Neuropathy and The Encyclopedia of Physical and Manipulative Therapeutics
Compiled By Thomas T. Lake, N. D., D. C.
The rule we shall follow in this section is to briefly state the definitions
of the various types of treatment, and their specialties, then to
give the clinical diagnosis of diseased conditions, then indicate
briefly the types of treatment that have long been accepted and practiced
by the physical and manipulative physician. Naturally all methods
cannot be given here because new ones are continually coming forth.
Neither can those indicated in this book be gone into exhaustively,
but ample references are supplied for those who wish to make a special
study of the specialties mentioned.
We do not make any claims to originality for any of the specialties,
neither do we agree that there is anything original in any form
of the healing arts, but rather an evolution of ideas from one age
to the other. We are in perfect accord with John Cornos, who in
a book review in the Philadelphia Evening Bulletin said, "Strictly
speaking, there is no such thing as originality. At best what we
term “originality in the arts is a new combination of existing factors
previously used in different combinations – plus the author's personality,
which co-ordinates them into a new form." Since the laws pertaining
to Drugless Therapy vary in each state, the writer must leave the
selection of techniques to the discretion of each individual physician.
He is satisfied there are some techniques that can be used by every
physician in all states, or wherever Drugless Therapy is practiced.
A BRIEF OUTLINE OF THE SPECIALTIES
What is a Specialty? The best definition we have been able
to put together from many definitions we have read is as follows:
A specialty is that part of a physician’s practice in which he has
some special knowledge, and some special gift of exhibiting that
knowledge. If the physician gives all his time to the practice
of a specialty, he is known as a “Specialist.” The importance
of the specialist is waning with the increasing knowledge of the
specialties by the general practitioner, and this is a healthy trend
and will in the end raise the practitioner from the status of a
mechanic to that of a physician where he rightly belongs.
Briefly we shall outline the best known specialties in Drugless
VACUUM AND PNEUMATIC THERAPY
Vacuum and Pneumatic Therapy is the application of suction cups
or tubes to the spine, or any part of the body, for creating a stimulation
of the circulation and for inhibition of pain centers.
The above is the writer’s definition, from long experience in the
use of this method of treatment. The history of the development
of this form of treatment goes back to antiquity. Various
forms of suction have been used since the beginning of time.
But it was not until 1878 when Junod published in Paris his “Haemospasia”
that it became a part of the Healing Arts. Junod termed it
the “Equalizing Treatment” because the treatment stimulated the
circulation. The writer considers this form of therapy as
one of the greatest contributions ever made to the Healing Art professions.
Professor H. N. D. Parker was known as the Father of Vacuum Therapy
in America. He developed some new theories and invented some
new instruments. This writer was privileged to sit as a student
before this great teacher and physician, and to hear him expound
his philosophy, and demonstrate his self-made vacuum outfit.
And from that time to this day, there has always been a set of vacuum
cups and a pump in his office. The results with the cups have
grown amazingly with the passing years’ experiences in the use of
them. From a review of notes made while sitting in Dr. Parker’s
classes we glean the following philosophy. Notes for May 1917.
Professor Parker said, “We must recognize that the circulation and
the content of the blood is the controlling influence in health
and disease, and that variations from the normal spells disease.
Pain is the result of sluggish circulation, nerve starvation and
accumulation of waste in the system. The vacuum treatment
agitates the cells, speeds up circulation, bringing nutrition for
nerves, organs and tissues, easing pain and exercising a soothing
effect upon the nervous system generally. A good rule is to
apply the cups wherever there is pain. The cups can be applied
anywhere on the body they can grip, but at first should be applied
mildly, changing positions every two minutes until all pain has
ceased.” After that brief preface Dr. Parker demonstrated
how the cups were used on the spine and any part of the back, legs,
neck and arms. Abdominal and visceral applications of the
cups came later. The writer began to use them over the viscera
in 1922, and found them par-excellent for hard counter irritations,
and also for adhesion adjustments. Treatment of ptosis, hernia
and appendicitis, and some other conditions whch will be mentioned
under “Treatment.” For the principles of Counter Irritation
in the treatment of prostatic conditions see Pain Control Section,
“The Treatment of Prostatitis.” Here we will give one example.
