94, 96, 100.
This serves to draw the blood away from the congested parts and keeps the
bowels active. An enema, using a tablespoon of salt to a quart of
water, will be beneficial. Use a hot foot bath and apply a cold compress
to the throat. See cold compress.
In severe cases the medical treatment would indicate
a calomel purge, followed by salts and a swabbing of the throat with a
solution of nitrate of silver, 40 grains to the ounce.
This follows repeated acute attacks. Avoid
exposure. Clergymen should learn to use their voices better.
Smokers should cease smoking and drinkers should not use intoxicants.
The general health should be built up. The osteopathic treatment
as outlined in acute pharyngitis, should be given three times per week,
then twice, and then once per week as the patient grows better.
This disease resembles purpura, and is due mainly
to the use of improper food, causing chronic ptomaine poisoning from intestinal
putrefaction. Tainted animal food and an infection of the mouth with
microorganisms, associated with privation, are causes. Indirect causes
are poor air and water, damp, unfavorable and overcrowded quarters and
lack of sunlight, previous disease, cold moisture and persistent heat.
Many authorities claim that a continuous use of exclusive salt meat diet
is a cause, but that lack of vegetables is not a first cause, as was formerly
Diagnosis. The gums are swollen and
pulpy. There are lesions of the bones, muscles, skin, gums and viscera,
which indicate a change in the composition and properties of the blood.
The disease comes on slowly. There is shortness of breath and flitting
pains in the back and legs. The skin is sallow, resembling the cachexia
of cancer. There is physical and mental weakness. The skin
soon grows dry and rough and is marked by small purple spots, mostly on
the legs. Patches, looking like bruises, are soon seen, and soft,
tender swellings appear on the legs. The eyelids are sometimes swollen
and purple and the conjunctiva red. The urine is scanty and there
The treatment indicated is a general Osteopathic
one. See general treatment. Pay particular attention to the
entire spine. Treat three times per week. Massage gently over
The diet should be varied and plentiful. Fresh
potatoes, cabbage, carrots, onions, lettuce and in fact all green vegetables.
Oranges and lemons should be used plentifully; soup, beef tea, milk and
eggs. The meat should be fresh.
In many cases of acute and chronic diseases we frequently
are called upon to combat nausea and vomiting. When the patient remains
quietly in bed allow him to sip ice water at intervals. Or he may
have a little iced tea, either peppermint or black. In case the vomiting
is obstinate, medical writers recommend one-drop doses of tincture of iodine
in sweetened peppermint water every hour until the condition is overcome.
When the tongue is heavily coated and the stomach is foul it will be well
to give a pint of warm water. This will cause vomiting and the tendency
will be to clean out the stomach.
In cases of nervous or paroxysmal vomiting the writer
has had splendid success by applying an ice bag to the dorsal region from
the fourth to the eighth vertebra. In many cases there is a peristaltic
action of that organ, during which it is very active in secreting, and
the application of the ice bag tends to inhibit the nerves controlling
this function. Some time ago I was called to treat a patient who
had been suffering a half day with persistent vomiting, which was growing
worse. Our usual method would be to inhibit the spine, which is a
tedious operation and not always satisfactory.
I applied an ice bag, as above, and the patient soon
became quiet and slept all night. Soon after I had an engagement
in another town to treat a patient who had suffered an apoplectic stroke.
When I arrived I found the patient had been vomiting about two hours.
The usual means had failed to stop the trouble, as there were two doctors
in attendance. Another stroke was feared, but the application of
ice bags to the spine and head quieted the patient at once and there was
no further vomiting and no cerebral hemorrhage. Since that time I
have placed great reliance in the ice bag for vomiting when caused by nervousness.
(Acute Gastric Catarrh. Acute Dyspepsia.)
Some forms of stomach trouble seem to be hereditary.
Many are caused by a predisposing
weakness found in the spine, which affects the nerve supply to this
important organ. Many cases of severe stomach disease are brought
on through errors in diet, too much or too rich food, or tainted food,
or the inordinate use of alcohol in some form, or the use of ice cold water
at meal time.
Symptoms. There is headache, nausea,
pain in the stomach and abdomen, belching of gas and vomiting. The
tongue is heavily furred. There is pain in the back between the shoulders,
and the tissues here will be found to be abnormally tight. Sometimes
there is diarrhoea. Often there is constipation. The abdomen
is distended. The vomit contains food, mucus and bile.
Treatment, Osteopathic. See chronic
Medical treatment. For a child, a dose
of caster oil; for an adult, five to eight grains of calomel, followed
in a few hours by a dose of salts. After this give the stomach a
rest. Soda water and ice may be given. See chronic gastritis.
Repeated at-tacks of this will lead to the chronic condition.
(Chronic Catarrh of the Stomach Chronic Dyspepsia.)
This is a diseased condition of the stomach in which
the digestion of the stomach is impaired. There is an increase in
the formation of mucus and changes in the digestive fluids. The muscular
coats of the stomach are weakened, lessening its activity.
Symptoms. They vary greatly and change
as the disease progresses. Pain, nausea, distress and feeling of
oppression after eating are early symptoms. There is a constant feeling
that something is wrong, and the patient is apt to be discouraged.
He is melancholy, and loses ambition and dislikes exertion of any kind.
There is considerable gas at times, and percussion over the stomach elicits
a peculiar, hollow sound. The stomach may become so distended with
gas as to cause palpitation of the heart. There is a bad taste in
the mouth and the tongue is coated. There may be vertigo, "heartburn,"
and a stomach cough. The urine is dark red and there is a deposit
Causes. An interference with the nerve
and blood supply, which weakens the stomach. This interference may
be in the neck, in the back from the fourth to the eighth dorsal vertebra,
or a displacement of the corresponding ribs, or the ribs over the stomach.
The trouble may be also caused by errors of diet or the long-continued
use of alcohol.
Treatment. Osteopathic treatment, with
the proper diet, has cured countless cases after nearly every other treatment
had been tried. Lesions of the neck must be corrected. Stimulate
the vagus nerve which helps to supply the stomach with nerve force.
See Nos. 1, 5, 3, 7, 7B. Also see Nos. 9, 10, 11, 13. Rib lesions
must be carefully looked after and the spine treated between the fourth
and the eighth dorsal. See Nos. 34, 43, 35, 53. Stimulate the
solar plexus. See No. 100.
Should any ribs cause mechanical pressure over the
stomach they should be corrected. See No. 93. A vigorous, brisk
treatment may be given over the stomach and abdomen. See Nos. 94,
99, 100, 101, 102. This treatment cures permanently because it removes
the underlying causes, other than errors in diet.
Medical treatment in many cases aims to supply the
digestant lacking. The one most frequently needed is hydrochloric
acid. Its use is indicated when gas is belched and the taste is sour.
To supply this need from 15 to 30 drops of dilute hydrochloric acid is
taken in sugar water about fifteen minutes after each meal. Ten grains
of pepsin may be taken at the same time. Rochelle salts or Carlsbad
salts or sodium phosphate may be taken in a tumblerful of hot water in
the morning thirty minutes before eating. This cleanses the stomach
and prevents constipation. The bowels should move freely, at least
once per day. It is difficult to help the stomach much while constipation
Dietetic. This phase of the treatment
is most important. The patient should be free from care and worry
and should spend as much time out of doors as possible, and take plenty
of time for meals, masticating the food well and carefully. Never
cat when tired and rest, when possible, both before and after eating.
A daily sponge bath in cold water, followed by active friction with a rough
towel, will be helpful.
In ordinary cases the following foods may be allowed:
Wheat bread, stale or toasted very dry, soda crackers, zwieback, dry or
toasted, thin slices of bacon broiled, butter, thick soups, thoroughly
cooked, made of asparagus, tomatoes or fresh peas or potatoes; eggs, but
not bard boiled or fried; oysters, fresh fish, boiled or broiled.
Meats should be young and tender. They may consist of broiled steaks
and chops, roast beef, mutton and chicken. Oranges, peaches and grape
fruit are good, and it is well to eat them and other fresh fruit between
meals. Prunes and apples may be baked or stewed. Black coffee
may be taken after dinner.
Foods Absolutely Forbidden. Fresh soft
bread, hot bread, cakes, pastry, doughnuts, sweets, candies and sugar;
fat or greasy food; heavy vegetables, dried, salt or corned meats or fish,
veal, cheese, sweet fruits, hash or twice-cooked meats.
In very severe cases, where there is Bright's disease
or heart trouble, it may become necessary to give an exclusive milk diet.
From two to four quarts of fresh milk may be given in twenty-four hours.
It may be given seven or eight times per day. If it is not well borne
or the patient has an annoying thirst, it may be diluted with equal parts
of soda water or Vichy or Apollinaris water. If the milk is taken
without this a little bicarbonate of soda (common baking soda) may be added
and a pinch of salt.
Good fresh buttermilk may be used with good effect.
If the patient can not take as much milk as indicated above, or enough
to support strength, scraped meat is allowable; oysters, raw or broiled.
Some can eat soft cooked eggs and calves' brains.
(Hives, Nettle Rash.)
This trouble appears suddenly on any part of the
body. There are small reddish or pink spots which cause a pricking,
stinging, itching sensation. The spots may occur in spirals or rings,
or they may be combined with papules.
This trouble is generally attributed to errors of
digestion and nervous disorders. With some individuals strawberries
or shellfish cause the hives to appear.
A general treatment may be given, paying especial
attention to the stomach. See treatment for gastritis. Avoid
foods that are known to disagree .in this manner. The itching may
be allayed with the use of carbolized vaseline.
Hemorrhoids, or piles, are varicose vessels, caused
by an engorgement of the venous hemorrhoidal plexus, forming tumors at
or near the anus. They are internal or external, bleeding or dry.
The internal are generally bleeding and the external dry.
The symptoms vary with the size, number and seat
of the tumors. There is a sensation of a foreign body being in the
rectum. There is a throbbing, aching or burning pain, during and
after a hard stool. As the tumor grows, sitting is uncomfortable.
Many reflex symptoms accompany piles, as irritable bladder, urethra and
Any trouble that interferes with the return circulation
from the rectum, as impacted faces,
constipation, a heavy or backward misplaced uterus, a pelvic tumor
or a poor nerve supply to the plexus of veins affected acts as a cause.
There must be proper tone in the muscular walls of these vessels for the
blood properly to circulate. In diseases of the liver, lungs and
heart we find piles in many cases.
In treating this condition we must remove the underlying
cause as soon as possible. If it is a simple case of piles, without
complications, we often find trouble in the articulation of the coccyx
and sacrum, or in iliac-sacral synchondrosis. I have secured excellent
results, in some cases, by a stimulating treatment over the sacrum.
The patient lying on the table, in a prone position, work over the sacrum
with the flat of the hand as indicated in Fig. 48. This loosens up all
the structures there and stimulates the nerves. The coccyx is frequently
found misplaced. The patient lying across the table, on his breast,
and his feet on the floor presents a fine position for manipulating a coccyx.
With two thumbs it may be pushed forward, or from side to side as indicated.
It may also be placed in position as in paragraph 71. The sacrum
may be treated as in paragraphs 68 and 69.
Do not allow the patient to become constipated, but
regulate the diet so as to secure free daily evacuations of the bowels.
Violent exercise should be avoided, such as long walks and heavy lifting.
Do not sit on damp or warm seats. Do not use highly-seasoned food,
and leave alcohol alone.
This disease is an inflammation of the vermiform
appendix. It is thought by many, at the present time, to be a very
common and serious malady.
Cause. It may be caused by a fall or
blow, resulting in a spinal or rib lesion which interferes with the blood
and nerve supply of this little organ, thereby producing a weakened condition.
Da Costa, in his surgery gives the reason for men having the disease more
frequently than women, is that women have a better blood supply to the
appendix than men, a small twig being given off by the ovarian artery,
thereby making it stronger in women than in men.
Of course, when the organ is weakened and it is not
performing its function in furnishing a secretion, which is bacteriacidal,
and which assists in keeping the illeo-coecal valve in order, fecal matter,
foreign bodies, such as seeds, etc., may force themselves into it and help
to set up inflammation. On this account many textbooks give erroneous
causes for the disease, such as impactions, seeds, poison of rheumatic
fever, la grippe, structural defects and strictures and heredity.
Symptoms. The pain is the first and
most common symptom. It comes on suddenly, and may be either sharp
and intense or may be characterized as a dull ache. The pain is located
in the lower right side of the abdomen. Pressure of the thumb applied
at a point half way between the anterior superior point of the ilium and
the umbilicus on the right side will cause intense pain.
The muscles in the lower right side of the abdomen
are tense and contracted. The patient has a desire to lie on the
back, and the limbs, especially the right one, is drawn up.
Even in the mildest forms of appendicitis there is
always fever in the early stages of the disease. The temperature
ranges from 101 to 103.5. Stomach and intestinal disturbances are
present. The tongue presents a furred, whitish appearance and is
moist. There is nausea and vomiting in most cases. Constipation
is the rule, but diarrhoea may be present.
Operations are often performed for appendicitis and
the appendix is found to be entirely normal. One writer in a prominent
medical journal recently said that he witnessed thirty-four operations
for this disease, but did not see one diseased appendix. Doubtless
many lives have been lost by overzealous surgeons through hasty operations
when the case was not properly diagnosed. There are so many troubles
that simulate the symptoms of appendicitis that partially excuse some of
these errors. The following are mistaken for appendicitis: Abscess
of the liver, intestinal obstruction, renal colic, twists of the ureter,
colic of intestines, peritonitis, tubercular or otherwise, gallstone colic,
coxitis, acute rheumatism of the rectus abdominis muscle, inflammation
of the Fallopian tube or
ovary, herpes zoster of the twelfth intercostal nerve, and typhoid
The treatment of this disease calls for the removal
of the causative lesion as soon as possible. In severe cases we must
wait for the acute symptoms to subside before attempting to remove the
real cause, yet in many cases this may be done at once. The osteopathic
treatment for the removal of the lesion increases the nerve and blood supply
to the appendix at once, and assists in lowering the inflammation.
It may be commenced by a stimulating treatment to the spine, while the
patient is lying on the back, by reaching under the back and manipulating
the spine in the upper lumbar and lower dorsal region. See No. 61.
If possible use 34, 43, 57, after which careful manipulative work may be
attempted over the abdomen for the relaxation of all the tissues and the
improvement of the circulation. See Nos. 9,1, 96, 98, 99, 100.
This must be very carefully performed, but will give great relief to the
patient. The two lower ribs should be slightly manipulated and raised.
See Nos. 90, 91, 92. Between treatments an ice bag or hot fomentations
should be applied to the seat of the inflammation.
Constipation should be removed as soon as possible,
and it will be well to give an enema to relieve the bowels of foreign matter
and permit of a more free circulation. In many cases the contents
of the appendix may be removed by manipulation. Should the pain be
too severe inhibit from the eighth dorsal vertebra to the first lumbar.
After the recovery of the patient the treatment should
be persisted in for some time, as changes have taken place which only a
good circulation can restore. This should be done to prevent a recurrence
of an attack. If constipation has been a disturbing factor this must
be treated and a diet ordered. See diet for constipation.
(Strangulation, Volvulus, Intussusception, Stricture, Tumors.)
Strangulation by bands from adhesions is a common
form. Volvulus, a twisting of the bowel, is common in the sigmoid
flexure. Intussusceptiori, the invagination of a portion of bowel
into the lumen of an adjacent part. The latter causes most cases
of obstruction of the bowels in children. Stricture of the bowels
may be caused by tissue of new formation of the nature of scar tissue or
by cancer. Tumors outside the bowels, or fecal masses inside of the
bowel may be responsible for obstruction.
In acute obstruction the pain comes on suddenly,
first severe and then decreasing in severity, but the pain remains for
some time. Constipation soon becomes evident, and is so absolute
that even gas does not pass the rectum. The abdomen becomes filled
with gas, is very much distended and exceedingly tender on pressure or
on movement made by the patient. There is vomiting, some fever with
a rapid pulse.
In cases of chronic obstruction there are occasional
spells of vomiting and constipation. The stomach is uneasy and there
is a tendency to vomit. There are occasional spells of diarrhoea.
The attacks have a tendency to recur at frequent intervals.
Many of these forms of obstruction may be overcome
without the use of the knife, which is often considered necessary.
Some cases require careful and persistent work over the abdomen.
The work must be directed to remove the cause after the symptoms are overcome
to a certain extent. Adhesive bands may be carefully broken up.
Twists when located may be corrected. They are often caused by enteroptosis.
This condition is often met with on the left side in the sigmoid flexure
and on the right side in the caecum. Both may be lifted up and straightened.
See Nos. 96, 97, 98, 99. In cases of intussusception the invaginated
portion may be pulled out.
In cases where there are fecal masses, these may
be gradually broken up and passed along the bowel. Some writers recommend
that the patient be placed on his knees, with the head and shoulders down,
the knee-chest position, and a large injection given. Some authors
recommend that the patient be placed in various positions and shaken.
It may be necessary to give frequent enemas and to
continue the work with the patient for some time, until the bowels are
made to move.
In case the pain is very severe we may inhibit the
spine from the eighth dorsal to the first lumbar vertebra. See No.
When the patient has become better the real first
cause must be treated, which we will find in spine or rib lesions, disturbing
the nerve and blood supply to the bowels. A section or segment of
the cord may have some pressure, and affects the nerves in such a manner
that one portion of the intestine is too active and the adjacent portion
is partially paralyzed, thus accounting for the intussusception or volvulus.
For a complete cure this condition must be corrected. We must stay
with the acute cases until they are better, and the chronic cases may be
treated twice or three times per week. A general treatment may be
indicated in the chronic cases. See general treatment.
This is a condition in which the bile pigments color
the skin, mucous membranes and some fluids of the body.
Lesions of the spine and ribs, which interfere with
the nerve supply of the liver and surrounding tissues, are a frequent cause
of the trouble. The direct cause will be found in some obstruction,
it may be of the liver itself, which interferes with the free flow of the
bile into the intestines. Parasites, gallstones, strictures or tumors
may be among the causes.
Symptoms. In catarrhal jaundice the
color will be lighter, perhaps a lemon color. In obstructive jaundice
the color will be much darker, may be dark green or bronzed. In some
cases the skin is of a leathery, greenish-black hue. This latter
condition is sometimes called black jaundice. The secretionsof the
body are colored with bile pigments. The sweat may color the underclothing.
The color is apparent in the urine. The first place where the yellow
hue is noted is in the white of the eye.
Itching may be intense in various parts of the body.
In some cases it precedes the attacks of the disease; in other cases it
appears when the disease is very much prolonged. As the bile fails
to pass into the intestines, where it assists in the digestion of the food,
the stools are, whitish or grayish in color.
Treatment. The condition calls for a
thorough general osteopathic treatment. Special attention must be given
to the liver. See treatment for cirrhosis of the liver. See also general
The bile duct may be worked over and some pressure
brought to bear on the gall bladder under the points of the ninth and tenth
ribs, pressing inward and upward. Rib lesions, if any, must be removed.
See Nos. 81 to 93. The spine must be manipulated from the fourth
dorsal vertebra to the lumbar region. See Nos. 34, 43, 48, 51, 53.
Keep the liver active.
Diet. It is well to avoid starches,
fats, and sweets. Eliminate fried foods as much as possible.
The appetite must be tempted. Give lemonade, the juice of pineapples,
and oranges. Stewed fruits, soft cooked eggs and cereals are excellent.
Drink plenty of water.
The medical treatment would be calomel, five to eight grains, taken
in fractional doses, followed by a dose of salts. Sodium phosphates
is given as in the treatment for gallstones, which see. To control
the itching, use talcum powder or powdered starch, or sponge with a warm
solution of warm baking soda.
This affection is very widespread, occurring chiefly
in women. It is claimed that they have
three-fourths of all the cases. It has further been authoritatively
stated that twenty-five per cent of all women over sixty years of age are
afflicted with the disease.