If there is an acute or chronic inflammation of the appendix, the
cup is put in the exact location on the opposite side of the body,
allowed to remain there for at least three minutes then it is released
until the hyperemia recedes somewhat, then applied for three minutes
more to the same spot. While the cup is in position on the
left side, a cold or hot wet cloth can be put directly over the
appendix, and kept there as long as the cup is on the left side.
When the cup is removed from the left side, it is then placed directly
over the appendical region and very mildly applied little by little
according to the resistance of the patient. By this time proper
circulation having been established, the congestion removed, pain
should cease. It requires but a little experience with the
cups to develop worthwhile individual technique. But a technique
that is a very useful addition to any physician’s office.
The treatment is generally applied to the whole spinal column from
atlas to coccyx. Specifically it is applied to any particular
area for pain and congestions. The patient’s feelings can
be used as a guide as to how hard the cups should be applied.
Sometimes the skin will turn black after a hard treatment, but this
is nothing to be concerned about. It is a reversal of the
diseased condition. It is a changing of the diseased condition
of the underlying internal tissues coming to the surface where they
are not dangerous. But it is best to tell the patient all
about it when hard treatments are to be given. The pump apparatus
can consist of a motor-driven suction or a bycicle pump put in reverse
action. The cups can be purchased in many shapes and sizes,
or can be made by the physician himself.
Orificial Therapy can be defined as the treatment of abnormalities
that occur in or around the orifices of the body.
Many diseases are caused by injury and irritation to the structures
near to and forming the orifices into the body. Some of these
can be corrected in no other way than by orificial therapy.
Abnormal conditions in and around the orifices cause constructions
of the terminal fiber of the sympathetic system. This condition
in time causes remote structures to be involved by direct or indirect
reflex action. The sympathetic system invests on all the viscera,
blood vessels, and has communication with the cerebro-spinal system
until the whole body is debilitated.
Plate 11. VACUUM CUPS ON THE SPINE, ONE FORM OF APPLICATION.
Courtesy of Royal Health Institute, New York.
Under the heading of Orificial Therapy should be listed Gynecology,
Proctology and Endo-Nasal Therapy. But, only the first two
will be covered under this heading because Endo-Nasal Therapy covers
not only the orifices but also the functioning of oxygen, and all
the circulations of the body, so the types of abnormalities in the
female and male orifices and the treatment will come under their
proper headings, but the treatment of the nose, ears and mouth will
be listed under Endo-Nasal, Aural and Allied Techniques.
Endo-Nasal Therapy is that method whereby obstructions are removed
from all parts of the respiratory system that interfere with the
intake, transport, and utilization of Oxygen.
For a complete outline of the above examination and treatment see
the writer’s book on “Endo-Nasal, Aural and Allied Techniques.”
Conditions warranting Endo-Nasal treatment will be indicated, with
the techniques explained.
SPONDYLOTHERAPY AND CONCUSSION
SPONDYLOTHERAPY -- A medical term for spinal treatment. A
specific symptomatic, mechanical treatment for the purpose of increasing
or inhibiting nerve reflexes. An endeavor to accomplish by
spinal concussion and mechanical pressure the effects produced by
Spondylotherapy and Concussion were once two separate terms but
now are recognized as synonymous. At one time spondylotherapy
was considered to be a method of pressure treatment, and concussion
a striking of a blow. They both can be defined as an extra
stimulation or inhibition of any particular segment or segments
of the spine. The thought is that after all structural interferences
have been removed by the physician’s method of treatment and further
stimulation or inhibition, or vaso-dilation or vaso-constriction
are needed that spondylotherapy and concussion can be employed.
But, experience has demonstrated that sometimes the concussion treatment
was necessary before the physician gave any other treatment.
In rapid and palpitations of the heart, in acute asthma, diarrhoea,
intestinal spasms and in all forms of hysteria it can be used with
great sedative effect. But, generally it is used for extra
inhibition or stimulation. The spinal segments of Neuropathy
are adequate to meet all the requirements of this type of therapy.
Spondylotherapy and Concussion are produced by striking soft or
hard blows by the use of the fingers or closed fist. Also by what
are known as concussors, electrically operated. Formerly it
was performed with a mallet and applicator, but this proved to be
too crude an instrument for the public, who, not understanding the
principles, subjected the process to much ridicule. In spite
of the evidence, it was effective.
MODES OF APPLICATION
The hand and finger method is as follows: The left hand of the
physician is spread flat over the segmental area to be treated,
with the tips of the fingers of his right hand he taps lightly or
heavily on his left hand. If the physician desires heavier
lows, he can use his closed fist. The electrically operated
types of concussors give a very even blow and can be regulated either
to slow or rapid movement. The pressure portion of Spondylotherapy
was a part of the Neuropathic Technique.
THE PRINCIPLES AND RATE OF APPLICATION
Riley “A general rule is that slow strokes are soothing in nature,
while the rapid are exciting and more stimulating. If, therefore,
some center is to be concussed for sedative effects make the strokes
slow and in an interrupted manner. If the center is to be
stimulated let the strokes be rapid and interrupted at proper periods.”
Johnson states: “The practitioner should remember that rapid concussion
usually has an exciting or stimulating effect upon that part of
the body related to the vertebral segment. Concussion of short
duration augments the excitability of the nerves, but when prolonged
the excitability is diminished or abolished.”
The rate of vibration and time required to establish the proper
reflex can be judged best by experience. Example -- Take a
rapid heart, or palpitations of the heart. Listen carefully
with the stethoscope, then count the pulse beats. Having established
firmly in the mind the sounds of the heart and the count of the
pulse beats, the physician then concusses the 7th and 8th cervicals,
slowly, for half a minute, then rests for half a minute. This
is continued for three minutes, then the heart and pulse beats are
tested. If not restored to normal, then another three minutes
more of the treatment is given.
Abrams recommends an interrupted concussion process of about ten
minutes. The pressure finger method is very effective in the
majority of cases, but there are times when the more vigorous methods
mentioned above are absolutely necessary.
The rule for finger pressure of Neuropathic Spondylotherapy is
that if the gutter of the spine is painful and tight it needs relaxation.
The patient is placed on the side position with the physician standing
in front of the patient and deep pressure is made in the affected
segments in the gutter of the spine nearest him. This pressure
is maintained for about four minutes or until the muscles of the
spine relax under the fingers. If the muscles in the gutter
are soft and ropy, denoting visceral perversions, the fingers are
held in the gutter of the spine for ten minutes or until the muscles
assume normal elasticity and smoothness. The pressure used,
3 and 8 pounds respectively. There are claims that the sine
wave, high frequency, ultra violet ray bulbs, and vibrators can
give the required stimulation and inhibition of spondylotherapy.
The writer’s experience has not justified that claim, therefore,
they are not included here.
ZONE THERAPY AND COUNTER IRRITATION
Fitzgerald and Bowers, founders, and Riley as the chief exponent
of this form of therapy do not actually give a definition.
But, rather, go directly into the claims of what Zone Therapy is
applicable for and the physiological process by which the good is
accomplished. The principle of the therapy is that the body
be divided into one-half, then each half of the body is divided
into five zones with imaginary lines from the toes to the top of
the head. The zone numbers one to five begin with the big
toe and the thumb. On the head the numbers begin from the
middle of the head outward. Each side of the body is outlined
in the same manner The tongue is in all zones.
Zone Therapy philosophy is akin to what is known as Counter Irritation
for pain control, with this exception, that the proponents of Zone
Therapy make claim to healing qualities while Counter Irritation
makes no such claim.
The zone therapy concept is that practically all reflexes are in
a straight line, straight down the body, and arms to the hands.
Fitzgerald defending the system remarks, “It may appear that so
arbitrary a division of the body could have only an imaginary relation
to the fingers of the hand, but we must remember that the body as
a whole is a single organism, whose every organ is interdependent
with the others and what will invigorate, or devitalize one, will
similarly affect all. The plexus of the nervous system telegraphs
vibrations, irritations, and manipulations, from one part of the
body to any other part, and suggestions of this kind are invariably
obeyed within the limits of the reactive powers of the system.”
While Riley, writing about the results, remarks that “it is all
so simple, but that the results are very surprising and bewildering.”
Counter Irritation Therapy, on the other hand, is that the body
circulations and nerve control are in a circle, and the control
of pain on one side of the body is by pressure on the exact opposite
side. That is, if there is pain in the left hand, it is controlled
by pressure on the right hand. These systems are very effective
in many conditions, and will be pointed out when applicable, and
what instrument to use.