The stones form chiefly in the gall bladder, though
they sometimes start in the liver. Anything that interferes with
the free flow of the bile may be productive of the stones. The Osteopath
finds lesions in the back, from between the shoulder blades to the eleventh
dorsal vertebra. The ribs in the same region are often out of proper
relationship, either with the spine or with themselves. These spinal
and rib lesions interfere with the nerve and blood supply of the liver.
The peristaltic action of the gall bladder is also interfered with by the
same lesions. Tight lacing, the dropping down of the intestines or
a kidney, constipation, lack of exercise, the inordinate use of rich food,
or too much of any one kind of food, continual bending over and sedentary
occupations all predispose to this disease.
When the stones are forming there are no symptoms,
but when the stone begins to pass through the duct, on its way to the intestines,
intense pain develops suddenly in the upper right side of the abdomen,
radiating towards the umbilicus and over the abdomen, and under the right
shoulder blade. The patient vomits, sweats and is in great agony.
The temperature rises to 102 to 104. There is tenderness in the region
of the liver and the gall bladder is swollen. The gall bladder lies
under the thin edge of the liver at about the point between the ends of
the ninth and tenth ribs. The attack lasts until the stone reaches
Treatment. All lesions found in the
spine and ribs require immediate removal, as far as possible. Give
a stimulative treatment in the middle of the spine. See Nos. 43,
44, 48, 57. The bowels may be manipulated carefully, and when the
pain is most severe the spine may be held, as in No. 67. Hold firmly
for inhibition at the eighth, ninth and tenth dorsal vertebrae. At
the same time an attempt may be made to assist the stone through the duct.
Remember that it runs from the gall bladder in the shape of a reverse letter
" S " to a point about one-half an inch below the umbilicus! When
the patient is better, treatment should be given each day for awhile, paying
particular attention to constipation. The writer has successfully
treated by the above method when surgeons said that an immediate operation
The medical treatment would be about one-fourth of
a grain of morphine, administered hypodermically, assisted by a little
chloroform, if the pain is very severe, which the patient breathes until
the morphine has taken effect. Of course the morphine is to be given
only when there is great pain. Further treatment would call for from
two to five grains of calomel, followed by a dose of salts. This
should be repeated when there are evidences of constipation. The
bowels should move at least once per day. A teaspoonful of the saturated
solution of sodium phosphate should be taken in a wineglass of water every
three hours. After the patient becomes better it will be well to
take the sodium phosphate for some time at least once per day.
When the disease is troublesome an enema of cold
water should be used each day. Plenty of water should be drunk at
all times. The use of hot fomentations over the liver and gall bladder
will assist in relieving pain and will promote circulation in the affected,
Diet. Starches, fats and sugars should
be avoided as much as possible forever after an attack. Avoid peas,
carrots, sweet vegetables and sweet fruit; also egg yolks.
Fresh green vegetables and acid fruits are highly
recommended. Meat may be eaten once per day. Cereals should
be well cooked.
OF THE GALL DUCT AND BLADDER.
The symptoms may be much the same as in gallstones
and it requires the same treatment.
CIRRHOSIS OF THE LIVER.
There are many forms of this disease, in which there
is an increase of the connective tissue of the liver and a destruction
of the secreting cells.
Atropic cirrhosis of the liver is also known as hob-nailed
liver, granular liver, and chronic interstitial hepatitis. It occurs
in middle-aged persons. The liver is much reduced in size.
The disease may be caused by alcohol, syphilis and some of the poisons
of infectious diseases.
Symptoms. There is progressive loss
of strength. The patient falls off in weight, and there are disturbances
of the stomach and bowels. There is constipation, difficult breathing,
and insomnia. The obstruction of the portal circulation may cause
dropsy and piles. The stools will be found to be clay colored.
The abdominal veins around the navel are enlarged and form what is called
the "Caput Medusae." There is no jaundice. The outlook is not
Hypertrophic Cirrhosis. In this disease
the liver is enlarged. The disease occurs chiefly in young people.
There is jaundice. It may be very marked. There is no dropsy.
There is pain in the region of the liver, with nausea and vomiting.
The liver may be felt in the upper abdomen on the right side. Normally
it comes down to the edge of the ribs.
Treatment. We may expect the best possible
results from osteopathic treatment. There are cases, though, that
resist all treatment. The liver may be stimulated by treatment in
the middle and upper part of the back, say from the sixth dorsal to the
first lumbar. See Nos. 34, 43, 44, 48, 49, 52, 53. This work
will assist in regaining vaso motor control. All lesions found must
be removed. The liver may be worked over, as in, Nos. 101, 102.
Also work under the lower ribs carefully, as in Nos. 93, 94, 103.
This work is to be done, of course, on the right side.
A deep, careful abdominal treatment should be given.
See Nos. 95 to 100. This is for the purpose of freeing up the circulation
of the portal vein. The ribs on the right side must be raised if
depressed. Correct them if luxated in any manner. See No. 93,
also Nos. 101, 102. The diet should be food easily digested.
Alcoholic drinks should be prohibited, as well as tea, coffee, spices,
and all condiments which tend to excite the intestinal tract. Never
allow the patient to overeat and never eat too much of any particular diet.
Cabbage, beans, pork and pastry are forbidden. Some difficult cases
call for an exclusive milk diet, which may be diluted with vichy if the
patient is unable to take it straight. Drink plenty of water, vichy,
ginger ale and peppermint tea. Regular hours should be kept as regards
sleeping. The patient should take regular exercises, In many cases
walking in the open air is good.
The patient should bathe regularly and keep the skin
active. In addition to the full tub bath, taken once or twice per
week. the patient should take a cold sponge bath every morning with a brisk
rub. Under medical treatment the bowels are to be kept open with
(Fatty Infiltration of the Liver. Fatty Degeneration of the
This disease is treated practically the same as for
cirrhosis of the liver, which see.
Treatment is the same as for cirrhosis of the liver,
CONGESTION OF THE LIVER
(Hyperaemia of the Liver.)
When digestion is under way the liver is congested.
A lazy man who is a hearty eater has a congested liver constantly.
It may be caused from over indulgence in eating and drinking, or it may
be occasioned by the various infectious fevers.
In active congestion of the liver there is constipation
or diarrhoea, scanty, high-colored urine, a loathing of food, nausea, vomiting,
fever, with headache and coated tongue.
The osteopathic treatment should be very successful.
The spine should be thoroughly treated. See Nos. 34, 43, 36, 47,
48, 50, 53, 57, 58. Remove all spinal and rib lesions. Raise
the ribs. See Nos. 82, 86. Work over the liver as in Nos. 93,
101, 102. Give a thorough abdominal treatment. See Nos. 94,
95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100. It will be well to give an enema, a tablespoon
of salt to a quart of water. Drink plenty of water at various times
during the day. Use sour lemonade. A liquid diet is to be preferred.
Let up on the eating.
The medical treatment would be a half grain of calomel
every hour for six botirs, followed later by a dose of salts. Rest
in bed with diet and drink as above.
OF THE LIVER.
This may be caused by diseases of the lungs or pleura,
pressure on the vena cava, and from valvular heart disease. The treatment
for this condition, of course, must vary with the cause of the disease.
Most cases of congestion are to be treated as above, with treatment of
the underlying cause.
Is an inflammation of the peritoneum, a serous membrane
lining the abdominal cavity, and enclosing the contained viscera.
The disease may be acute or chronic. It may
be caused by a blow or strain, or infection following obstruction, or typhoid
fever, or tuberculosis, or gonorrhoea.
When the disease is acute there is distension of
the abdomen, with tenderness and great pain. There is constipation
and vomiting. The temperature ranges from 102 to 104. The pulse
is hard and is from 110 to 140, and the patient breathes 25 to 40 times
The treatment calls for relaxation of all the spinal tissues, with
inhibition in the lower dorsal and upper lumbar region. See Nos.
47, 48, 50, 52, 53, 67. Give a careful abdominal treatment.
See Nos. 94 to 103, 67. The inhibition checks peristalsis of the
bowels and the relaxation of tissues assists circulation. This work
may all be done with the patient lying on the back. This treatment
should be given two or three times per day. A liquid diet should
be given, cracked ice for the thirst and give an enema for constipation.
The ice bag or hot fomentations are used over the bowels. Medical
treatment calls for the use of morphine to control the pain.
Inflammation of the bowels, hysterical peritonitis,
obstruction of the bowels of any kind, the rupture of the superior mesenteric
artery, or a tubal or other extra uterine pregnancy may simulate peritonitis.
(Cholera Nostras. Sporadic Cholera. Acute Gastroenteritis.)
This is an acute condition, characterized by vomiting,
purging and abdominal pains. It is frequently accompanied by muscular
pains and cramps.
This disease is frequently met with in the summer,
and follows sudden changes in the temperature of thirty to forty degrees
and over. It is caused by exposure to wet and cold. and the eating
of unripe or overripe fruit; also vegetables of the same kind, and canned
goods and ice cream, etc.
It begins suddenly. There may be a temperature
of from 101 to 105 degrees. As the case
progresses the pulse becomes weak and the extremities cool.
Treatment. Rest in bed. Thoroughly
relax all the spinal tissues. See Nos. 34, 43, 47, 48, 53, 57.
Spring the spine gently from the upper dorsal to the lumbar region.
See Nos. 57, 61. The spine should then be inhibited by holding it
strongly just above the lumbar region as in No. 67, or a book may be placed
under this same region as in No. 67, Fig. 66. This treatment will
stop the peristalsis of the bowels, and thus stop the drain on the system.
This inhibition should not be given until we are sure that all irritating
substances have been expelled from the bowels.
Most medical writers recommend an evacuation of the
bowels, either with a dose of castor oil, about one ounce for an adult,
or a dose of Epsom salts. The diet should be bland and mild.
Burnt flour soup, tea and toast, peppermint tea, some boiled rice.
For the intense thirst give cracked ice, very weak,
cold tea, without sugar, and not much water, because it tends to further
loosen the bowels. In a very severe case food may be withheld for
twenty-four hours and a slow return made to solid food, among which should
be well-boiled rice, soft-boiled eggs, milk toast and crackers.
This is a disease with symptoms much the same as
cholera morbus, only in many cases more pronounced. When occurring
in children two years or younger it is called cholera infantum. It
is often due to poisons generated in the milk or other food, which profoundly
affects the nerve centers.
The stomach and intestines should be emptied as soon
as possible. This is quickly effected by irrigation. The temperature
when high should be regulated by baths, and if below normal, hot water
bags should be applied to the body. The bath for reducing fever should
last for from ten to twenty minutes. It should be given often.
An ice cap may be applied to the head.
After the stomach is cleansed nothing should be taken
but a little ice and brandy. The regular diet should be restored
only gradually after the symptoms have subsided.
The pain and colic may be relieved by strong inhibition
above the small of the back. See No. 67 The child may be lifted well
off the bed by clasping the hands beneath the back where we desire to inhibit.
This will give the desired pressure. Hold for a minute or two.
All of the tissues of the back should be thoroughly relaxed. See
Nos. 48, 57, 58, 34, 43. Relax the tissues of the neck. See
Nos. 1, 5, 9, 10, 11. Pressure above the sacrum will stop cramps
in the legs. An ice bag applied there and to the lower lumbar region
will do the same.
This is an acute or chronic disease of the colon.
or large intestine. It may lead to ulceration. There are mucous
and bloody stools. There is griping pain in the bowels, and a bearing
down sensation, with an almost constant desire to go to stool. There
may be a low fever and vomiting at the beginning of the trouble.
The disease may be brought on by polluted drinking
water, indigestible food, sudden changes of weather or unsanitary conditions.
Treatment. The patient should
rest in bed. A thorough relaxing spinal treatment should be given.
See Nos. 47, 48, 57, 58, 43. Deep inhibitive treatment should be
given over the abdomen. See Nos. 94 to 100. Pressure should
be exerted on the spine (inhibitive) from the middle dorsal to the lower
lumbar. See No. 67. One prominent medical writer recommends
the giving of one drachm of Glauber's salts (sodium sulphate), from four
to eight times per day, until blood disappears from the stools, usually
for two or three days. Light poultices, or turpentine stupes or fomentations,
will be especially soothing to the patient.
The diet should be restricted to milk, broth, beef
juice and egg albumen.
It is always well to determine the cause of the disease.
With this trouble there may be several causes, one or more of which may
be present. They may be enumerated as follows: (1) Indigestible,
overripe or green fruit. (2) Sudden changes in the weather temperature.
(3) Poisons generated in the food, as in milk, ice cream, etc., or minerals
which may have been taken as drugs. (4) Nervous symptoms resulting from
the emotions as fright. (5) Various diseases as cholera, typhoid fever,
tuberculosis, etc. (6) Predisposing causes as anatomical derangements of
Treatment. If the disease arises from
either of the first three of the above causes a dose of castor oil, followed
by an enema, is indicated, followed by a relaxation of all of the tissues
of the spine and back. See Nos. 34, 36, 43, 48, 57, 58. If
the condition arises from nervousness, rest is indicated and a thorough
general treatment for the underlying causes should be given three times
per week for two or three months. See general treatment.
A boiled-milk diet and egg albumen may be resorted
to until the troublesome symptoms have abated.
When there are anatomical misplacements they should
be removed. There are such causes in every chronic case, and hundreds
of such cases have been permanently cured by the removal of such lesions.
As a palliative measure to relieve when the peristalsis of the bowels are
persistent see No. 67.
This is a very common trouble with all ages and both
sexes. It poisons the system, and by undue pressure of the fecal
mass against soft tissues, is a prolific cause of many other diseases.
Retention and hardness of feces, irregularity and insufficiency of bowel
evacuation, are regarded as constipation.
This trouble may be caused by any one or any combination
of the following: Lesions of the spine or ribs, affecting the blood or
nerve supply of the bowels, poor peristaltic action, mechanical obstruction,
impairment of quality or absence of bile, a flabby or pendulous condition
of the abdominal walls and muscles, inattention to the calls of nature,
dependence upon purgatives, improper diet, lack of exercise.
Treatment. The most important thing
to do is to remove the real cause of the torpidity of the bowels.
The lower half of the spine will be generally found at fault. A common
condition is a tension of the ligaments binding the vertebrae together,
with a posterior condition of the lower dorsal and lumbar vertebrae.
This affects the nerve supply to the bowels. This may be overcome
by a thorough loosening up of these tightened conditions by manipulation,
as in Nos. 43, 44, 48, 49, 51, 63. The entire muscular structures
of the lower part of the back must be relaxed. See Nos. 64, 47, 53,
58. The lower ribs if down must be raised. See Nos. 90, 91,
92. The bowels should be thoroughly manipulated. See Nos. 94
to 100. Fecal obstructions may thus be loosened and passed along
the intestinal tract. Some writers recommend rolling a cannon ball,
wrapped in some suitable covering, over the intestines for five or ten
minutes each morning and evening. All spinal lesions, of
whatever nature, should be removed. See examination of the spine.
In a very elderly person, or where the abdominal
walls are flabby and pendulous, a suitable
abdominal belt should be worn until the tissues can be toned up by
the osteopathic treatment. This will hold the contents from sagging
and obstructing the general circulation of the pelvis.
Every one should have a regular time to go to stool,
and those liable to suffer from constipation should let nothing interfere
with this important duty. Many cases of fecal retention start from
neglecting the calls of nature. When suffering from constipation
go whether you feel the necessity or not, and when you go do not be in
a hurry, but expect a movement. Do not strain. It is very injurious
for a woman to do so, and in either sex may cause piles.
Stop the use of purgatives, however simple and harmless
they may be said to be. In using
purgatives the doses must be increased, the drug must be changed for
another, until it is almost impossible to secure an action. Nature
grows dependent upon these and their use only confirms the condition and
makes the cure all the more difficult.
Should the bowels prove a little obstinate to the
above treatment, at first, use an enema, in which a tablespoonful of salt
is used to a quart of water. Use a fountain syringe. Retain
the water a half hour if you can, meanwhile massaging the bowel contents.
This should not be done but every other day, and must not be continued
long. Continued use of such a treatment weakens the tissues and stops
the proper secretions.
Diet. The diet should receive special
attention. Most people are accustomed to a too concentrated diet,
in which there is too little to pass through the intestines to help excite
the peristaltic action by friction on the nerve terminals. All of
the following foods are splendid for constipation. A diet may be
selected from them, and in case anything is known not to agree with the
patient it may be omitted from the list: Tomatoes, lettuce, spinach, asparagus,
beans, peas, corn, potatoes, cabbage, celery, boiled Spanish onions, carrots,
turnips, squash, pumpkin, and cauliflower.
Corn and Indian meal oatmeal, shredded wheat, coarse
graham bread, graham gems, bran bread and bran biscuits. The bran
may be mixed with graham or white flour. The bran may also be eaten
raw, as much as three or four tablespoons per day. Olive oil may
be eaten on salads, lettuce and tomatoes. Use plenty of butter.
All fruits with small seeds are excellent, such as figs, raspberries, blackberries,
strawberries, grapes and huckleberries.
Grapefruit cherries, prunes, oranges, pears, peaches
and apples are all splendid. Some of the above may be stewed if the
raw fruit disagrees.
English walnuts, butternuts, walnuts and almonds.
Water, coffee, cider, grapejuice, buttermilk and sour milk are all desirable.
Foods to Avoid.
Fried foods, rich sauces and gravies, sweets, pastry,
pickles, cheese, starchy puddings, tea, sour wine, red wine, eggs, milk,
or any other highly concentrated foods.
Two glasses of water should be taken on rising in
the morning. Drink plenty of water between meals and a glass or two
on retiring. Water taken on an empty stomach is absorbed by that
organ and goes through the portal circulation to the liver, where it performs
a healthful work. If plain water disagrees, flavor it with lemon
juice or a little spice.
A daily cold bath, followed by a vigorous rub until
the skin is made to glow, is a useful adjunct.
If the patient follows a sedentary life, and is indoors
much of the time, exercise is to be
recommended, such as walking, horseback riding, tennis playing, bowling,
(Incontinence of Urine. Bed Wetting.)
This trouble is a nervous condition, which interferes
with the normal nerve impulses in the lumbar region of the spinal cord
and produces an involuntary discharge of urine. The lesions found
are in the lower dorsal, lumbar and sacral regions. Their removal
leads to a permanent cure. Frequently the lumbar portion of the spine
is stiff and straight. Treat about twice per week. See Nos.
51, 52, 57, 58.
While the patient is in the knee-chest position the
ischia may be gently separated as in Fig. 108. The abdominal contents
may be lifted up, as described in paragraph 96, taking care to begin as
low down as the pubis, so the bladder and uterus may be elevated some.
The sacroiliac synchondrosis should be slightly loosened, as indicated
in paragraphs 106 and 107.
This treatment, properly given, will effect a cure.
If the patient is nervous give a general treatment in addition. See
The patient for a time should eat the largest meal
at noon. Drink plenty of water early in the day and up to about three
hours before bedtime, after which very little or none should be taken.
The foot of the bed may be elevated at night. A cold sponge bath,
followed by a brisk rubbing with a crash towel, should be taken on rising
in the morning.
Holt says that punishment of any kind should never
be employed, as it is absolutely harmful, but he finds that a system of
rewards, in the case of children, works well. If the child especially
desires a doll, bicycle or pony allow him to have it, as long as the bed
remains dry. A nickel for each night that remains dry is very helpful.
With the above treatment the author has been very successful in overcoming
this very annoying condition.
(Inflammation of the Bladder.)
This inflammation may be acute or chronic, and may
be caused by gonorrhea, unclean catheters, retention of urine, and colds.
The symptoms are bearing down pains over the bladder,
with tenderness in the same region on pressure. The urine is scanty
and often highly colored. It may be tinged with blood and contains
blood and mucus.