TAMPONAGE AND DILATORS
A tampon is a plug usually of lint or cotton for closing a wound
or cavity to absorb secretions or to hold back hemorrahage.
A dilator is to enlarge the orifice.
Certain types of tampons can be used for the latter purpose.
Simpson’s tampons can be effectively used for nasal bleeding and
as a dilator.
Rectal tamponade of Mukulicz is one of the best known as a capillary
drain, and consists of a square piece of iodoform gauze of requisite
size, placed in a cavity and filled with narrow strips of plain
gauze until the requisite degree of compression is secured.
Used where there is parenchymatous oozing. Serves as a tampon
to arrest bleeding and also acts as a capillary drain. Rectal tampon
made of piece of rubber tubing, size of thumb, 12 inches in length
covered with iodoform gauze. Into this tube is inserted a
glass cylinder 3 inches in length, over which the rubber tubing
should extend two inches An umbrella of iodoform gauze 12 x 12 inches
is fastened to the tube by tying a silk ligature over it at a point
corresponding with the glass cylinder. Strips of sterilized
gauze are used in packing the space between the tube and umbrella
or mantle of gauze after the tube has been inserted into rectum.
Young’s dilators for enlarging the rectal orifice are among the
The Ross method of dilation has come into great favor. There
is also the finger method. This consists of the physician
inserting a finger, and stretching in the four directions that are
Psychiatry is not the teaching or practice of Psychology or any
form of so-called Mental Healing. The only ones qualified
to practice Psychiatry are those well versed in Neurology, Symptomatology
and Diagnosis of both the body and mind. It is axiomatic that
all forms of psychoneurosis and psychosis have their beginning in
mild nervousness, which is progressive unless the cause is found.
It requires the services of a physician to determine whether the
nervousness is from purely physical conditions or from complex mechanisms
of the patient to avoid the responsibilities of life, by proper
adjustment to reality or the environment. The physician understanding
the functions of the Id, Libido, Ego and Super Ego will be able
to determine by conversational psychoanalysis what mechanisms the
patient is using in the attempted flight from reality and also aid
the patient to adjust himself by sublimation, and orientation to
his environment, at the same time overcome all physical conditions.
The processes of diagnosis, sublimation and orientation can be
briefly outlined as follows: Thorough physical examination.
Mental examination by question analysis to discover the complex
and the resultant mechanism of escape from reality.
The treatment, by removing all physical causes if possible.
Then, by the exercise of auto-suggestions, hobbies, good humor,
mental hygiene training, better employment conditions, shock treatments,
adaptation to social relations and in many other ways the physician
can help the patient. See “Fundamentals of Applied Psychiatry”--Lake.
Massage may be defined as a systematic manipulation of the body
tissues for therapeutic effects.
It is divided into several types of manipulations. Stroking
or effleurage, consisting of superficial and deep stroking.
In this form of massage the passage of one hand over the other quickly
with the palmar side of the hand conforming to the contour of the
part treated. In superficial stroking the movements are light,
even and rhythmatical, and produce a reflex sedative action.
Deep stroking is given with heavy pressure and is stimulative to
lymph and venous flow.
The second move is known as Petrissage. It is a combination
of grasping, lifting and squeezing movements. The part of
the area treated is grasped, lifted up, held for a second, squeezed
and then released. The above action is rhythmatic, not haphazard.
If superficial, only the skin and outer fascia are grasped.
If deep, the whole muscle is manipulated.
The next move is Kneading. This is a combination of pressing
and rolling of the tissus over the bony structures. It consists
of two parts, wringing for the limbs, where the operator grasps
the limb of the patient with the two hands opposite each other,
and uses a twisting movement, either in the same or opposite direction.
In the rolling movement, the hands with the fingers extended on
opposite sides of the area to be treated, and a to and fro movement
is instituted with enough pressure to keep the hands from slipping.
The next moves we mention are Tapotement and Vibration. Tapotement
can be said to be a form of percussion applied with the palmar surfaces
of the cupped hand, cupping the tissues, or by the wrist joints
of the hands in a sort of chopping tissues, or by patting the body
tissues with the fingers of the hand straight out. This clapping,
hacking, spatting, must be done rhythmically with both hands to
be most effective.
Vibration is given by placing the hands in contact with the part
to be treated and a mild or heavy shaking given to the part.