Treatment. The patient should rest in bed,
with the hips slightly elevated. Remove any lesions found in the
lower dorsal and lumbar regions, and stimulate over the lumbar and sacral
region. See Nos. 51, 52, 57, 58. Should there be pain in the
bladder inhibit in the above regions. See No. 67. Local abdominal
treatment should be given, lifting up on the contents of the abdomen, especially
the lower part. See Nos. 96, 97. Give a thorough general and
inhibitive treatment to the bowels. This helps to draw the blood
away from the bladder. See Nos. 94, 95, 100. Treat in acute
cases once or twice daily.
Hot sitz baths and hot applications over the bladder
will be helpful. Use the liquid diet. Drink plenty of water.
Peppermint tea is splendid. The medical treatment often recommended
is to keep the bowels open with the use of salts. Irrigation of the
bladder, with a soft rubber tube and a fountain syringe, using a two per
cent solution of boric acid. A formalin solution is used for the
same purpose, five to ten drops to a pint of water. In either case
the water should be sterilized by boiling.
Is a poisoned condition of the system, which sometimes
develops in nephritis or anuria, due to the presence of toxic material,
which should have been eliminated by the kidneys. It may also follow
gout, scarlet fever and typhoid fever.
The onset is sudden, the face is pale, pulse is slow.
There is often a dropsical condition and the breathing is difficult.
The urine is scanty and contains albumen. There is nausea, vomiting,
delirium and convulsions. There may be paralysis.
The treatment is administered for the purpose of
stimulating the kidneys and skin to activity. Thorough work must
be performed from the fifth dorsal to the second lumbar vertebra.
See Nos. 43, 44, 48, 51, 52. Treat the abdomen deeply and thoroughly
at and above the umbilicus. See Nos. 94 to 100. Treat the upper
dorsal and neck region to stimulate the heart and lungs. See Nos.
53, 1, 5, 7B, 7C. Raise the ribs. See Nos. 81, 88. Treat
strongly at the base of the skull. See No. 7B. Give a warm
salt water enema, in which a tablespoonful of salt has been dissolved to
each quart of water. Hot packs will help to induce sweating.
Some medical authorities advocate active purging,
with the use of salts. To induce sweating use either the hot bath
or give one-tenth of a grain of pilocarpine three times per day.
(Suppression of Urine.)
Anuria commonly means that the urine does not reach
the bladder, a suppression of urine. Cases in which the suppression
is absolute are very rare.
The trouble may be caused by acute Bright's disease,
by lowered pressure of the blood, or when the fluids are depleted by diarrhoea.
The ureter of a healthy kidney may be obstructed by pressure, or calculi
may block both ureters. Severe injuries, or an operation, or lead,
turpentine or phosphorus poisoning may act as a cause. Patients have
lived for ten days with complete suppression of the urine. One writer
records recovery after a suppression of nineteen days.
Treatment should be given mainly to stimulate the
spine at the tenth, eleventh and twelfth dorsal vertebrae. This may
be extended from the sixth dorsal to the second lumbar vertebra.
See Nos. 43, 44, 48, 51, 52.
Draw the muscles away from the spine, as in Nos.
31. Treat the abdomen in a thorough manner to draw the blood there and
relieve congestion. See Nos. 94 to 100. The bowels should be
kept open. The skin should be kept active by hot tub baths and hot
packs. Hot salt water enemas should be taken.
This is an affection of the suprarenal glands.
It is characterized by heart weakness, gastrointestinal symptoms, and a
bronzed condition of the skin. Medical writers claim the real cause
to be unknown, but the disease has followed blows upon the back and abdomen;
also caries of the spine. They say that the disease is fatal and
recovery is unknown. It occurs mostly in men between the ages of
twenty and forty. Ninety per cent of those who stiffer with this
disease are laborers.
Do not diagnose every case of pigmented skin as Addison's
disease. Prostration is present before any other symptom and becomes
more marked. Remember, that in cancer, tuberculosis, liver troubles,
pregnancy, exophthalmic goiter, and in marked brunettes this bronzed condition
The patient may be kept in bed. A light diet,
but nutritious, should be employed. Some prefer a strict milk diet.
In some cases a light, agreeable form of exercise may be employed.
This disease has been cured under Osteopathic treatment.
A general treatment should be given, paving particular attention to the
articulations of all the vertebrae. See general treatment.
Lift the lower bowel from the pelvis. See paragraphs 96 and 97.
The patient should receive a treatment every other day for a while.
CONGESTION OF KIDNEY.
The osteopathic treatment will be the same as for
anuria. Medical writers recommend a calomel purge of from five to
ten grains, followed by a good dose of salts in a few hours. Warm
baths and enemas are recommended.
Floating kidney, palpable kidney, nephrotosis, are
terms used to denote the various degrees in which a kidney may be removed
from its normal position. Its most common occurrence in women is
due to the wasting of the fat tissues which hold it in place, weakness
of the abdominal walls from repeated pregnancies, and tight lacing.
In men it may be due to heavy lifting, strains, tumors, etc.
With the patient lying on the back, the knee flexed,
the operator stands at the left of the patient and with the left hand placed
behind the eleventh and twelfth ribs on the right side, the right hand
just below the liver over the upper abdomen, pressure may be made with
both hands, and a hard, rounded body may be detected with a tendency to
move upwards. It may be so low that the upper part of the kidney
may be palpable, or it may be felt in the lower part of the abdomen.
In most cases there are no symptoms. There
may be nervous symptoms and dyspepsia. With the floating type there
may be severe pain, chills, fever and vomiting with collapse.
Treatment. Build up the patient.
Increase the fat. See diet in tuberculosis. Give a general
osteopathic treatment three times per week. The kidney may be pushed
up and an abdominal belt worn to hold up the abdominal contents, thus assisting
in holding the organ in place.
ACUTE BRIGHTS DISEASE.
(Acute Nephritis. Acute Inflammation of the Kidneys.)
Acute inflammation of the kidneys may be caused by
exposure to cold and wet and to poisons generated by the acute infectious
diseases, such as scarlet fever, measles, diphtheria, small pox, chicken
pox, malaria, meningitis, tonsillitis, etc. It may also be caused
by turpentine, cantharides, carbolic acid, and potassium chlorate.
Pregnancy is also a cause, occasioned by pressure on the renal veins.
Extensive burns are frequently followed by this disease.
Symptoms. The urine is high colored
and scanty. It contains blood and albumen. To test for albumen,
boil a little urine in a test tube over a spirit lamp. If it becomes
cloudy add a drop of nitric acid. Should the cloudy condition persist
it indicates albumen, but if it clears up on adding the acid it is an indication
of phosphates. The pulse is hard. The face, particularly under
the eyes, and the ankles may be swollen. There may be pain in the
back, with vomiting. There may be fever of from 101 to 103 degrees.
The skin is dry.
Treatment. Lesions should be looked
for from the cervical region to the lumbar. Lesions found should
be removed. Special stimulation should be given from the sixth dorsal
to the second lumbar vertebra. See Nos. 34, 43, 44, 48, 51, 52.
Work over the lower lumbar region and stimulate the sacral nerves.
See No. 57. Give a thorough abdominal treatment at and above the
umbilicus. See Nos. 94 to 100. Give an inhibitive treatment
in the lower abdomen. Use hot tub baths and the hot packs.
See hot packs. Until the patient is better treat each day. Later,
three times per week will be sufficient. The patient should rest
in bed. Use a liquid diet. Drink plenty of water, lemonade,
mint tea and buttermilk. It would be best to live on an exclusive
milk diet for several days. It should be sipped slowly. An
adult needs from two quarts to four quarts daily. It may be diluted
with vichy or carbonic acid water. If the milk can not be made to
agree with the patient, gruels may be given, made of arrowroot, rice, oatmeal,
etc., but vegetables and meat are interdicted. A splendid drink is
a drachm of cream of tartar in a quart of boiling water. Add the
juice of a lemon and a little sugar. Drink when cold.
Orange juice, baked apples, stewed prunes, rice pudding
and blancmange may be added later. Return to a regular diet should
be slow. Even then use plenty of milk and avoid highly-seasoned and
spiced foods, rich foods, pastry, alcoholic drinks, tea and coffee.
The medical treatment, if desired, would be to have
the bowels kept active with calomel, followed by salts. In
case the hot bathing and packs failed to induce sweating, give children
one-twelfth to one-eighth of a grain of pilocarpine three times per day,
and for adults one-sixth to one-fourth of a grain until the skin becomes
CHRONIC BRIGHT'S DISEASE.
There are two forms recognized, the chronic diffuse,
or parenchymatous nephritis, and the interstitial nephritis, or cirrhosis
of the kidney or contracted kidney.
Symptoms. In diffuse nephritis the urine
is scanty, high colored, cloudy and contains much albumen. In interstitial
nephritis the urine is abundant, light colored and contains albumen.
See the acute form. In both there are stomach and intestinal disturbances,
headache, loss of appetite, dropsy, puffing under the eyes, rapid heart
beat, changes in the retina. The outlook is bad in both cases, but
More favorable in interstitial nephritis.
From the osteopathic standpoint the treatment will
be along the same general lines as for acute nephritis, only it will be
given from three to four times per week in hope of prolonging the patient's
Systematic exercise out of doors is a good thing
for a patient with this disease. He must be free from care and worry.
Thoroughly masticate the food and do not overeat. Oranges, lemons,
apples and stewed prunes will be helpful in keeping the bowels open.
After the discovery of the disease it will be well to try a milk diet for
two to four months. The milk may be thickened with tapioca. sago
or rice. Large amounts of the milk may be taken in weak coffee or
tea. From two to four quarts will be sufficient for an adult in a
day. When a change is made to solid food it will be well to take
some milk. Corn bread, sago, tapioca, rice, macaroni, fresh, green
vegetables, bacon, butter, potatoes, olive oil, the white meat of chicken,
raw oysters, clams and fresh fish, a little mutton or fresh beef may be
taken. The patient is urged to drink plenty of water, both hot and
cold, also lemonade, buttermilk, ginger ale and the cream of tartar drink
advised in acute nephritis.
(Ascites, Renal Dropsy.)
Ascites is dropsical condition of the abdomen, due
to the accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal sac. It is generally
caused by some other disease or diseases. It may follow diseases
of the liver, heart, lungs, kidneys, or it may be secondary to la grippe,
fever, etc. It may be caused directly by an obstruction to the portal
circulation or to an abdominal tumor. We look for lesions in the
spine, in the upper lumbar and lower dorsal regions, also among the ribs.
The treatment in general should be directed to the
removal of the first cause, and in addition we should stimulate the kidneys.
See treatment in Bright's disease.
It will be well to give a thorough general treatment.
See general treatment. Special attention should be given to the upper
dorsal region. Work here will stimulate the skin. Give a deep
abdominal treatment. See Nos. 94, 95. Treat the solar plexus.
See No. 100. Manipulate and treat the limbs as in Nos. 113, 114,
116. Work over the liver and keep the bowels active. See Nos.
93, 101, 102.
Renal Dropsy. This is an accumulation
of fluid in cellular tissues and lymph spaces from the arteries and veins,
and is caused by the failure of the kidneys to carry off the surplus fluid,
as they fail to do in various kidney diseases. See acute and chronic
Bright's disease. The main treatment is, of course, directed to the
cure of the primary condition. Keep the kidneys well stimulated by
treatment in the lower dorsal region. Give a thorough general treatment
for the purpose of toning up all tile tissues. This assists the general
circulation and retards the flow of fluid out of the blood vessels into
the lymph and other spaces.
This disease is a thickening of the walls of the
arteries, due to chronic inflammation of the inner coat (intima).
It is often hereditary. Gout, syphilis, rheumatism, alcoholism, high
and fast living act as exciting causes. This disease is often a forerunner
of heart, liver, and Bright's disease and apoplexy. One great cause
of this disease is overeating. We eat too much. We keep it
up too long. I agree with George Cheyne, that every man after fifty,
it would be well to begin at forty, ought to lessen the amount of his food,
and every seven years after lessen it sensibly and gradually, and at last
descend out of life as he ascended into it, even into the Child's Diet.
He says that this would keep the faculties and senses clear and keep us
free from great and dangerous distempers. He further says: "Milk
and sweet, sound blood differ in nothing but color. Milk is blood."
Symptoms. They are obscure, but in many
cases there is a hard, bounding pulse, difficult breathing, and insomnia.
It generally appears after forty.
Treatment. A general osteopathic treatment
is indicated. See general treatment. Stimulate between the
second and fifth dorsal vertebrae. See Nos. 34, 38, 43. Raise
the ribs. See Nos. 84, 86. Work over the liver. See Nos.
93, 101, 102. Give a thorough abdominal treatment. See Nos.
94, 95. Stimulate the solar plexus. See No. 100.
Diet. Let the meals be taken regularly.
Drink plenty of water between meals. Leave alcohol alone. Use
vegetables rather than meat. If there are renal symptoms, skimmed
milk is a most excellent diet.
(Inflammation of Veins.)
This may be simple or it may be septic, or it may
be septic with bacteria from some neighboring suppurative process.
The veins are firm and painful to tile touch, and are surrounded by inflamed
tissue. There is swelling and pain, with some heat. There is
stiffness of the limb. The skin is discolored. Pressure, without
or with injury, may act as a cause for this disturbance. Often there
is no history of violence or accident. Most simple cases occur in
the lower limbs. Should it be in the pelvis, car or portal vein,
the condition is most grave and surgical assistance: may be necessary.
Treatment. The patient must rest, sometimes
for a month or six weeks. When the trouble is in the lower limbs
the trouble is looked for at the eleventh dorsal and below this point,
as far as the sacrum. Remove the lesions as far as possible and give
stimulating treatment in the lower dorsal and lumbar regions. See
Nos. 43, 44, 48, 51, 52. Rotate and manipulate the lower limb with
great care, as in Nos. 113, 114.
Give slight torsion about ten times each way per
treatment, as in No. 121. Gently rub tissues of the limb in the direction
of the heart.
Diet. The diet should be light.
Keep the limb elevated as much as possible. Hot fomentations may
be applied for a while. Some medical authorities advocate the use
of lead water, used as a cold compress.
Varicose or enlarged veins are more common in the
lower limbs. In general they are due to an obstruction to the return
circulation. The condition may be partly caused by a diseased liver
or heart, relaxed abdominal walls, and ptosis of the intestines.
Constipation may help in increasing this disorder, as may a pregnant or
misplaced uterus. The Osteopath looks for lesions in the lower dorsal
and lumbar vertebrae, or in a slipped innominate bone which brings undue
tension on some muscles and ligaments.
Treatment. In general this is a stimulating
one in the lower dorsal and lumbar regions. See Nos. 43, 44, 48,
50, 51, 52. Manipulate the limb. See Nos. 113, 114, 121. Give abdominal
treatment. See Nos. 94 to 100. Lift up abdominal contents. See Nos.
96, 97. If the heart or liver is involved, this calls for treatment for
this special ailment. If constipated, see special treatment for that.
Some medical writers order salts to keep the bowels
open and order an elastic stocking. Under osteopathic treatment the
elastic stocking may be removed.
Adenia, General Lymphadenoma.
An affection of the lymphatic glands, characterized
by progressive enlargement. Nodular growths also form in the spleen,
liver and lungs. The enlargement usually begins on one side of the
neck. Three-fourths of all cases occur in males. It is a disease
of young and middle-aged people, from 10 to 40 years. The medical
profession have been unable to find a cause. The submaxillary and
cervical glands are first noticed to be enlarging. These grow to
be as large as a hen's egg or orange, and in months or years, lymphatic
glands in the axillary and inguinal, and, it may be, other internal glands,
enlarge. During the first stages of the trouble the general health
seems fair, but as the disease progresses the patient becomes pale and
weak. There are headache, difficult breathing and disturbances of
the stomach and bowels. There appears a chronic relapsing fever.
Of course as the glands enlarge there will be various pressure symptoms,
as the glands affect different nerves. The
pressure of the axillary glands on nerves there will cause pain and
swelling in the hands and arms. The inguinal glands, in the same
manner, will be the cause of great pain in the limbs and swelling of the
feet. Cough, pain and difficult breathing will be the result of swelling
mediastinal glands. Tuberculosis is so often present that it is thought
to be one cause of the trouble. In young persons it is difficult
to determine whether it is Hodgkin's disease or tuberculosis when the glands
of the neck begin to swell, but more frequently it is tuberculosis.
When there is considerable progress in the disease the patient becomes
In some cases the enlargement of the glands progresses
rapidly and the case ends fatally in three or four months, but under medical
treatment we expect the patient to last two or three years.
In treating this disease the Osteopath desires to
secure an unobstructed circulation of the blood, lymph and nerve supply,
for he believes that this disease, as most other troubles, is the result
of the obstruction of these functions of nature. An obstruction of
these forces occurring, the lymph and blood stream grows stagnant and proves
an excellent breeding ground for any pathogenic germ.
The Osteopathic treatment is given by thoroughly
treating the neck (see treatment of the neck, paragraphs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,
9, 11, 13), the object being to secure a thorough relaxation of all the
tissues of the neck. The clavicles are raised as in paragraphs 72
and 73. The ribs are adjusted as it is found necessary from the examination.
See paragraphs 74 to 89. The spine is treated as in paragraphs 48
to 64, using such treatments as are indicated from the examination.
Treat over the abdomen. See treatment of the abdomen. Remove
all lesions where found and look for some spinal curvature. Lift
up the glands carefully, so as to improve the circulation, and hold for
a few minutes. Do not handle these glands roughly, as it is easy
to injure them. In treating, after the manner described, we expect
to stop the course of the disease and to secure improvement, with sometimes
In treating all diseases the Osteopath is very much
concerned in securing a free passage for lymph, blood and nerves, for he
knows that if the nerve and fluid circulation is free in every way the
patient will soon regain his health. The arterial system should be
kept free and the venous return should be unimpeded on its way back to
the heart and lungs for purification. The obstruction of the return
circulation is a very prolific cause of disease. When the impure
blood is held back, in or near any organ, it stagnates, ferments, is the
cause of hypertrophy and furnishes a breeding place for germs.
When there is an obstruction to the circulation,
in or near any organ, due to mechanical
maladjustment of some part of the anatomy, or in the capillary system,
due to arteriosclerosis, an added burden is placed upon the heart to supply
all parts of the Ix.)dy with blood. This extra burden often leads
to hypertrophy. So important is the work of the heart in keeping
the body well nourished with blood and keeping the blood in motion that
we ought to be well informed as to its anatomy, nerve supply and physiological
In nearly all cases of heart disease we find some
pressure on the pneumogastric nerve. We
remember that this nerve supplies both the heart and lungs. It
also goes to the stomach. When the lungs or stomach do not perform
their work properly an extra burden is thrown upon the heart. Disorders
of the stomach often result in palpitation of the heart. So in treating
cases of heart disease we must carefully examine other organs and lesions
which will affect them. Special attention is given to following the
courses of all the branches of the pneumogastric nerves. In giving Osteopathic
treatment we must look for first causes before giving the treatment.
Unless we know and treat by removing these causes we may do more harm than
good. This is especially true in treating heart troubles.
OF THE HEART.
(Fatty Infiltration of the Heart.)
The heart muscles may be infiltrated with and largely
converted into fat. There may be a fatty overgrowth, in which large
amounts of fat are deposited in and about the heart. Of course this
condition greatly weakens the heart. The osteopathic treatment is
given with a view of stimulating and overcoming the condition. The
nerve supply to the heart and vessels is corrected at the same time.
This increases the strength of the beat and the general heart tone.
The stimulation is given in the area of the second to the fifth dorsal
vertebra. See Nos. 34, 43. The sympathetic ganglia in the neck
are also stimulated. See Nos. 7C, also 1, 5, 7B. The ribs are
to be gently raised. See Nos. 82, 86. A light general treatment,
including the above, may be given three times per week. See general
treatment. This will build up the general health. The diet
should be nutritious, yet it ought to be light. Take the largest
meal at noon. The patient should not be allowed to have fat, rich
cheese, goose, duck, sausage, cabbage and beans.
Exercise should be light, yet it may be gradually
increased. Graduated exercises in hill climbing have been recommended.
They should be carefully performed. The patient should be instructed
in deep breathing, which see.
VALVULAR LESIONS OF
The outlook in most cases presenting valvular difficulties
is not favorable, yet a number of cases have been cured by osteopathic
procedure. At any rate, most cases may be benefited. Should
these cases arise from lessened contractile power, or dilatation, the prognosis
is very fair.
In the treatment we should look for spinal and rib
lesions which have weakened the heart. These should be corrected.
In general the patient will be treated as for pericarditis, omitting all
The patient should lead a quiet, even life.
All strenuous exercise should be prohibited. The bowels should move
each day. Keep the body free from sudden changes of temperature,
by the use of light woolen. 'The diet may be generous, but rich and
heavy articles of food should not be eaten. Omit pastry. Do
not take Turkish or Russian baths. Do not go into high altitudes.
Cool sponge baths are good. Walking is splendid exercise.
Conservative medical treatment, in the early stages, would assist digestion
with five drops of dilute hydrochloric acid in sweetened water after each
This is an inflammation of the pericardium.
It may be caused by the passage of a foreign object through the esophagus
or by arthritis, tonsillitis, rheumatism, necrosis of bone, puerperal fever,
chorea, Bright's disease, pneumonia, scarlet fever, tuberculosis, gout
The patient should have rest. He should be
quiet mentally as well as physically. The best treatment is osteopathic.
It is given to quiet the heart's action. We look for lesions of the
first and second, fourth and fifth ribs and of the clavicles, all affecting
the drainage of the pericardium. Stimulate the vagus nerve.
See Nos. 7, 72, 73. This will inhibit the heart's action. Inhibit
the spine from the sixth cervical to the sixth dorsal. See No. 67.
The pressure here for inhibition should be prolonged. It is done
while the patient is lying on the back with the left arm raised and held
well above the head. See No. 61. Raise the ribs carefully.
It gives the heart greater space in which to work and secures better drainage
from the heart. See Nos. 82, 86. Work deeply and slowly over
the abdomen and inhibit the spine from the tenth dorsal to the second lumbar.
This draws the blood to the abdominal vessels and relieves the heart.
See Nos. 67, 94, 100. Treat once or twice daily.
The ice bag should be applied over the heart an hour at a time with
intermissions of ten minutes. Later keep it there continuously.
Keep the air out of the bag as much as possible. The diet should
be light and liquid.
Tachycardia is a rapid beating of the heart, but
without special sensation to the patient.
Brachycardia is a slow beating of the heart without any noticeable
sensation to the patient.
Arrhythmia is an irregular beat, during which a beat may be skipped
The rapid heart beat would be treated osteopathically
the same as palpitation, which see. The brachycardia is treated the
same, except the region between the second and sixth dorsal is stimulated
instead of being inhibited. Always remove lesions wherever found.
Arrhythmia calls for the same general treatment.
For an irritable heart treat the same as above. In all the above
cases the patient should avoid alcohol, tea and coffee. The patient
should not allow himself to become excited. The diet should be light.
Articles of food which have a tendency to produce gas should be left out
of the diet list.
Palpitation of the heart is a rapid beating perceptible
to the patient. It may be accompanied with difficult breathing, increased
force, irregularity, pain and anxiety. It is a sign of weakness when
we are conscious of the heart beat, even though it be normal otherwise.
Some of the secondary causes are the excessive use
of coffee, tea, alcohol or tobacco. It may occur after some fevers.
It may accompany neurasthenia, hysteria or dyspepsia, especially when the
stomach fills with gas. It has been noted at time of puberty, or
the climacteric, and in some forms of functional trouble at menstruation.
The Osteopath looks for the primary cause in some
anatomical maladjustment of the atlas or axis, first and second vertebrae,
or one or more of the first five ribs, or the clavicle. The upper
spinal muscles may be abnormally rigid. The entire thorax may be
too small on account of the ribs having too much downward slant.
Treatment. At the time of the attack
the left hand of the patient may be held above the head and a steady pressure
or pull be brought to bear on the second to fourth spinal vertebra.
Continue this for five or ten minutes. See No. 67. Raise the
ribs. See Nos. 82, 86, 87. Give a deep, inhibitive abdominal
treatment for the purpose of relaxing the caliber of the abdominal vessels
and drawing the blood there, thus quieting the hearts action. See
Nos. 94, 95, 100. Stimulate the pneumogastric nerve. See No.
7. Raise the clavicle. See Nos. 72, 73. Apply an ice bag over
the heart. Should the atlas or axis be out of position, correct.
See Nos. 1, 3. Loosen the upper spinal muscles. See Nos. 34, 43,
53. If the case is a chronic one give a treatment three times per week.
ENDOCARDITIS AND MYOCARDITIS.
These diseases are inflammation of the endocardium
and myocardium. Both are very grave diseases, owing to the pathological
changes taking place. The simple endocarditis is frequently cured.
The treatment in both cases is the same as for pericarditis, with special
attention to any specific lesion in the anatomical location named.
(Stenocardia, Breast Pang.)
These are paroxysms of intense pain over the heart
region, which radiate to the neck, back and arms, generally to the left
arm. It is associated with disease of the heart and vessels.
There is a sensation of impending death. The attack usually comes
on during some muscular exertion. It may be induced by cold, excessive
anger or excitement.
Treatment. Inhibit at second to sixth
dorsal vertebra. See No. 67. Loosen all tissues over the heart.
Raise the ribs on the left side. See Nos. 82, 86. Treatment
should be given afterwards to remove any lesions causing heart trouble.
See percarditis. Pay special attention to the bowels and kidneys.
A quiet life should be led and the sleeping room should be cool.
Do not overexert, and avoid excitement. Do not cat heavy, indigestible
Medical authorities advise if the patient is subject
to the disease for him to carry a vial of amyl nitrite. When the
attack seems pending inhale from two to five drops by dropping it on a
handkerchief. This failing, inhale chloroform.
HYPERTROPHY OF THE HEART.
(Enlargement of the Heart. Dilatation of the Heart.)
This condition is due to a strain of the heart muscles.
It may be due to prolonged overexertion. It is sometimes caused by
valvular disease, due to nature's effort to normalize the defect.
Exophthalmic goiter is a frequent cause. Obstruction of the circulation
in the small arteries adds a burden to the heart's work. Nephritis,
hepatitis and emphysema increase the heart's labor and are responsible
for some cases. Alcohol, tobacco, coffee, and lead poisoning are
The treatment, of course, demands the removal of
the primary cause, and if that cause is some disease then that needs treatment.
The same care as to diet and general living is necessary as in valvular
heart troubles. Lesions should be removed as in pericarditis, which
(Secondary Anemia. Toxic Anemia.)
Anemia is a term which is used to define any marked
change in the blood, in the number of either white or red corpuscles, or
in the amount of the hemoglobin, or albumen. It may be used to denote
a deficient quantity as well as quality of the blood.
Secondary anemia refers to anemia resulting from
loss of blood, due to hemorrhage. Toxic anemia is caused by the action
of poisons on the blood, as mercury, arsenic, lead and the poisons of syphilis,
malaria, etc. For treatment, see Progressive pernicious anemia.
This is a special form of primary anemia which frequently
affects girls, generally between the ages of fourteen and eighteen.
It is associated with undeveloped vascular and generative systems.
There is no loss of fat and the patient bas a greenish-yellow tint of the
from which the disease takes its name.
This condition dates from a scanty menstruation,
which begins late, and therefore it appears to be connected with the evolution
of the sexual life. It is hereditary, and if the mother's side of
the family have tuberculosis the girls are liable to this disease.
It is common among poor and overworked factory girls. Bad air, lack
of outdoor exercise, rest and sleep, irregular eating and poor food all
predispose to this disease.
The symptoms are fatigue and indisposition to mental
or physical activity in the beginning of the trouble. Palpitation
of the heart, difficult breathing, headache, constipation and scanty menses
soon become prominent symptoms. The appetite is poor. The tongue
is pale and dry and there is vertigo. The fat may be increased and
the person maintain her rotundity. But there is the peculiar color
which may vary from the characteristic greenish shade to saffron, lemon-yellow,
or muddy tint. There may be some irregular fever, nervous symptoms,
mental depression and edema of the ankles.
The prognosis is favorable under Osteopathic treatment.
We should begin the treatment carefully, and not give it too severely at
first. It would be well to give a gentle general treatment each day for
about one week before searching for definite lesions. See general
treatment. Look for lesions in the innominates, spine and ribs.
If the treatment is followed carefully and persistently for some time we
may expect the best of results.
The diet and hygiene should be carefully looked after.
There should be plenty of fresh air, rest and sleep, with regular habits.
Change of location or a trip to the sea or mountains will be helpful.
If the girl is an indoor worker a change of occupation to out of doors
should be tried. Plenty of easily-digested food should be allowed:
green vegetables, stewed and fresh fruit, milk, eggs, fish and meat.
Leave tea and coffee alone. A warm bath three times per week is indicated.
This is usually defined as a grave disease of the
blood, in which there is destruction of red corpuscles. The cause
is unknown and the condition grows worse. There is pallor, shortness
of breath, palpitation of the heart. The patient is tired.
The white of the eyes is pearly. The pulse is large but soft.
There is headache and vertigo. The food is repugnant. The skin
assumes a lemon yellow color. The patient becomes more feeble and
the flesh more soft and flabby, and the bed is soon taken. Fever
is moderate. The tendency is towards paralysis. The ankles
swell slightly. Under osteopathic treatment the procedure is about
the same as in all cases of anemia.
Treatment. The spine is to be carefully
examined and all lesions are to be removed as fully as possible.
The treatment is general. See general treatment. The treatments
must be given lightly at first, and as the patient improves they may be
given with more force and at greater intervals. At first the treatment
should be given daily, later three times per week. This may be reduced
to twice and once per week as the patient improves. The treatments
should be continued for a long time. Keep the heart stimulated.
See Nos. 34, 43, 7C. Constipation and headache should be treated
as indicated as under those general heads.
Diet. Strict attention should be given
to the diet. As the patient can handle it, good, nutritious food
should be provided. See diet of tuberculosis. Let there be
good ventilation. Out of door sleeping would be better. Take
plenty of time for sleep. Keep regular hours. Exercise moderately.
Give up school for a time and avoid all social functions. Hot baths may
be taken twice per week. Take a cold sponge bath, followed by brisk
rubbing, each morning.
Medical Treatment. The bowels should
be given attention and should be made to move daily. In chlorosis
Blaud's pills are given, which contain two grains of the sulphate of iron.
The pills are given in increasing doses. The first week one pill
three times per day. The second week two pills three times per day.
Third week three pills three times per day. This latter is kept up
for three months.
In progressive pernicious anemia arsenic in increasing
doses is used. Three drops of Fowler's solution three times per day
is increased to five drops at the end of the first week, ten at the end
of the second week and fifteen the third week. Vomiting and diarrhea
are symptoms of an overdose.
Five to ten drops of dilute hydrochloric acid may
be given, in all cases, in water, after each meal to aid digestion.
(Big Neck. Bronchocele.)
This disease is an enlargement of a whole or a part
of the thyroid gland. The causes of this disease have been variously
given by different medical writers. Those given, however, are the
exciting or secondary causes. The disease is much more frequent in
women than in men. The goiter increases in size at the menstrual
period, and during each pregnancy it becomes larger. It is more prevalent
in limestone regions and often hereditary.
The growth is painless, but may cause difficult breathing,
difficult swallowing or loss of voice. It has caused sudden death
by pressure on the vagi nerves.
The outlook under medical treatment is unfavorable,
guardedly favorable as to life, but the disease is generally cured by osteopathic
treatment. The real cause of the disease is an interference with
the nerve and blood supply of this very vascular gland.
The neck should have the tissues thoroughly loosened,
both front and back. See Nos. 1, 5, 6, 8B, 9, 10, 11. The cervical
vertebrae should be lined up if found out of position. See Nos. 1,
3. The clavicles should be raised. See Nos. 72, 73. Depress
the first rib. See Nos. 75, 76, 77. But little work should
be done over the goiter, but it may be raised up gently at each treatment.
See No. 8B. In many cases a general treatment will be helpful.
See general treatment. Treatment may be given two or three times
per week at first. When improvement is marked only once per week
(Graves' Diamse. Basedow's Disease.)
This disease not only presents the large neck (thyroid
gland), but there is a protrusion of the eyeballs, a rapid heart, and a
peculiar muscular tremor. The pulse may be from 100 to 160.
The breathing, on exertion, is difficult.
This disease often yields quite readily to osteopathic
treatment. The procedure is the same as for simple goiter, which
see. In addition to this a general treatment is to be recommended
as for nervousness. See general treatment. A wet pack may be
placed about the neck at night. The patient should avoid excitement
and should rest in a reclining position a great deal.
Hemiplegia, paralysis of one side of the body; paraplegia,
paralysis of the lower part of the body. In the various forms of
paralysis, regardless of what may seem to be the cause, we are to look
for lesions in every part of the spine, the ribs, the hips, the innominates
and coccyx. When these lesions are found they are to be removed.
The lesions in the neck, of the atlas and axis, are very important.
Here may be the cause of paralysis in either arm or in any part of the
body below this lesion.
Very many cases of paralysis, including all the types,
from infantile to all the more severe types of the aged, have been greatly
benefited and cured by Osteopathy.
In connection with the specific treatment for the
removal of the lesion, a general treatment should be given. See general
treatment. Give special attention to the neck. See Nos. 1,
3, 5, 9, 10, 11. Attend to the clavicles. See Nos. 72, 73.
Spinal treatment will be necessary. See Nos. 34, 35, 36, 37, 38,
41, 48, 50, 52.
In some cases it is necessary to give the treatment
for months in order to get a good blood supply to the nerve centers for
the purpose of regenerating them and the nerves most affected.
The general health must be looked after. Particular
attention should be given to the kidneys, bowels, liver and stomach.
The affected limb or limbs should receive a thorough local treatment.
INFANTILE SPINAL PARALYSIS.
This disease comes on and develops very quickly.
The child may have symptoms of fever, with temperature of from 100 to 103
degrees, with some stomach trouble one day, and the paralysis may reach
its height the following day. The symptoms vary greatly and there
is no certainty of making a correct diagnosis until the paralysis appears.
A child may retire at night in apparent health and awaken in the morning
with paralysis. Boys are more subject to the disease than girls,
and the cases are more common in the warm months. Over eighty per
cent of the cases occur before the patient reaches the age of five, but
a few young adults have the disease. There is almost no pain and
there are no sensory disturbances. If the paralysis persists for
a long time there is great muscular wasting
in the part affected. In many cases there is recovery of most
muscles without treatment of any kind, but a group of muscles almost always
remains permanently paralyzed. These are often in one arm or one
leg. In one to four weeks there will not be much change in the affected
muscles, but in the following three months there will be some improvement
and the paralysis that remains will most likely be permanent. Some
have been greatly benefited when one and sometimes two years have elapsed
since first being taken with the malady.
The Osteopathic treatment should be commenced early.
If begun at once we may hope to stop the inflammation in the spinal cord
and limit the destruction of nerve cells. When these are destroyed
we can only hope for a partial recovery. The part of the cord involved
may be determined by the portion of the body affected. If the leg,
look for trouble from the eleventh dorsal through to the lumbar portion
of the spine. If an arm is affected, we expect the cervical and upper
dorsal portions of the spine to be affected. Administer the treatment
carefully at first. See the treatments for the neck and spine.
Keep the limbs warm. Put them through a passive motion, at least
three times per day. Friction and massage will be of great value
in keeping up the circulation and should be given twice daily for a long
time. Some writers recommend that a spinal ice bag be used in the
early stages of the disease. This tends to keep down the inflammation
of the cord and at the same time helps keep the extremities warm.
Do not use braces if you can possibly get along without them. The
circulation is better and the improvement is more noticeable when the affected
parts are entirely free. When there is a great deal of weakness braces
often help one to get about and may be used in old cases.
In cases which are of several years' duration we
do not expect to do much, but by giving the spinal treatment there will
be improvement for a year or more. We never expect a complete cure.
There are two forms of apoplexy: One, from the rupture
of a blood vessel, intracranial hemorrhage; and two, thrombosis or embolism,
which is occasioned by acute softening of the brain. The brain, softening,
does not give the proper support to the walls of the blood vessels.
This is accompanied by endarteritis, in which the lumen of the vessels
is obliterated and embolism and rupture is the result.This trouble is more
common after the fiftieth year, but may happen in children of ten.
Men are more liable to this disease than women. Among the many causes
might be mentioned, the overactivity of modem life. There are many
men who have attained the age of fifty years and have not been guilty of
doing any of the things that ordinarily lead to this trouble. They
have been temperate in eating and drinking and have not bad any venereal
diseases, nor have they had gout, but they have had apoplexy as a result
of high-pressure living. They have been at a high tension attending
to business and social duties all day and a part of the night, without
sufficient time for needed rest. They find themselves at last with
hardened arteries and some form of kidney trouble.
Overeating is another cause of apoplexy. There
are many cases of apoplexy for which there is no other cause. Men
really dig their graves with their teeth. We may harm-n ourselves
by overeating as well as by being intemperate in the use of liquor.
We need to heed the advice of that old-time physician, Dr. George Cheyne,
who said: "Every wise man, after fifty, ought to begin to lessen the quantity
of his aliment, and if he would continue free of great and dangerous distempers
and preserve His senses and faculties clear to the last be ought, every
seven years, to go on abating gradually and sensibly, and at last descend
out of life as he ascended into it, even into the child's diet." This advice,
if followed, would ward off a number of diseases, including stomach
troubles, obesity and kidney diseases.
Chronic Alcoholism, gout and lead poisoning
are also important factors in causing this disease. They change the
quality of the blood, and this in turn affects the arteries. They
also set up renal changes which affect the blood and arteries ar. well.
In most persons alcohol conserves fat, and this infiltrates in the walls
of the blood vessels and weakens them, allowing the blood to force its
Prolonged Muscular Exertion is a cause.
This hardens the arteries by raising the peripheral resistance, thereby
increasing the blood pressure, which gradually weakens the arteries.
Undue Blood Pressure in the brain is a great
cause of apoplexy. The brain is a great storehouse of energy and
nerve force. From it emanate thousands of nerve fibers, controlling
every function of the body. This great work on the part of the brain
requires an enormous amount of nutrition and elimination. This is
especially true when the man is a brain worker. This brain nourishment
is conveyed through the arteries, veins, capillaries, lymphatics and serous
channels which reach the head through the neck. We find surrounding
the neck vertebrae more than thirty neck muscles, together with ligaments.
In and between these muscles lie the arteries and
veins that convey the blood to and from the brain. The blood is pumped
under direct pressure of the heart walls of the arteries. But the
return blood, through the veins, which have thin walls, is under light
pressure and may be held back by obstructions in the neck until undue pressure
is exerted by the blood in the vessels of the brain. This pressure
often results in the rupture of capillaries, which means apoplexy and paralysis,
depending on the amount of blood escaping into the brain tissue and the
seat of the lesion. In young persons we expect the capillaries to
be more elastic and not to rupture so easily as in the case of older people.
When there is normal relaxation of the muscles of
the neck there is normal circulation to and from the brain. When
there is contraction of the muscles, the return flow from the brain is
impeded, while the heart is still forcing the blood under increasing pressure
through the arteries to the brain. This causes heavy, expanding pressure
in the capillaries of the brain tissue. The blood cannot return fast
enough through the veins on account of interference in the neck.
The pressure rises higher and the capillaries break, the oozing blood forms
a clot and apoplexy, is the result, Overexertion, a little excitement,
brings on the attack without the least warning.
Symptoms. Before the attack it is very
rare to have any warning symptoms. The symptoms of the attack vary
very much in different individuals. The loss of consciousness may
be sudden and complete or it may come on slowly. In many cases the
face is cyanotic, pupils are dilated, one more than the other. The
respirations are slow and noisy. The pulse manifests increased tension
and is slow and full. The temperature is normal or subnormal, except
in cases of basal hemorrhage, when it is frequently high. The head
and eyes are often turned toward the side on which the hemorrhage exists.
The muscles on the paralyzed side are flaccid. On elevating the paralyzed
limb it will fall more quickly than the other. If bed sores develop
within forty-eight hours it is a very bad sign. If the patient improves
there may be paralysis on one entire side of the body. This paralysis
will be more severe in some parts than in others, the arm being usually
worse than the leg. The paralysis of the throat may be so severe
that the patient can not swallow, and the tongue deviates to one side.
The reflexes are increased after a week or so. When the patient begins
to walk be drags the foot of the affected limb. There may appear
a condition in which there is secondary contraction of the muscles, more
especially of the arm, with considerable pain.
Diagnosis. It is sometimes difficult
to diagnose this condition. When it is coming on slowly and consciousness
is not lost the apoplexy is sometimes not recognized. When you first
see the patient and he is in a deep coma it may be the result of epilepsy,
alcoholism, uraemia, or diabetes. Doctors in hospital practice need
to be very careful in passing upon patients who are admitted in an unconscious
condition when they have the smell of liquor upon the breath. Many
are drunk at the time of an attack. Such cases should be regarded
as serious and not as simply alcoholic coma.
Prognosis is very difficult to make with any
degree of certainty. When the hemorrhage is slight the patient may
entirely recover. When the paralysis persists for six months some
grade of permanent palsy will remain. When the condition was first
caused by an embolism stopping in a principal artery and shutting off the
blood supply of a portion of the brain, resulting in softening, the outlook
Treatment. The patient should be kept
quiet. The head of the bed should be raised. Place an ice bag
at the head and use hot water bottles at the feet, not too hot. Place
the patient on his side, changing from one to the other. This is
for the purpose of avoiding pneumonia. The bowels should be moved
f reely and a good movement secured every day. It is significant
that Dr. Osler says: "No medicine should be administered, at least during
the first month after hemorrhage."
The Osteopathic treatment may be given at once.
The muscles of the neck may be gently and thoroughly relaxed while the
patient is in the recumbent position. See paragraphs 5 and 10.
Also loosen the muscles in the suboccipital region, as in paragraph 7B.
Keep the spinal tissues relaxed (see paragraph 53), also treat the muscles
of the spine when the patient lies on his side as shown in Figs. 59 and
31. Give inhibitive treatment over the abdomen, as in paragraphs
94 and 100. This treatment should be given twice per day at first,
gradually diminishing until two treatments are administered per week.
The paralyzed limbs should be treated and massaged to prevent contraction
of the muscles. The joints of the elbow and shoulder may be kept
from ankylosis by properly manipulating them.
The diet should be very light for some time, at least
one month. Fruit juices are to be preferred. Light broths may
be used. The patient should always, as long as he lives, be underfed
rather than overfed. Avoid meat and all nitrogenous food. Do
not drink more than one and a half quarts of water daily. The object
is to keep down the amount of blood as much as possible.
Avoid all excitement as much as possible, live quietly
and do not overexert, either mentally or physically. Do not use intoxicants.
The patient is often easily irritated, but he should avoid becoming angry.
A cheerful, happy and hopeful disposition should be cultivated. Some
light mental occupation will be beneficial, but it should not be persisted
in when the patient becomes weary.
Insomnia may be due to various causes. Congestion
or anemia of the brain, Bright's disease, liver, stomach and intestinal
disorders may cause sleeplessness, or it may be due to nervousness or excessive
headache. The Osteopath believes, and has splendid success in following
it out to its legitimate conclusions, that the basis of the trouble may
be found in some bony, ligamentous or other lesion, that disturbs the circulation
and allows pressure to disturb proper nerve function. A large number
of these cases are met and successfully overcome by the Osteopath.
Frequently an improvement is noted with the first treatment. In many
cases but few treatments are required.
In treating for this disorder the Osteopath looks
for neck and upper spinal lesions. He pays particular attention to
the clavicle and two upper ribs. See Nos. 72, 73, 75 to 81.
Fully relax all spinal tissues. See Nos. 34, 36, 43, 44, 53.
Give a strong abdominal treatment. See Nos. 94 to 100. After
the specific lesions, that are found, are treated, a general treatment
is in order. See general treatment.
When the person is excitable and there is a feeling
of distension in the head, it will be well to keep the bowels regular.
See the treatment for constipation. At night before retiring a hot
bath, followed by a cool sponge bath, will be beneficial. Another
help is a cold pack applied to the abdomen. This soon becomes warm
and draws the blood there. See cold pack. Ten minutes of good,
cool, pure air, breathed properly, will materially assist in gaining needed
rest. See correct breathing. It is often recommended that a
glass of warm milk be taken just before retiring. Medical writers
recommend a dose of trional, ten to twenty grains, to be given with food
half an hour before retiring.
If the insomnia is caused by anemia of the brain
the patient is apt to start sleeping very well, but wakes later and can
not fall asleep again. In addition to the osteopathic treatment as
outlined above, cold water or ice, then hot water, may be applied to the
spine in long rubber bags, each for fifteen minutes. For this form
of insomnia medical treatment would recommend some form of stimulant at
bed-time, say one-sixtieth of a grain of strychnine, or some form of alcoholic
(Facial Neuralgia, Brachial Neuralgia, Intercostal Neuralgia, Spinal
Neuralgia, Neuralgia of the Stomach, Tic Douloureux.)
Neuralgia is a severe pain along the course of a
nerve, unaccompanied by any change in the body of the nerve.
The Osteopath usually finds some bony or muscular
lesion causing pressure on the nerve or on some of its connections.
A misplaced vertebra is a very common cause. In cases of facial neuralgia
we expect to find contracted muscles in the neck or a misplaced atlas or
axis, the first and second cervical vertebrae. Treatment for this
would be as in Nos. 1, 3, 5. In brachial neuralgia, which involves the
arm and shoulder, we look for lesions from the first cervical to the sixth
dorsal. This will be treated as in Nos. 1, 3, 5, 9, 10, 11, 34, 43.
All the upper spinal and neck tissues will be relaxed as in Nos. 5, 83,
34. Intercostal neuralgia is easily handled and is frequently caused
by a twisted or misplaced rib or ribs too close together. Treat as
in Nos. 75 to 89. Thoroughly relax all spinal tissues, as in Nos.
35, 36, 47, 48, 50.
Spinal neuralgia and neuralgia of the stomach will
be caused by misplaced vertebrae, the stomach lesions occurring from the
fourth to the eighth dorsal. See spinal treatments. Nos. 43,
Tic douloureux is a neuralgia of one or more branches
of the fifth nerve, and lesions are looked for in the upper dorsal and
cervical regions. A misplaced atlas or axis is most frequently to
blame for the condition. Treat as in Nos. 1, 3. Pay attention to
the upper back tissues, as in Nos. 34, 43. In many cases a thorough
abdominal treatment will be of assistance. See Nos. 94 to 100.
In all cases of neuralgia or of neuritis the muscles and nerves should
In facial neuralgia, tic douloureux and brachial
neuralgia a hot water bag may be applied to the back of the neck and the
upper dorsal region. Tic douloureux has been helped locally by the
application of the inner skin of a fresh egg, sprinkled with black pepper.
Some medical writers in cases of tic douloureux recommend one one-hundredth
of a grain of nytroglycerine until relief is obtained.
(Neuralgia of the Feet. Tarsalgia.)
This is often caused by a broken-down arch of the
foot. The patient should rest as much as possible. Let the
shoes have broad, thick soles. Sometimes it is best to have a supporting
arch, made of steel and covered with leather, for the instep. They
may be found in many shoe stores. The foot should be manipulated.
See Nos. 117, 118.
(Red Neuralgia of the Feet.)
This is a disease of the feet, characterized by pain
and extreme redness of the feet. In some cases there is so much swelling
that the patient is unable to walk. The condition is worse in warm
weather. The disease is accompanied or generally followed by some
disease of the spine or some severe nervous trouble.
From the medical standpoint the cause is unknown,
but is due to a disturbance of nerve function due to pressure, disturbing
The treatment should be directed to the removal of
any lesions found in the spine. A thorough relaxing treatment should
be given in the lower dorsal and lumbar region. See Nos. 43, 36,
41, 48, 51, 52.
Should the pelvis or either innominate bone be out
of place, proper correction should be made. See lesions of the pelvis
and innominate. Work on the tissues of the legs, as in Nos. 113, 116.
Perform circumduction and extension, as in Nos. 113, 114. Manipulate
the foot, as in Nos. 117, 118, 119. Put the muscles on a torsion,
as in Nos. 121.
Should there be any other disease it should receive
its proper treatment. Some of these cases are badly constipated.
In some cases great relief is experienced by putting
the foot in ice-cold water. Keep the feet elevated and rest as much
as possible when the attack is severe.
(Pleurodynia. Muscular Rheumatism.)
This affection is generally classed as muscular rheumatism.
It causes intense pain, which is aggravated by the breathing. The
ribs should be separated and lifted up as in Nos. 86, 82.
Some of the hot applications should be applied as
recommended in lumbago, which see.
The muscles of one side of the neck are very stiff
and sensitive, frequently drawing the head to the affected side.
Lesions of the neck should be removed. These are the direct cause
of the disturbance by making pressure on the nerve. When this pressure
is removed a permanent cure should be effected. Thoroughly relax
all tissues of the neck. See Nos. 1, 3, 5, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13.
Replace any vertebra which may be out of its proper position. Nos.
1, 3. Local hot applications as in lumbar will be found to
This is a painful affection of the voluntary muscles
in various parts of the body. The attacks follow exposure to cold,
wet, and exposure especially after a severe bodily exertion. One
attack renders others more liable. Some writers consider this disease
a form of neuralgia, rather than rheumatism. The varieties of this
disease are often named from the portion of the body affected, as lumbago,
torticollis, pleurodynia, cephalodynia, etc., all of which see for treatment.
This is a rigid, painful condition of the muscles
in the lower part of the back. Stooping or turning the body or any
sudden movement causes pain. It is caused by an affection of the
lumbar vertebra, causing an inflammation of nerves supplying the muscles
of the back in this region.
Treatment. The muscles should be gently
relaxed, as in Nos. 43, 44, 47, 48, 50, 52, 53, 57. The spine should
be gently stretched and rotated, as in Nos. 58, 59, 60, 61. This
is done for the purpose of taking the pressure off the nerves. Hot
fomentations should be used. See treatment of acute articular rheumatism.
Hot water bags may be applied, or sacks filled with hot salt or hops.
A heavy piece of flannel may be applied and a warm flat iron may be used
over it for a few minutes, literally ironing the back. This treatment
is very efficient. Pressure is helpful.
Acupuncture has been highly recommended. Take
an ordinary bonnet needle, three or four inches long. Sterilize it
and thrust it into the lumbar muscle at the seat of pain. Leave it
there for five or ten minutes. The needle should be thoroughly sterilized.
The best treatment, though, is the osteopathic, as
outlined first, the manipulation of the spine and spinal muscles and ligaments.
Those who suffer from periodic attacks of the disease may be permanently
cured in this manner.
Long and successful experience in treating this disease
has led me to believe that often we are wrong in ascribing the cause of
this trouble to the poor alignment of the lumbar vertebrae. It is
rather caused by poor circulation, that does not permit the venous blood
properly to escape from the lumbar portion of the spinal cord which, in
turn, overstimulates the spinal nerves and causes them to send too many
nerve impulses. This makes the muscles which they supply over tense.
In many cases I have treated there would be immediate
relief and the patient could make very free movements without any discomfort,
but in a few hours the trouble would appear and give as much pain as ever.
One evening I was called to treat a very strong and muscular young man,
who had been suffering with lumbago for several days, and had it so severely
that he could hardly move in bed. After treating him about one half
hour in the regular way I discovered that about the only relief I could
give him was steady pressure on the spine while he was lying face downward.
The bed was rather low and he was lying on the side, when I applied some
weight with both knees, and upon his saying, "Doctor, I feel it going out,"
I applied my entire weight and walked with my knees for fully five minutes
on the lumbar portion of his spine. I weighed then over 200 pounds.
But you must bear in mind that he was more than an ordinarily strong man.
He immediately arose from his bed and dressed and
insisted on my remaining for dinner. His folks looked upon his appearing
at the table much as they would had a miracle been performed. He
came to the office for further treatment, next day. The treatment was then
applied with the knees for about five minutes, and there was no further
return of the trouble.
This treatment inhibited nerve impulses and improved
the circulation to the spinal cord.
Insanity is a mental disorder marked by delusions,
illusions and hallucinations, by changes in character and habits, and by
unreasonable actions and language. It is more or less permanent in
character, but without loss of consciousness or will.
There are many causes for some forms of insanity,
which an Osteopath will fail to find. There are causes which his
or any other form of treatment can not reach. But when the general
treatment is given, paying particular attention to the cervical region,
the patient will be benefited under Osteopathic treatment. Many cases
of insanity are due to an accident of some kind in which the head or neck
is involved. Many of these patients become mentally unbalanced at
once, while others are affected gradually. The extent which Osteopathy
will cover in this field of psychopathological conditions as a therapeutic
agent is still unknown. Osteopaths are not given the opportunity
to get hold of such patients in large number, but what experience they
have had has been very gratifying.
I have known patients who had become violently insane as the result
of an accident. It was necessary for strong men to hold them while
an Osteopathic treatment was being administered. After the treatment
they would fall asleep. After waking they were entirely rational.
A prominent Osteopath, before studying the science, was confined in an
insane asylum in Iowa. In some way he became possessed with the idea
that if he could get to an Osteopath he would be cured. He escaped,
went several hundred miles in search of the treatment, and was entirely
cured, after which be became a splendid Osteopath and enjoys a large practice.
My experience with insanity has been limited, but
the treatment has proved very quieting and beneficial, even when the case
was of long standing.
We may expect to find serious trouble in the neck,
in vertebrae, ligaments and muscles. The deeper muscles here are
very strong, and when they become tense as a result of some nerve irritation
are often abnormally tense, and thus act as obstructions to various vital
fluids. For the treatment read carefully all about the various treatments
of the neck. The ribs and dorsal vertebrae should be carefully examined
In recent cases we may expect the best of results.
In other cases look for considerable
ST. VITUS' DANCE.
Chorea is a disease characterized by an incoordinate
movement and twitching of the muscles either local or general. There
is often some slight psychical disturbance and great liability to endocarditis.
About three-fourths of the cases are girls between the ages of five and
seventeen. In many cases the disease is hereditary. Among the
exciting causes may be mentioned fright, worry, grief, modern forced methods
of education, eye diseases or weakness.
The Osteopath expects to find some anatomical lesions
as a predisposing cause, the correction of which leads to the cure of the
The symptoms manifested in chorea have such a wide
range and are so varied in character that for convenience they are classified
under three divisions in which the mild, severe and most severe or extreme
cases are described. The disease generally attacks a hand with a
jerky motion, then attacks the face, and later the legs. In the mild
forms only the hand or hands and face are attacked. The child is
restless, cries easily and often. There is headache and pains in
the limbs. The patient loses the temper frequently and is easily
frightened at night.
In the severe forms the trouble becomes more general
in character. The speech is affected and the patient may be unable
to dress and attend to ordinary duties. The extreme form may develop
Treatment. The disease yields most readily
to osteopathic treatment. The lesions are usually in the upper dorsal
and cervical regions. Muscular tissues are found in a tightened condition.
Of course the first thing for the Osteopath to do as soon as possible is
to remove the lesion. In addition, a thorough general treatment is
indicated. See general treatment. Special attention should
be given to the groups of muscles most affected. They should be thoroughly
massaged, and the limb or arm, as the case may be, thoroughly manipulated.
See Nos. 113, 114, 131. Treatment should be given daily until the
patient is better, then three times per week and later twice per week.
The cases ordinarily call for a long course of treatment.
Make sure that there are no intestinal worms, eye
strain, sexual disorders, cause for worry, mental strain, overwork or severe
muscular exertion. Attention should be given to the heart and bowels.
See constipation. A soap suds enema may be used when necessary.
The Diet. Sweets and starches are better
left alone, otherwise the patients may be encouraged to take as much nourishing
food as they can digest. Meat, eggs, oysters, fish with plenty of
green vegetables are recommended.
A warm bath on retiring and a cool sponge bath with
a brisk rub on rising will be found to be beneficial.
This disease is an affection of the nervous system,
marked by attacks of unconsciousness occurring at irregular intervals.
There may be convulsions. If they are severe general convulsions
it is called Grand Mal. Localized convulsions, without loss of consciousness,
is known as epileptiform, or cortical, or Jacksonian epilepsy.
Cause. Osteopaths find various spinal
and rib lesions, which when removed have cured a fair proportion of cases.
Syphilis and alcoholism, on the part of parents, are believed to be a prolific
cause of this disease. In some cases it has been caused by worms,
an adherent prepuce, foreign bodies in the ear or nose, or some other local
affection setting up reflex influences.
Symptoms. Grand Mal. In most cases
there is an aura or subjective symptom in some part of the body which warns
the patient of the impending attack. This aura may be a peculiar
sensation in the hand or foot or heart or stomach. With others it
seems to be a flash of light or some form of perverted appetite.
The patient often utters a cry or yell, the epileptic cry, and falls where
he is as if shot. The first spasm, which lasts but a few seconds,
is followed by convulsions, during which the patient may froth at the mouth.
He may also lose control of the bladder and bowels. From this he
passes into a sleep when he is in a relaxed condition. On awakening
he complains of fatigue.
Petit Mal. The patient becomes unconscious
for but a moment. The expression becomes blank and the face pale.
A person talking to him will be conscious of the condition, but the patient
is sometimes not. The patient does not fall and frequently picks
up the thread of the conversation and continues it.
Jacksonian Epilepsy. A spasm that is
only local and affects a hand or arm or a single group of muscles.
There is generally an aura, but the consciousness is preserved.
Epilepsy may be distinguished from hysteria by the
sudden onset with a cry, without apparent cause, the rigidity followed
by convulsions and biting of the tongue. There may be defecation
or micturition, but no talking.
Hysteria comes on gradually, with emotions preceding.
If there is a cry it is during the attack. They bite other things
than the tongue and talk frequently, but there is no micturition or defecation.
The attack may be terminated by the use of water.
Treatment. The best osteopathic authorities
have found various lesions from the neck to the lumbar region, including
rib lesions, which have been the cause of the disease. The neck lesions
are the most frequent, and we should make diligent search for them for
the cause of the disease. At the time of the attack we need not expect
to do much for the case. Strong treatment and pressure at the base
of the skull, suboccipital fossae, helps some cases (see No. 7B), while
others are helped by treatment over the solar plexus. See No. 100.
Give a thorough abdominal treatment for the purpose of calling the blood
away from the head. A thorough general treatment should be given
at least three times per week. Lesions wherever found should be removed.
See general treatment. Especial attention should be given to the
neck treatment. See Nos. 1, 3, 5, 9, 10, 11, 13. Have the patient
open the mouth against resistance. See No. 8. The clavicles should
be elevated and the first rib depressed. See Nos. 72, 73, 75, 80.
The cervical sympathetic nerves should be treated.
See No. 7C The bowels and stomach should receive attention. See stomach.
Stomach and intestinal indigestion may act as a cause by allowing the food
to ferment and poison the system, causing autointoxication. The diet
should be light and nutritious and easily digested. Indigestible
food should be forbidden. See dyspepsia.
In children adenoid growths should be looked for,
and in a male child if phimosis exists it may be necessary to perform circumcision,
or at least to break up adhesions. Should there be evidences of digestive
disturbances with constipation treat as such.
The Medical Treatment. With children
25 to 50 grains of sodium bromide are given per day, giving the larger
part of it a short time before the seizure generally occurs. The
dose is always largely diluted with water, say a glass three-fourths full.
Should there be chronic constipation a dose of calomel is recommended once
per week, followed in a few hours by a dose of salts, an enema of salt
water, a tablespoonful of salt to a quart of water, to be given twice per
week. An adult may take a drachm to a drachm and a half of sodium
bromide daily, sometimes at a single dose. This drug is best taken
under the direction of a physician, as it must be taken a long time and
the system must be saturated with it, certain diagnostic symptoms of which
must be watched for and kept at that point.
By all means the osteopathic treatment as outlined
above should be given a thorough trial first.
Neurasthenia is a nerve disorder, in which there
is nervous and bodily weakness. This is
accompanied by irritability. The disease is very common in America.
It is due to hereditary weakness, excessive expenditure of nerve force,
and in most cases anatomical misplacements which impair nerves by pressure
direct and interference with proper nutrition. Other causes are manifest,
as, living at too rapid a rate, overwork, overstudy, worry, mental depression,
the use of tobacco, alcohol, sexual overindulgence, indigestion, gout,
rheumatism, la grippe and malaria.
The symptoms are many and varied and differ in different
individuals. Headache is common and may be either at the base of
the skull, in the forehead or in the top of the head. Some complain
of a constricting band about the head. The memory is poor, the patient
is afraid of places and things, and is irritable. There is pain in
different parts of the spine. The limbs feel weak. The patient
complains of hot flashes and has cold sensations. The flesh turns
blue in spots. There may be constipation, indigestion, dyspepsia,
palpitation of the heart and various affections of the eyes and cars.
Treatment. All lesions should be sought
for and removed. A gentle general treatment i-nay be given each day
for awhile. Then three times per week, reducing to once per week,
as the patient grows better. See general treatment. The treatment
must be a searching one and complete. Warm baths twice per week at
night. A cold sponge bath followed by brisk rubbing each morning
will prove of benefit. Rest, with moderate exercise and good food,
is essential. The treatment must be kept up for a long time.
This disease is an inflammation or neuritis of the
sciatic nerve, or of the nerve cords which form the sciatic nerve.
In some cases it may be a neuralgia.
The pain frequently comes on gradually, but it may
be sudden and very severe. At first it may be a dull pain in the
back of the thigh, but later it may spread down the limb even to the bottom
of the foot. In some cases it is complicated with lumbago.
The osteopathic treatment is directed to the removal
of any lesions that may be present in the lower part of the back.
The tissues are fully relaxed, as in lumbago. The work is carried
down carefully over the affected nerve and limb, all tissues being thoroughly
relaxed. See lumbago and Nos. 113, 51, 52. The pyriformis muscle,
which lies across the trunk of the nerve, is frequently contracted and
causes pressure on the nerve. This may be stretched by strong internal
circumduction of the limb. See No. 114.
The nerve may be stretched carefully, as in No. 115.
Careful treatment followed up in this manner will remove all irritation
and result in a permanent cure.
Heat will prove beneficial, used along the course
of the nerve by the application of the hot water bag. When the pain
is severe an ice bag applied to the spine in the lumbar region will prove
Hysteria is a functional disease of the nervous system.
It is characterized by loss of self control, and accompanied by disorders
of all or of a part of the bodily functions. It occurs most frequently
in women and children.
Osteopaths look for the primary cause in some bony
lesion of the spine, or ribs, or pelvic bones, or some malposition of some
organ. The secondary causes may be emotional disturbances, mental
or physical strains, domestic troubles, masturbation, sexual excesses,
ovarian or uterine diseases.
The symptoms cannot be said to follow any fixed rule,
as a hysterical patient can imitate any symptom or diseased condition.
The patient frequently feels a ball in the throat, which seems to come
from below and produces a choking sensation. This is referred to
in medical literature as "globus hystericus." There may be convulsions,
after which the patient seems to be bloated with gas, and passes large
quantities of urine. 'The voice is often lost and the various forms
of paralysis are often simulated. The joints may become stiff and
there may be spasms. Intense pain may develop in the head, spine,
abdomen, or ovarian region and in the breast. There may be rapid
and difficult breathing, vomiting and nausea. The temperature is
nearly always normal.
Treatment. Particular attention should
be given to the lower ribs. They are often found displaced, generally
downward. See Nos. 90, 91, 92, 93. The intestines should be
lifted up. See Nos. 96, 97. A general relaxing treatment should
be given. See general treatment. Remove any lesions found in
the spine or ribs. A change of environment may be helpful in many
cases. The patient should be dealt with kindly, yet firmly.
If possible, get the patient to exercise self control. A warm tub
bath twice per week and a cold sponge bath every morning, followed by a
brisk rub, will prove helpful. Out of door exercise should be taken
each day. If a child, avoid overstudy under competitive methods.
Avoid over indulgence of every nature. Let the diet be plain, but
there should be plenty of nutriment.
Telegrapher's cramp or telegrapher's paralysis, writer's
cramp, or paralysis, pianist's paralysis, milker's paralysis, cigar maker's
paralysis, are all due to the overuse of the nerves through the overuse
of certain groups of muscles used in some occupations.
Osteopaths find, in most cases, some obstruction
to the nerve force, through pressure, which acts as a primary cause of
the difficulty. Sometimes the first, second and third ribs are too
close together. Frequently the cervical and upper dorsal vertebrae
are affected. In some cases the clavicle is too close to the first
The very worst of these cases make good progress
under osteopathic treatment. Remove the lesion in every case.
All tissues in the neck, shoulder and arm should be relaxed as in a general
treatment, which see. Stretch the elbow and shoulder joints.
See Nos. 129, 130, 131. Give the arms thorough treatment. See
treatment for arms, No. 131. See treatment for ribs and clavicles.
Sometimes rest is necessary. The clothing should be loose.
Let nothing interfere with the circulation.
(Parkinson's Disease, Shaking Palsy.)
A chronic nervous disease, characterized by tremor
or rapid alternate contraction and relaxation of the muscles, a peculiar
gait and speech and progressive loss of power.
The causes are found in spinal and upper rib lesions,
which weaken the nervous system, rheumatism, rheumatoid arthritis, exposure,
fright and mental anxiety. It is a disease that affects men more
than women and is more frequently found between the ages of forty, and
The first appearance is in a muscular tremor, generally
of the forearm. The thumb and forefinger are approximated and have
been spoken of as "the act of making a pill." The head is not often involved,
but when it is the motion is a nodding one. When the patient is sleeping
the tremors cease, and sometimes when the patient does something in which
he forces the affected parts to act, the tremors are quiet but are resumed
immediately when the act is completed.
In walking, the head is bent forward, the steps are
short and hurried, gradually, in some cases, becoming faster until it seems
as if the patient was about to fall. In severe cases he must stop
and hold to something before getting a fresh start.
The face has a peculiar aspect, spoken of as "the
mask-like expression," due to the set condition of the facial muscles.
Ordinarily the disease has a long, slow course and the patient generally
dies of some other disease. One may not expect help of the regular
medical treatment. The leading works on the subject offer no hope
of a cure.
Treatment. The neck and the upper part
of the back and the ribs should have a careful examination, and all lesions
found should be carefully removed. See treatment of neck, spine,
ribs and clavicles.
This disease has conditions that require a general
osteopathic treatment. See general treatment. In addition to
the removal of all departures from the normal which are found, the neck,
shoulders and spinal tissues should be thoroughly relaxed See Nos. 1, 5,
8B, 34, 43, 53. Give special attention to the treatment of the kidneys,
liver and bowels.
Salt baths may be given twice per week. The patient
should take exercise, but should stop before becoming very tired.
This is a disease of the spinal cord, in which there
is a loss of muscular power. There are
exaggerated reflexes, a peculiar gait and precipitate micturition.
The disease is more apt to occur in a family with
a nervous history. It is frequently brought on through exposure,
accidents resulting in blows, falls, etc. It may also follow some
of the acute diseases. In most cases the onset of this disease is slow.
Weakness of the lower limbs is a symptom. The patient complains of
feeling tired and has increasing difficulty in walking. The muscles frequently
become rigid. This rigidity assumes the nature of a passing spasm.
When the disease is further advanced the legs grow weaker and stiffer.
When the patient walks the toes scrape the ground. The Osteopath
looks for lesions along the spine, and examines the ribs to see that they
are in a normal position and treats as in locomotor ataxia, which see.
This is a nervous disease, caused by a hardening
of the posterior columns of the spinal cord. The disease is characterized
by loss of coordination of the muscles. When the patient stands with
the heels close together, with the eyes shut, there is a tendency to fall
(Romberg's symptom). With the arms stretched from the sides the patient
is unable to approximate the forefingers with the eyes closed. The
walking is peculiar. The limbs are lifted higher than necessary and
brought down with vigor. There is a slight staggering and difficulty
in walking at night. When lying, the patient finds difficulty in
bringing the heel of one foot to the knee of the other leg. The muscles
have a tendency to waste.
The disease is frequently a long time in developing,
and may be in progress a number of years, with but little notice of the
patient. There are occasional pains in the legs, slight changes in
vision, often an impairment in sexual power, sometimes, though rarely,
an increase. Later the pain in the limbs becomes more pronounced.
There is a boring sensation, coming and going with great rapidity, termed
lightning pains. The pupils fail to contract to light. To determine
this symptom, darken the room for awhile. Then hold a lighted match
before the patient's eye. The pupil, if it contracts at all, does
so very slowly. This is known as the Argyll-Robertson pupil.
There is loss of knee jerk. To determine this symptom, have the patient
sit on the side of the table with the feet hanging, not touching the floor.
Strike the tendon, just below the patella, a sharp blow with the edge of
the palm of the hand. If in normal condition the foot will kick out.
If there is probably locomotor ataxia it will remain stationary.
Diagnosis. The Argyll-Robertson pupil,
Romberg's sign, lightning pains and absence of knee jerk are enough of
the symptoms to determine that the patient has locomotor ataxia.
Prognosis. While but little can be promised
as far as a cure is concerned, there are few if any cases that will not
be helped and many may be helped to a large extent by osteopathic treatment.
Of course, the earlier the treatment is begun the better. In a great
many cases the progress has been checked. Control of bladder and
rectum is regained, and many cases which had lost the power of walking
regained this function under treatment.
Treatment. This disease requires a general
spinal treatment, with special attention to all specific lesions of the
spine and ribs. See general treatment. The lower limbs should
also receive careful attention and manipulation. Care must be taken
not to fracture the long bones, as in this disease there is a predisposition
to fracture. We must not forget thorough abdominal work. See
Nos. 94 to 103. Special attention should be given to this.
Tone up the solar plexus. The regular treatment should be given three
times per week. The author would recommend as a home treatment, in
addition to the above, each day the application of a long ice bag to the
spine for fifteen minutes, followed by a hot water bag for fifteen minutes,
then the ice again, followed by the hot water, in all an hour's treatment.
'This will serve to promote the circulation in the spinal cord. The
application of the ice bag alone will help to relieve the lightning pains.
It is well for the patient to exercise, but he must avoid overexertion.
The ataxia may be overcome in part by the continued
practicing of fine movements. Some of these may be executed by the
patient with the limbs as he lies on his back.
(Migraine, Hemicrania, Cephalgia.)
Migraine is an intense headache, occurring frequently,
with or without disturbances of vision or of nausea. Medical writers
as a general rule claim that no lesions have been discovered, but Osteopaths
frequently find neck lesions, also upper dorsal lesions, the removal of
which has resulted in cures.
The patient can tell for some time previous when
an attack is to be expected, by the sensations and symptoms peculiar to
each given case. The pain at the beginning of an attack is on both
sides of the head, but after awhile it localizes on one side. With
some patients the attack localizes on one side at one time; at the next
time it localizes on the other side. Some cases continue from childhood
to old age.
Most of the lesions have been found in the neck and
upper dorsal region, though some have been found in the lower dorsal and
lumbar regions. Stomach troubles, uterine misplacements, eye strain,
and tumors are sometimes responsible. These causes must have special
Treatment. The neck must be thoroughly
manipulated. See Nos. 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 10, 11, 13. All spinal
muscles and tissues should be relaxed. Nos. 4, 43, 48, 53.
The abdomen should receive a deep inhibitive treatment. Nos. 94 to
99. Give heavy pressure over the solar plexus. No. 100.
Misplaced vertebrae and ribs should be corrected. Tissues over the
nerves in the face should be relaxed. Nos. 14, 20,21. Work
vigorously and deeply with thumb and finger on a line straight over the
head, from the nose to the base of the skull at the back of the neck.
See No. 16. Give heavy pressure on the skull. No. 15. Give
heavy deep treatment at the base of the skull, on each side of the spine.
This may be temporarily painful, but will be effective. No. 7B.
Pressure may be given in the upper dorsal region. No. 67. The
clavicles should be raised. Nos. 72, 73. The treatment should
be given deliberately, and is probably the longest that the Osteopath gives.
Great relief should be given during the first treatment. A very general
treatment will be helpful. See general treatment. Give particular
attention to the stomach and bowels. The patient should avoid overexertion,
as becoming tired acts as an exciting cause. A hot mustard foot-bath,
heat at the base of the skull, and an ice bag on the forehead is often
helpful. Should there be nausea, use the ice bag on the spine from
the fourth dorsal down to the first lumbar vertebra. Some patients
are helped by a cup of strong, clear coffee.
The drug treatment for this condition is very unsatisfactory.
Headache powders, pills and the various pain killers are dangerous.
The extract of cannabis indica is sometimes given for a long time, two
or three times per day, in doses of a fourth to a third of a grain in hope
of curing the condition. Atthe time of the attack the following pills
are sometimes given:
. 20 grains.
. 5 grains.
. 5 grains.
Make of this ten pills and take one every two hours
until relieved. The heart action should be watched when using these
pills. Menthol pencils are used locally for the purpose of relieving
the pain. Rub them over the seat of the pain.
(Fibroid Tumors, Benign Tumors, Malignant Tumors.)
Tumors of every nature have been removed by osteopathic
treatment. In addition to those above, many uterine tumors, as well
as ovarian and cystic tumors, fatty tumors, abdominal and intestinal tumors,
even those supposed to be of cancerous nature, have been removed under
the treatment. Especially good results have been secured with tumors
of the breast.
The cause for most tumors will be found In some spinal
or other bony lesion, or in some misplaced soft tissue which interferes
with the nerve supply or with the circulation, especially of the venous
and lymphatic drainage of the part affected. When the blood or lymph
at any given point is obstructed, whether it be from a defective nerve
supply or by direct pressure of some bone or organ, that blood or lymph
often causes an abnormal growth or tumor.
Abdominal Tumor. In case the tumor is
located in the abdomen it will be well to carefully examine the spine for
any spinal lesions, and remove them, using Nos. 34, 43, 44, 36, 37, 41.
The ribs must be carefully looked after and any misplaced ones must be
corrected. See Nos. 81 to 93. The abdomen must be carefully
treated, as in Nos. 94 to 100. Should there be enteroptosis (which
see), that must be treated according to directions. In general, tumors
should not be worked directly over or massaged, but they may be lifted
up and their position carefully shifted and adjoining tissues may be manipulated.
A general treatment is often advisable for the entire circulation and for
the nervous system. Treat about three times per week. When
better treat twice and once per week. The treatment in the main is
directed to restore the proper circulation. In some cases the treatment
must be continued for some time, but often the improvement is noted soon.
Uterine Tumors. Intrauterine, extrauterine
or interstitial tumors are frequently removed by osteopathic treatment.
The intrauterine tumor is frequently pedunculated, and at the menstrual
period causes great pain, because the uterus at that time tries to expel
it. The interstitial is a part of the enlarged wall and the extrauterine
is on the outside of the wall and attached to it. These tumors are
frequently caused by a misplaced uterus. This correction should be
made by a well-qualified practitioner. Very frequently there is a
luxated pelvis, or innominate bone, or a misplaced vertebra which, when
corrected, restores the proper circulation and results in the removal of
the tumor. In addition to the local corrective work necessary the
spine and innominates may be treated. See Nos. 43, 51, 52, 57, 104
to 112. In addition to the above a general treatment, which see,
will be found very beneficial as the patient is generally nervous.
Ovarian Tumors will require a careful examination
of the lower spine and the removal of all lesions found, and the pelvis
should be looked after and treated in the same careful manner. See
treatment for uterine tumors. The abdomen should be carefully treated
as in Nos. 94 to 100. Lift up the tumor and carefully manipulate
the tissues about it, but do not work directly over it.
Tumors and Nodules of the Breast. These
are often caused by a misplaced rib or clavicle. See treatment for
clavicles. Nos. 72, 73. Examine the ribs carefully, look -for
twisted ribs and ribs that are luxated in such a manner as to be too close
together, and treat as directed under treatment for ribs. Lift up
the ribs. See Nos. 81, 82, 86. Give the general treatment,
which see. Many operations may be avoided in this way.
DISEASES OF THE EYE.
Impaired vision, weak eyes, pterygium, granulated
lids, strabismus, atrophy of the optic nerve, blindness, cataract, diplopia,
conjunctivitis, glaucoma, closed tear duct, astigmatism, keratitis, ptosis
or drooping lids. All of these diseases of the eye are frequently
cured osteopathically. The lesions are generally found in the cervical
and upper dorsal regions. These lesions interfere with both the blood
and nerve supply.
Treatment. The treatment would
call for a thorough relaxation of all neck tissues. See Nos. 1, 3,
5, 7B, 9-11, 13. Relax all tissues in the upper dorsal region.
See Nos. 34, 43, 53. The fifth nerve may be treated, as in No. 21.
Pay attention to the clavicles and first ribs. Nos. 73, 72, 75 to
80. Open -mouth against resistance. See treatment of the ears
and No. 8. With the lids closed considerable work may be done about the
eye and in the bony cavity. In some cases, as in cataract, we may
percuss over the eyeball, as in Nos. 20, 22, 25, 26.
All lesions in the cervical and upper dorsal vertebra
and in the corresponding ribs should be removed. Should it be advisable
to use an antiseptic solution a four per cent boric acid solution may be
used, or a bichloride of mercury solution, 1 to 5,000 may be used.
Conjunctivitis and trachoma, in addition to the osteopathic
treatment, as outlined above, should be kept very clean with a boric acid
solution. Should the case be very severe and there be evidence of
infection it should each day receive an application of a silver nitrate
solution (one per cent). Hot applications should be used, cloths
wrung out of hot water and applied as can be borne. In cases of keratitis,
there is great pain, an aversion to the light, considerable inflammation,
redness. In addition to the osteopathic treatment, use hot water
applications. Keep the eyes clean with a boric acid solution, four
per cent. A thorough general treatment is indicated each day.
See general treatment.
DISEASES OF THE EAR.
In cases of deafness the neck and back treatment
are similar to the treatment in cases of diseases of the eye, which see.
In addition to the above, use peroxide of hydrogen
to loosen wax, after which an ear syringe should be used to cleanse the
external ear of any discharges or secretions which may have remained in
it. The mouth of the patient should be opened against re-. sistance.
The operator stands at the head of the reclining patient, and with both
hands under the chin of the patient who furnishes the resistance.
It should be opened slowly against this two or three times. This
greatly assists the circulation to both ears and eyes.
In case of earache, lie with the ear on a hot water
bag. If the patient is an infant, breathe into the ear. In
some cases of earache a glass ear tube with a recurrent flow is used, with
the water at a temperature of about 100 degrees.
(Deformities. Slight Dislocations. Bow Legs.)
The various affections of joints have been very successfully
treated by Osteopathy. In many cases a slight dislocation may be
the real first cause of the trouble. In other cases the cause may
have been rheumatism. Still other cases may be due to insufficient
bone nourishment in youth.
In all such cases it is best to begin at the origin
of the nerves supplying the joint in question. If the joint is below
the waist the nerve supply is looked for in the lower dorsal and lumbar
regions of the spine. If the trouble is in the arms or shoulder we
treat in the neck and as low down as the third and fourth dorsal vertebrae.
Treat all the tissues down to the affected joint from its nerve supply.
Work to secure a good nerve and blood supply as well.
Don't treat the joint too severely at first.
Work to relax the ligaments of the joint. A gentle treatment is more
successful in relaxing ligaments than a severe treatment. The joint
may be stretched, rotated, bent and manipulated in all possible ways.
Should there be a perfectly immovable joint it may be necessary to break
it up under an anesthetic, but if there is some movement in the joint it
is caused by a tightened condition of the ligaments rather than a bony
ankylosis. Such a joint may be greatly improved, and in many cases
complete restoration of function may be accomplished.
Slight dislocations may be manipulated and gradually
forced back into their normal position. Of course, if the condition
is one of long standing It may take some time. In recent cases the
work may be frequently accomplished in a few minutes.
Bow Legs. This condition is often the
result of weakness, sometimes rickets may cause the trouble. The
case should be taken in hand early. Such cases do not get better
of themselves. The spine should be treated as in Nos. 34, 43, 48,
50, 51, 52. The joint at the knee should be well manipulated.
Give particular attention to the outside ligaments. One mother has
the satisfaction of having a son with perfectly straight limbs who was
badly deformed in childhood. The good result came as a result of
her own efforts patiently and consistently followed for some months.
She rubbed the knees and especially the outside ligaments with salt water.
She gave the treatment every night. This was before Osteopathy was
known in her State. She exerted pressure to straighten the limbs
at the same time.
Where the bend is just above the ankles the treatment
in the back should be given as above. Thoroughly manipulate the limbs.
Use pressure to straighten them daily. See treatment of limbs.
The patient is placed on his back, as in Fig. 106.
It will be well to have the lower part of the body raised. The operator
takes the arms near the elbow, as in the figure, and draws them forcibly
outward and upward, where he holds them for two seconds to permit the air
to enter the lungs, then the arms are brought down and pressed with considerable
force against ' the sides of the chest for two seconds. These movements
are made fifteen times per minute. See Figs. 106 and 107. It
may be necessary in some cases to keep up the work for thirty minutes or
KUATSU AND SPONDYLOTHERAPY.
The Japanese have employed kuatsu in connection with
jiujitsu for many centuries, as a method of resuscitation when a person
was "knocked out" by the use of jiujitau. In restoring a person to
consciousness with kuatsu the patient is placed in the prone position and
the operator strikes with his wrist on the seventh cervical vertebra a
series of severe blows with regularity, the same as if a carpenter were
striking blows with a hammer. See Fig. 109.
They now use it for persons who have suffered from
sunstroke or drowning. It has been employed in this country, in a
modified form, for the same purpose and for increasing the heart's action
in emergencies. There has also been built up a system of treatment,
based on kuatsu and a few of the principles of Osteopathy, for which a
few claim considerable nxrit. Spondylotherapy claims to perform cares
by percussing over certain areas of the spine in different diseases.
This would appear to an Osteopath to be spinal stimulation. But it
would fail to remove any definite lesions which were the original cause
of the disease, and the effects would be only temporary.
The first effect of an Osteopathic lesion is overstimulation
of the organ that later becomes diseased. The organ overworks itself
and soon becomes a victim of this overwork. The lesion leads to a
stimulation which finally becomes an irritation and the organ becomes diseased.
After this stimulation the nerve fails to perform its function and more
stimulation would only further weaken the nerve. It might be of some
value in an emergency, but I fail to see its value in a chronic case.
Osteopathy removes the lesion and restores the nerves, and thus the organs,
to normal functioning.
Weak Arches, Broken Down Arches.
This trouble is due to general muscular weakness,
to heavy strains, to lesions in the lower part of the back or innorninate
bones, which cause faulty attitudes, thereby straining supporting ligaments
and interfering with the proper nourishment of the foot. Po(>rly-fitting
shoes may be a causative factor.
When the arches begin to break down the pain is often
ascribed to a sprain or rheumatism.
Improper treatment is applied and when the patient is heavy the trouble
becomes worse quite rapidly. There is pain along the inside of the
foot. There may be pain in the heel; also the calf of the leg.
This pain may extend to the knee. The circulation becomes poor, with
all the attendant symptoms, numbness, cold and, at times, perspiration.
The pain may be out of all proportion to the deformity and there may be
considerable deformity with very little pain. The foot grows more
deformed, becoming flat and rigid.
The treatment should be applied in such a manner
as to secure pliability of the foot with the utmost freedom of motion.
See paragraph 118, also Fig. 93. Several weeks will be necessary to accomplish
this. In the meantime have the patient wear a shoe with low, flat
heels and broad toes. When walking It will be well for him to place
most of his weight on the outside of the foot. The inside of the
shoe sole may be built up a little. Careful exercise may be carried
on with benefit, but it should be carried only to the point of fatigue.
Walking with toes turned slightly in and upon tiptoes will be helpful.
In some cases after a certain amount of pliability is secured a cast may
be necessary. Braces may help, but the difficulty with them is they
are hard to fit. The use of adhesive strips in holding up the arch
after it has been placed into something like normal position is advocated
by some, and in many cases the treatment is successful. A long course
of treatment is required.
CRAMPS IN THE LEGS.
Many persons are affected with cramps in the legs,
which prove very painful. They most frequently occur in the calf
of the leg and attack a patient after retiring for the night. The
cause of the trouble is too many nerve impulses going to the muscles of
the leg. Overexertion in walking or running, or any occupation that
would unduly excite the lumbar segment of the spinal cord, might result
in this trouble. When we get too warm, by having too much cover in
bed, contractions of the calf muscles may result. Many have found
that by stepping upon the floor they obtained relief. This stretched
the muscles, as the Osteopath does, as shown in Fig. 90A. At the
same time he inhibits the nerves of the lumbar region, as is shown in Fig.
An easier way, and one that will be just as effective,
is to place a bag of ice or very cold water on the lumbar region of the
spine. This will give instant relief.
DISORDERED SWEAT GLANDS.
This trouble is characterized by perspiration that
is excessive or absent, fetid or accompanied by small vesicles upon the
skin, accompanied by much sweating. The scientific names for this
disturbance, in the order given above, are hyperidrosis, anhidrosis, bromidrosis
This trouble is caused by impairment of the nerve
supply to the sweat glands, and as it is not certainly known where these
centers may be found we give a thorough general treatment about twice per
week. The founder of Osteopathy, Dr. A. T. Still, recommends that
the facia all over the spine be thoroughly loosened, much as would be indicated
in Figs. 48, 50 and 51. See the pictures. In cases of unilateral
sweating pay particular attention to loosening the structures of the neck.
See neck treatment. The above treatment is recommended in cases of
sweating of the feet and axilla.
ACNE AND COMEDO.
Pimples and Black Heads.
The acne is distended sebaceous follicles found mostly
on the face and eyelids. They are small, white, opaque, seedlike
grains. The black heads are small, sebaceous plugs, found mostly
on the face, neck, chest and back. The former may be punctured and
both should be squeezed out.
The cause is very obscure from the medical standpoint.
Osteopathy regards them as being caused by poor nerve supply and deficient
circulation to the skin and superfical fascia. Upon improving the
circulation and bettering the nerve supply they disappear.
The treatment is largely directed to the neck.
The muscles are well worked and kneaded, and some treatment, though not
so severe, is given to the face or part affected. Treat about twice
per week for a while and then once per week. If there are any indications
of constitutional weakness a general treatment is indicated.
Hiccough is a reflex spasm of the diaphragm with
simultaneous closure of the glottis. It is a very distressing trouble
and if continued for several days may prove fatal. I have noted cases
that stopped while the patient slept and began upon awakening. It
is sometimes very difficult to cure. In the milder forms a sudden
reflex irritation will cure at once. A teaspoonful of salt and lemon
juice has been recommended. Salt and vinegar will do as well.
Strong traction on the tongue may cure. The Osteopathic treatment
calls for a thorough relaxing of the neck muscles. I have found cases
where the hyoid bone was pulled backward and downward and relief was secured
at once by forcibly elevating the bone with the fingers. Sometimes
firm pressure is to be applied upon the phrenic nerve, over the scalenus
anticus muscle. This inhibits the action of that nerve. The
effect may be obtained by the application of cold. This nerve
enervates the diaphragm.
Bleeding from the nose may occur from a variety of
causes - injuries, nasal diseases and erosions. It may be caused
by general conditions, as in the case of delicate children about the age
of puberty. In stout persons it may indicate liability to apoplexy.
It is common in ascending heights, as in mountain climbing, or ascending
in balloons. Bleeding from the nose precedes typhoid fever and is
common in anemias. In cases of suppression of the menses the epistaxis
is sometimes vicarious.
The treatment in most cases is very simple.
In many cases it stops itself. In case the bleeding is obstinate,
hot or cold water may be injected into the nose. Alum, an astringent,
may be used. A mechanical form of treatment will be simply to hold
the hands of the patient above his head. The operator may place his
thumbs just beneath the nose, on the upper lip, and his forefinger in the
notch of the facial artery, which is found about one-half an inch forward
of the angle of the lower jaw. Pressure may be made here for five
minutes and repeated if necessary. This form of treatment is illustrated
by Fig 23 A. When the bleeding is very bad and obstinate it will be well
to plug the posterior nares, using absorbent cotton which has been well
saturated with alum water or tannin and
glycerine. Remove on the third day and renew if necessary.
Sunstroke is caused by excessive exposure to heat.
Any factor that lessens the bodily resistance to a high temperature will
predispose to sunstroke. Exhaustion of mind or body, excitement or
worry, accompanied by unsanitary conditions, overeating, alcoholism, previous
attacks, when coupled with exposure to extreme heat will bring on the condition
When the atmosphere is hot, still, sultry and humid, working bard in the
direct rays of the sun predisposes to heat-stroke. It may be brought
on by labor in poorly-ventilated, excessively hot, close and confined places.
The symptoms come on suddenly. There may be
loss of consciousness and the face is flushed, while there is full, rapid
pulse. The skin is hot and dry. The temperature is from 100
to 106. In fatal cases the coma becomes deeper and deeper, the pulse
is more rapid, and the temperature may reach from 106 to 115. Heat-exhaustion
may have more warning symptoms. There may be headache and nausea,
with faintness and thirst. The extremities may have numbness and
tingling. These symptoms will be followed by great muscular weakness
and prostration. There will be clamminess and coldness of the surface,
with pallor and a small, rapid pulse. In grave cases there may be
collapse. The temperature is at first subnormal, 95 to 97, though
in some cases there may be a mild fever, ranging from 100 to. 102.
We look for such cases to recover in one or two days and with prompt treatment
in a few hours. When the patient is weak death may take
Treatment. Notice the difference in
treating the two cases. In sunstroke, promptly place in an ice bath,
with plenty of ice in the water. Reduce the temperature to 101.
Take from the bath and rub the patient dry. Then thoroughly loosen
all spinal muscles. See paragraphs 47, 48, 49, 53, 54, 56, 57, 58,
59, 60. All of these movements may not be necessary in some cases,
but use as many as you need thoroughly to relax all spinal tissues.
Pay especial attention to the neck. See that there are no contracted
tissues in the neck. See paragraph 5, also use paragraph 7 as indicated
in Fig. 7B. Also Figs. 8 and 9A. Give an inhibitive, relaxing
treatment to the abdomen. See paragraphs numbered from 94 to 100.
In case the temperature is again rising, repeat the bath, but do not lower
the temperature below 101. To lower the temperature an ice water
enema is a useful help. Use an ice cap for the bead, and give a liquid
diet for several days. In case of heat-exhaustion get the patient
into the shade in a cool place. Loosen all clothing, especially about
the neck. If the temperature is subnormal use a warm bath.
Give a little brandy and treat Osteopathically as in sunstroke.
Extra precaution should be taken in warm weather
by those who do physical work. Sleep in a well-ventilated room.
Bathe frequently. Avoid alcohol and heavy eating. Stop work
and seek the shade at once if sweating stops. Wear cool, wet cloths
or green leaves inside a light hat.
ALCOHOLISM AND DRUG HABITS.
Morphine, Cocaine and Cigarette Habits.
Alcoholism is accompanied by profound tissue changes
in various parts of the body. It often results, when long continued,
in a chronic inflammation of the liver, stomach, heart, blood vessels and
kidneys. Neuritis, epilepsy and paresis may be caused by the disease.
The drug habits produce changes in the nerves and
operate to change the character of the patient.
In treating alcoholism we give a thorough general
treatment each day for about two weeks, and after that every other day
for from one to three months.
Should there be constipation, liver or kidney troubles,
special treatment should be given for these diseases. We give special
attention to the treatment of the pancreas, spleen and liver. In
treating the spleen and pancreas the location for spinal work is the same
as for the liver. In working over the spleen we treat the same as
for the liver, remembering that they are on opposite sides of the body.
The founder of Osteopathy believes that the chronic
drinker has the thirst for liquor in a more aggravated form because there
is some failure of the system to supply healthy fluids, and the thirst
for alcohol is nature craving a substitute. While the patient is
undergoing the treatment he should be well fed. The system must be
well nourished and built up. Allow beef tea and malted milk with red pepper
to be taken when the thirst for strong drink is excessive. Treating
such cases is not very pleasant work, but there is great satisfaction in
saving such men to their families.
The doctor must use considerable firmness and tact
in dealing with these cases. Each one is different and requires different
treatment. One man was made to promise that he would come to me when
he had to have a drink. I promised to give it to him and did so,
but he was eventually cured. One man after he had been under treatment
for a week said he felt as if his delirium tremens was coming on again
(he had been confined for this cause). He begged for a quart of whiskey.
In the presence of his wife, who had accompanied him to the office, I told
him he might take a quart home. He consumed three-fourths of it that
night. A little over a year after this he was accidentally killed,
but he had never touched a drop of whiskey since that night.
In treating the drug habits the same treatment as
for alcoholism is given. Morphine must be gradually withdrawn.
Coffee may be used as a stimulant. The cocaine habit is, perhaps,
the most difficult to overcome. Its victims are most pitiful.
The drug must be gradually withdrawn. Great excitement, sometimes
paranoia, follows its discontinuance.
The treatment will be best given in an institution where you can have
absolute control of the patient.
Tape Worms (Cestodes), Round Worms (Ascaris Lumbricoides), Pin Worms
Vermicularis), Thread Worms.
Tape Worms. There are two varieties,
in the United States, of tape worms, the taenia solium and the taenia saginata.
They are allowed to secure an entrance into the system by eating raw or
partially cooked beef or pork, which had previously become a host for the
eggs of the worm. There are numerous symptoms, but the only sure
method of diagnosis is to find segments of the worm which have been passed
in the stools.
There is a long list of drugs that are effective,
the best of which is the oleroesin of the male fern. This should
be given in, a capsule. For a child ten years old the dose should
be 15 minims, four of which should be taken at hourly intervals.
Immediately after the last dose take one-half an ounce of castor oil.
Very little should be eaten the day before, and a dose of salts should
be taken the previous evening. Nothing should be eaten in the morning
when the treatment begins.
An adult may take a two-drachm dose of the ethereal
extract of the male fern, followed in two hours by an active purge.
When the worm is being passed warm water should be placed in the commode.
This keeps the worm from contracting and breaking.
Another splendid remedy is to take three or four
ounces of pumpkin seeds, bruise and macerate them for half a day.
This infusion is to be taken after a fast, and the bowels thoroughly cleansed
by a salt-water injection and a dose of Epsom salts. Follow the infusion
of pumpkin seeds in an hour by a thorough purge. Unless the head
of the worm is expelled the segments will again appear in the faeces in
about three months.
These are small and round, from five to ten inches
long, tapering at the ends, grayish in color, with sometimes a pink tint.
Generally there are from two to ten of them, but there may be many more.
Sometimes they migrate, enter the stomach and are
vomited. They have been known to enter the nose, the middle ear and
the bile duct. They cause a number of nervous symptoms. Positive
evidence of their presence is their appearance in the stools.
The best remedy is sanotin. A one-grain dose
is enough for a child five years of age, and three should be given at hourly
intervals in the powdered form, mixed with pulverized sugar. This
should be preceded by a day of fasting and a dose of salts at night and
next morning. After it acts the remedy may be given, and should be
followed by an active purge, say one-half ounce of castor oil.
They are very much like short pieces of white thread.
The worm is from one-sixth to one-third of an inch in length and tapers
toward the tail.
These worms cause intense itching, usually at night,
because they migrate to the anus and to the genital organs, where they
cause inflammation and may lead to masturbation. Large quantities
of mucus may be discharged from the bowels. Irregular nervous symptoms
may be caused, which sometimes lead to convulsions. The worms may
be found in the faces or on the person near the rectum.
Treatment. Cold injections of strong
salt water are very helpful. Strict attention must be given at all
times to absolute cleanliness, to avoid reinfection. A solution of
bichloride of mercury, 1 to 10,000, may be used to bathe the anus two or
three times per day. This is also a splendid injection, and may be
used after an injection in which one teaspoonful of borax to a pint of
water has been used, to remove the mucus. After the mucus comes away
use about half a pint of the bichloride of mercury solution. Retain
as long as possible and repeat every third or fourth night. On the
other evenings use the salt water injections and occasionally give a dose
of Epsom salts.
One very obstinate case was cured by using as au
injection a decoction of garlic. At the same time large quantities
of garlic were used by the mouth.
The itching may be allayed by the use of carbolized
When the chilblains affect the feet, care should
be taken to keep up a good circulation. Loose shoes, with woolen
stockings, should be worn. Frequent bathing, followed by vigorous
friction, will be of value. An occasional application of a liniment
composed of equal parts of turpentine and olive oil may be rubbed ort at
The itching may be allayed by rubbing in the following
. 1 1/2 drams.
.. 1/2 dram.
. 4 ounces.
A person with any part of the body frost-bitten should
not be brought into a warm room. The part, if recently frozen and
red in color, should be rubbed with snow or with cloths dipped in ice water
until the redness disappears. If the person is nearly frozen to death,
induce breathing by using the methods for artificial respiration, which
see. See Figs. 106, 107. Rub him thoroughly with flannel saturated
with whiskey. Apply vigorous pressure on the spine between the shoulders,
as in No. 67. Give an enema of brandy and water. When possible
administer brandy by the mouth. Give warm drinks, as coffee, beef
tea, etc. As the patient improves the temperature of the room may
These are the result of pressure or friction, and
when the irritative cause is removed the corn will disappear. Salicylic
acid is the basis of nearly all corn cures. A valuable preparation
. 1 1/2 drams.
Extract of cannabis indica
. 1 1/2 drams.
This may be painted over the corn daily, preferably
at night, and carefully scraped away in the morning.
If the feet are very much inflamed a very grateful
treatment will consist of a thorough cleansing with ethereal soap.
Soak in hot water and wrap them in cloths which have been soaked in the
. 2 ounces.
. 2 ounces.
Spirits of camphor
Soft corns may be treated by washing the feet thoroughly
with ethereal soap. After drying carefully remove the dead and loosened
skin. Dust the toes with borated talcum powder and place a thin layer
of absorbent cotton between..
Sun bums, or bums slight in character, may be kept
moistened with a saturated solution of
bicarbonate of sodium (common baking soda). When the burn is
more serious the following ointment should be used:
.. 20 grains.
.. 75 grains.
. 1 1/2 ounces.
Burns of a very serious nature call for immediate
IVY POISONING. POISON
Portions of the body exposed are often covered with
blisters. There is great swelling, itching and burning. Apply
the following solution:
. 4 drams.
. 1 pint.
Later a salve made as follows may be applied:
. 4 drams.
. 30 grains.
. 1 ounce.
For warts on the face apply each day some of the
Subliminal sulphur .......... 5 drams.
1 1/2 drams.
. 2 1/2 ounces.
For warts on other parts of the body a very effective
application is to paint daily with the following:
. 1/2 of a dram.
.. 15 drams.
It is a well known fact that if a wart is kept constantly
wet with castor oil it will frequently drop off and disappear. Another
useful application is:
. 30 grains.
. 1 ounce.
In addition to the regular Osteopathic treatment
for hay fever, as noted on page 242 of this work, the attention of the
reader is called to some additions in the technique and modus operandi
of the treatment. Before beginning this special work it will be well
thoroughly to irrigate the upper nasal passages with a salt solution at
a temperature of about 105 degrees Fahrenheit. This solution should
be conducted from a glass container, elevated about three feet above the
head of the patient, through the medium of a rubber tube. As the
patient bends over a fountain cuspidor, the solution should be made to
enter one nostril and flow out of the other. About a quart of this
solution may be used at
one time. When a pint has been used, the rubber tube with its
nasal attachment may be transferred to the other nostril. This solution,
by an effort on the part of the patient, may be made to enter the mouth,
and thus it will assist in cleansing the nasopharynx. This solution
may be prepared in the following manner: Five ounces of sodium chloride
(common salt) ; three and one-half ounces of sodium biborate (borax) ;
two ounces of bicarbonate of soda (common baking soda). This may
be kept for all practical purposes in a dry state. The ingredients
should be thoroughly mixed, and then a teaspoonful may be used in each
quart of water intended for the irrigation.
On beginning the treatment it is advisable to use
about three teaspoonfuls, and as the treatment progresses it may be reduced
to one. The stronger the solution the greater is its cleansing power.
But if it is used too long a time at its maximum strength it will tend
to irritate the mucous membrane of the nasal passages.
When these antiseptic precautions have been taken,
the forefinger of the operator may be
thoroughly cleansed, upon which is used a mild antiseptic. A
ten per cent solution of iodine and glycerine will be excellent for this
purpose. The finger is inserted back of the soft palate, at one side
of the uvula. The soft palate may then be pulled forward and bent
at almost right angles with the hard palate. A short, simple massage
treatment may be given it, and this will tend to reduce its size, as in
these cases it is often found enlarged. The soft palate may be swept
from side to side and the back of the finger may sweep over the posterior
part of the nasopharynx. This tends to break up any pockets in which
mucus may collect and assist in cleansing out this space. After this
is done the cleansing solution may be used for a short period as a douche
as before, and the mouth thoroughly cleansed. In order to keep these
membranes from any undue irritation until the natural secretions have been
established, pinoleum may be used as a spray in the nostrils or glycothymoline
may be used on a cotton applicator. If this treatment is commenced
several weeks before the time for the hay fever to put in an appearance,
we may hope to effect a cure, or greatly benefit the patient.
The treatment should be given about three times per
week. If you do not get to treat the patient until the disease is
active, we may hope, by administering the treatment each day for several
days, to give the patient considerable help.
TREATMENT OF DEAFNESS AND PARTIAL DEAFNESS.
Great strides have been made in the past few years
by various members in the Osteopathic
profession in the treatment of deafness and partial deafness.
This has been especially true when the deafness was caused by catarrh.
The exudates from the catarrhal condition partially fill the Eustachian
tubes. The special Osteopathic procedure is directed to the opening
up of these tubes, and the normalization of all surrounding tissues.
This should go hand in hand with the general Osteopathic treatment, which
has for its purpose the loosening up of all the tissues of the neck and
upper dorsal regions of the back. Many Osteopaths consider this to
be of first-class importance. It has been the experience of a number
of Osteopaths in giving their regular treatment, in which it has been necessary
to do considerable work in the upper part of the back and the neck, to
find patients laying aside their glasses and having their ears improved,
when the treatment was not especially directed either to the eyes or the
The antiseptic precautions, and the method of irrigation
with the same salt solution, as noted here in the treatment of hay fever,
are used in the treatment of deafness and partial deafness. In treating
the ears it will be best to look after the general health of the patient,
in order to obtain the best results. Nervousness, stomach troubles,
liver diseases, female troubles, overeating and drinking, all tend to aggravate
most cases of deafness. The appropriate prohibition of all bad habits
should be made, and in some cases the proper diet should be followed.
Some cases of head noises are caused by too high
blood pressure. The careful physician will take the blood pressure
of most of his patients and work to reduce such pressure as is above normal.
Before accepting a case of deafness or partial deafness
it will be well to make certain tests with the tuning-fork, and also give
the watch test, and an examination of the outer ear should be made, and
also the nasophamyx. You should determine whether the deafness is
caused by the impairment of the essential organ of hearing, or the conduction
apparatus; whether the difficulty is in the labyrinth or auditory nerve,
or whether it is due to an obstruction of the Eustachian tube, the external
auditory canal, or some affliction of the tympanic membrane. We expect,
under our treatment, greatly to benefit those cases where the deafness,
or partial deafness, is due to some impairment of the conducting apparatus.
And we find that the greater part of deafness is due to the latter cause.
In testing any particular case it will be best to use the tuning fork.
If it be impractical to have a number of forks, the best fork adapted for
ordinary use will be one that is fairly loud and one sounding the note
C2; that is, 512 vibrations per second.
When a vibrating tuning fork is placed against the
head of a person whose bearing is entirely normal, he will hear it better
if both ears are closed. Or if one ear is closed he will hear the
fork better in that ear. So, if the hearing in one ear is impaired
because the Eustachian tube is closed from any cause, the vibrating tuning
fork will be better heard in that ear. This will also be the case
if the external auditory canal is obstructed, or if the menbrana tympani
is thickened. In making this test the handle of the tuning fork should
be held against the teeth, or on the head midway between the ears.
If the difficulty in bearing is due to an affection of the labyrinth or
of the auditory nerve, the vibrating tuning fork will not be heard as well
in the impaired ear.
Some persons will imagine that they hear the tuning
fork better in the ear in which they are accustomed to he" well, under
other circumstances. Ask the patient to listen to the fork as he
closes first one ear and then the other. Be sure that he hears as
he really does, not as he thinks he ought to hear.
Another test that may be used in connection with
the tuning fork will be the watch test. For this purpose a common
Ingersoll dollar watch which has a loud tick will be best. It may
be well to use in connection with this a better grade watch, whose tick
has a greater number of vibrations. Be certain to have the room in
which the test is made free from all noise. Have the eyes of the
patient covered. Hold the watch on a level with the ear, and move
it slowly towards that organ. By testing in this way it will be an
easy matter to know how the case is progressing as each treatment is being
When you are examining a case for the first time
it is always well to examine the exterior auditory canal and the membrana
tympani. A reflector and ear speculum will be useful for this purpose.
The writer uses a head lamp which throws its light into the ear, and anest
of Gruber's specula. Sometimes you will note a thickening of the
membrane, and the exterior ear often is filled with cerumen or other matter,
and must be removed. Frequently you will find cases of deafness where
this is the only thing necessary to do. A mass of such material,
after being made soft, can readily be removed by syringing with warm water.
Have the patient soften it by filling the ear with warm water several times
a day, and at night introduce a few drops of sweet oil. Then, the
next day, you can syringe the ear and remove the mass in this manner.
Examination of the Nasopharynx.
In examining a patient, where you expect that the
deafness is induced by catarrh affecting the Eustachian tubes, it will
be well to examine the nasopharynx. For this purpose it is well to
have several small mirrors, ranging in size from 00 to 5. The frames of
these mirrors are attached to wire handles at an angle of forty-five degrees.
One of these mirrors is slightly warmed and introduced into the open mouth
of the patient. It should be carried back to the pharyngeal cavity
while holding the tongue down with a tongue depressor. It should
be so placed that it will reflect the light into and upward, so as to obtain
a good image of the vault of the pharynx and the posterior nares.
the posterior margin of the nasal septum, the pharyngeal tonsil just
above it, and still lower, on each side, are the pharyngeal orifices of
the Eustachian tube. They look like two open elevations.
They have a border of cartilaginous lips which, in the normal state, has
a deep-red color, while the mucous membrane at the tube entrance is lighter
in color. If the mucous membrane covering the lips of the tubes is
lighter in color and the parts appear shrunken, the tubes are atrophied.
If the Eustachian tube mouth appears dilated and swollen, and there is
mucus showing in it, catarrh of the tube is indicated.
Difficulties of This Examination.
We should not touch the back of the tongue or wall
of the pharynx, as a gagging of the patient will start and we cannot proceed
with the examination. Should the palate rise and shut off our view
we may request the patient to breathe through the nose. To this end
it will be best to have the patient take a full breath as you insert the
mirror, and then request him to exhale through the nose.
The Treatment Proper.
After you have selected your case and you are certain
that the external auditory canal is open and free of wax, or other deposit,
and that the essential organ of hearing is not seriously impaired, we examine
the Eustachian tubes by means of the small throat mirrors.
Then, if they are closed, or partially so, we carefully
insert the forefinger back of the soft palate, at one side of the uvula,
on the same side that the tube is closed. Run the palm of the finger
outward and forward until you reach the tubercle back of the mouth of the
Eustachian tube; then allow the finger to go backward into the fossa of
Rosenmuller. In doing this do not use too much pressure, but by using
a little pressure, should there be adhesions or adenoids, they will be
broken up after a few treatments. About the third or fourth treatment
after you have inserted the finger as above you may use a kind of a stretching
and pumping motion over the orifice of the tube. This slight manipulation
or massage tends to open the tube and to clean it of mucus. At each
treatment pull forward on the soft palate. This movement tends to
empty the tube.
After you have treated the patient for about a month,
three times per week, and you have cleared the space about the tube's mouth
of adenoids, morbid growths, and adhesions, you may insert the soft tip
of the finger into the tube and rotate it a little. This will cause
pain as it breaks up adhesions. After you have opened the tube thus,
you may further open it with the Politzer air bag, as directed under that
head. This should be done two days after the finger tips are placed
in the tubes. Two days afterwards use the air bag again and pull
the soft palate forward.
The hand should be well cleaned before the finger
is inserted in the throat, and a mild antiseptic should be used on the
finger. A 10 per cent solution of iodine and glycerine will be excellent.
The patient should use a mild spray or nasal douche twice per day, or better
after each meal, as long as he is under your care. This will tend
to keep down all inflammation. If, after any of the work, there is
undue soreness or inflammation, a cold pack may be placed over the throat
just beneath the chin.
In bad cases it is sometimes necessary to keep up
the treatment for from three to six months, while in some cases, not so
severe, pathologically, but where the hearing is badly affected, you will
obtain surprisingly good results in a very few treatments.
A Simpler Treatment.
Use the above technique, but very lightly, three
times on the first day. The second day use it twice, and perhaps
also on the tbird day. Then use it daily for awhile. Then treat
three times per week for two weeks. But do not attempt to place the
finger in the tube mouth. Use antiseptic precautions as above.
During the last week of treatment use the Politzer air bag once or twice.
This massage in many cases will open up the tube. Be sure to massage
the tubercle of Gerlach and spring the soft palate forward. This
loosens the folds in the tube and forces out the mucus. In cases
which are quite deaf, but in which the pathological conditions are not
so very serious, you may expect good results in a very short time.
Be sure always to work over and massage an enlarged soft palate.
This is for the purpose of reducing its size. This treatment will
improve a speaker's or singer's voice.
The Simplest Treatment.
The simplest and easiest method that I have found
for clearing out the Eustachian tubes, and at the same time restoring their
patency, is to treat over them each day for a week or ten days before using
the Politzer air bag. They can be reached for the purpose of expressing
the mucus by treating over the anterior wall of the nasopharynx, just to
one side of the uvula and soft palate. In this way you reach the
Eustachian tube through the wall of the nasopharynx, and treat the tube
much as you would treat the appendix, manually, through the abdomen.
Use the same antiseptic precautions as in the treatments
The Use of the Politzer Air Bag.
Place the nosepiece of the bag in one nostril and
close both nostrils about this nosepiece with the thumb and finger.
A little water having been previously placed in the patient's mouth, he
is told to swallow. As soon as the operator notes the larynx rise
as the patient begins to swallow, he quickly presses the bag, thus forcing
the air into the Eustachian tube and on up to the middle ear. Do
not use any more force to accomplish this purpose than necessary.
You had better make several attempts than to cause pain or possibly rupture
a diseased drum membrane. You can inflate the middle ear of a child
easier than that of an adult. For the average practitioner an eight-ounce
bag will be the best.
This disease is highly contagious and is evidently
caused by a specific infection of the most virulent type. Very few
drugless practitioners claim to find any special lesion. But any
muscular, ligamentous or tightened joint lesion that tends to lower the
general health of a person is a standing invitation for any passing or
prevalent disease germ to enter the body where a good field for its operations
may be found. Spanish influenza is limited to the human family and
in many respects resembles la grippe or the ordinary influenza but it is
not the same disease. There is much difficulty in distinguishing
it from an ordinary cold by laboratory methods.
It is believed that the virus of this disease is
taken into the system by the way of the nose, mouth and eyes and is largely
spread by the discharges from these organs. Sprays and gargles do
but little good because if these are strong enough to kill the germs they
destroy the protecting mucous membrane and allow the germs to enter the
system more freely and thus increasing the liability to the disease.
The larger portion of cases are among persons from twenty to forty years
of age; younger and older persons seem to be more immune. The epidemic
which swept the United States in 1918, during which five hundred thousand
died, is expected to repeat itself with diminishing force in future years.
It is questionable whether previous attacks help to make one immune or
like pneumonia predispose to another attack. At any rate it is the
duty of all to keep their health at the highest possible point. And
to do this all excesses should be avoided in eating, drinking and working;
regular hours should be kept and above all avoid worry. Regular outdoor
should be taken; the windows in sleeping apartments should be kept
open; night air is fresh; no one should be afraid of it. Drink plenty
of water; constipation should be avoided; the feet kept dry, the head cool,
and any undue exposure avoided. During an epidemic or when the disease
is in a community large gatherings should be avoided; theatres, picture
shows, political meetings, etc., should be closed. Dont be afraid
of Spanish influenza catching you, for if it does there is a safe way to
secure a speedy return of your health. Tell your patients this.
Symptoms. While the symptoms of this
disease are many and varied they are easily understood. In many cases
this disease begins like a common cold or case of la grippe. The
history of many cases reveals three or four days of a feeling of indisposition
as if a cold were developing. There is generally acute or chronic
constipation. Very frequently there is sore throat, an irritation
of the nasal passages and bronchi. Most often there is fever, but
for awhile in a few cases there may be none. There is pain in the
muscles of the back; in most cases it is in the lumbar region; very frequently
it is in the back of the neck or upper dorsal region; while in some cases
it extends throughout this entire area. There is pain in the limbs.
In many cases there is sweating, cough and vomiting. The sweating
is one of Nature's efforts of throwing off the virus of the disease.
The eyes are sensitive to the light. Nearly all have headache, which
is in various parts of the head, mostly frontal, temporal and occipital.
When the patient has fever it ranges from 100 to 104. When the fever
drops the patient will be greatly prostrated; which weakness will be out
of all proportion to the duration and height of the fever, as is the case
in la grippe. When the case grows worse it develops into bronchopneumonia.
Treatment. The treatment of this disease
from a drugless physician's standpoint is comparatively simple and very
effective. Where statistics were available the mortality rate of
one branch of the drugless profession was about one-fourth of one per cent.
They treated many thousands, some of whom had taken other forms of treatment
and were becoming worse. Patients who took the drugless treatment
from the onset of the disease recovered quickly, in most cases, without
complications. The most difficult cases of these drugless doctors
were those who had taken other treatment and pneumonia developed before
the drugless method was used.
The first thing to do is to treat as for a bad cold
by giving the manual manipulations as described for a GENERAL TREATMENT,
see the index in Murray's Practice of Osteopathy, paying particular attention
to the spine and back of the neck, the buttocks and legs, but not requiring
the patient to sit up. This ought not to take more than twenty minutes
and should be given in bed so as to disturb the patient as little as possible.
In a severe case it will be well to treat twice or three times per day.
In an ordinary case once or twice will be sufficient, as the patient becomes
better treat less frequently. While treating keep a moist patient
covered; treat him beneath the bed clothes and aim to disturb him as little
as possible. Keep the muscles pulled away from the spine as this
allows veins, arteries and nerves freedom in draining, supplying and carrying
nerve impulses from the spinal cord. If a headache develops between
treatments, or remains unsubdued, give a few minutes of the neck work between
times. It will be found very grateful to the patient. When
there is pain in any part of the body a little appropriate work will be
helpful administered between the regular treatments. In giving the
treatments loosen all the muscles in the back where found in a tightened
or tense condition. Loosen all tissues over the buttocks and down
the limbs. Raise the ribs and give a slight pull on their angles,
about two inches from the spine, in line with their axis. This work
helps and slightly stimulates the lungs. This is an important treatment
in this disease, severe colds and la grippe as it overcomes any tendency
The patient should rest in bed during the disease
and stay there for at least three days after all fever has left.
Failure to observe this injunction will lead, in many cases, to a relapse
and pneumonia. Many deaths were caused by leaving the bed too early.
If at all possible a bedpan and urinal should be used to avoid getting
up at any time. When in bed the patient should turn once in a while;
this is well to do in any sickness as it tends to avoid the congestion
of a lung. When the patient has a fever and also at the onset of
the disease it will be well to induce a good sweat by natural means.
A few hot water bottles or glass jars, filled with hot water, should be
placed about the patient. Hot lemonade should be given and an extra
amount of covering applied. After the patient has perspired freely
for thirty minutes gradually reduce the covering to normal and remove the
hot water bottles.
Soap suds enemas will help keep the bowels regular.
Some in an emergency give an adult about two tablespoonfuls of castor oil,
or some other cathartic. Some prefer a cathartic as they claim enemas
disturb the patient too much. Should the fever reach 104 give a sponge
bath or alcohol rub. For nausea have the patient drink a quart or
a little more of lukewarm water as quickly as he can. This will tend
to induce vomiting; if it doesn't it will help to cleanse the stomach anyway.
Should the headache be very severe apply an ice cap to the head and work
extensively in the neck at the base of the skull, the occipital region.
Always have the sick room well ventilated. The patient should avoid
drafts and be well covered but not so warm as to be uncomfortable.
Diet. While the fever lasts, and for
36 hours afterwards give fruit juices, as orange juice, grape juice or
sweet cider. Some allow a liquid diet as the patient may desire,
as sweet milk, butter milk, ice cream, soups, broths, cocoa, etc.
Other drugless physicians only allow the fruit juices until the fever breaks
and then the liquid diet for two days.
Warning. Stay in bed for at least three
days, five will be better, after the fever has left. Then take very
gradual exercise or very light work for the following week. Rising
too soon and overdoing leads to pneumonia, which is the fatal complication
of Spanish influenza. We should all, both men and women, know how
to treat and nurse the sick.
We recommend in paragraphs 68 and 69 page 41 movements
for the reduction of lesions of the sacrum. The sacrum is very important
because of its peculiar position between the innominates and the flexible
joint it forms with them and the spine which it supports although really
a part of the spine. So far reaching are some of the lesions of the
sacrum in relation with the innominates and spine as regards constipation,
piles, sciatica, various diseases of women and lower limb troubles that
any simplification of technic will be welcomed by all practitioners.
I have the patient recline on a padded table or with
a cushion under the innominates and the sacrum uppermost. Standing
at the side the operator grasping the anterior superior spine of the innominate
on the other side with his left hand, with the heel of his right he delivers
a quick stiff arm thrust to that portion of the sacrum needing it. This
movement often corrects innominate lesions. The stiff arm thrust
may be used, after thoroughly massaging over the sacrum and surrounding
tissues, to correct any lesion between it and the fifth lumbar vertebra.
The sacrum may be tilted by the thrust on its upper or lower part as the
lesion indicates. Of course in this latter movement we do not hold
Some Osteopaths correct most of their innominate lesions
and some fifth lumbar lesions in this manner. By paying special attention
to the sacrum a more satisfactory result may be obtained in many cases.