Electrical vibrations give a more even vibration than do the hands.
Strapping is largely for the purposes of support, immobilization
and pain. The strapping of wounds is not discussed here.
It is too varied a subject, and would take up too much space.
For ordinary office practice three types can be suggested as almost
sufficient for the majority of cases. The common variety of
adhesive tape, Elastoplast and Gelocast. When strapping with
adhesive it is always best to arrange the strapping in such a manner
that the general circulation is not impeded.
The “U” shape strapping for the heel, ankles and foot is considered
by the writer to be more effective than the circular strapping.
In dislocations the circular strapping may be necessary at times.
The “U” form of strapping is done in two ways. A two-inch
wide piece of adhesive, long enough to come up over the ankles,
is cut. Measurement is made so that it will go under the heel
and be even at both sides of the leg.
For the foot, if there is not a serious ptosis of the foot, one
or two pieces of adhesive can be applied, first underneath the foot,
then wrapped around, leaving a half-inch space open in the middle
at top of foot, so the scaphoid can work its way back into proper
For severe ptosis of the foot, Gelocast can be used as a firm cast
to hold the foot, or any part very steady, and firmly. Gelocast
is ready for use, and can be applied quickly.
Elastoplast on the other hand has elastic adhesive quality, stretching
enough to control the degree of compression, yet providing firm
support. Elastoplast is of especial value in varicose conditions.
For this purpose the Elastoplast is wrapped around the affected
area in such a manner that it will overlap for about a quarter of
an inch. In this way the tissues cannot bulge through, but
be held even over the whole area covered.
If the varicose are evident near the ankle it is best to start
the wrapping underneath the foot, then around until the whole affected
area is covered. Sometimes this strapping can be allowed to
remain for two full weeks, but in hot weather it is best to have
the patient take it off in a week, carefully rolling, so that it
can be applied again in three days. The Elastoplast can be
used three or four times if care is taken in applying and removing.
The “X” plus strapping for the lower back is to take a two-inch
wide strip, starting at the crest of the ilium, then go across the
back to the point of the lower back ribs. This being done
on both sides. Then over this part put at least four or more
pieces of two-inch adhesive cross-wise.
Half circular strapping can be used for support and pain in the
side. For illustration, pain in liver area. Two pieces
of two-inch adhesive can be placed over the painful area and cut
long enough to reach the spine.
Shoulder straps are sometimes very valuable in controlling pain
in neuritis. Practice and experience are the best training,
and lead to great proficiency in very little time.
This is a rather well-known subject, and there are many types of
apparatus. We would be foolhardy to mention any one as being
superior to the other. It would bring an avalanche of protests
from all directions. All recognize the necessity of an enema,
or high colonic or purgative under certain special conditions.
The battle goes on between two schools of thought. One school
maintains that all purgatives are only poison to the intestines
and only irritate the tissues into spasms, and it is by that process
that the contents of the bowels are washed out. The other
school states that enemas and colonics not only wash out the contents
of the bowel, but also the secretions that give the bowel its life
and elasticity. Both claim that the other method destroys
the natural functioning of the bowel, and enemas, colonics or purgatives
become a lifetime habit. There is much truth in both sides
of the argument. But a conservative physician can use the
following test to determine which to prescribe. The tuning
fork or percussion by the hand and fingers will reveal the following:
If there is a dull sound in the left iliac fossa in line with the
descending colon, that portion of the intestine is full of feces
and an enema is indicated. If the sound in the left iliac
fossa is clear and tympanitic, and in the right fossa, and ascending
colon is dull, then a high colonic or purgative by mouth are indicated.
But, in cases of real inflammation in any part of the intestinal
tract great caution must be exercised in the use of any of them.
Is the science of the endocrines or ductless glands and their functions.
While we only mentioned ductless glands, it must be remembered that
some of these have both an internal and an external secretion.
Endocrines are: the pituitary (hypophysis), pineal (epiphysis),
thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenals, spleen, islands of Langerhans
in the pancrease, and gonads. The ductless glands secrete
one or more hormones which have a specific action upon the body,
and for this reason they are sometimes called “Personality Glands.”
An infectious fever such as those of childhood may later affect
the personality or endocrine glands even in adult life, and personality
diseases are often traced to diseases of childhood. Ductless
glands are either acceleratory, stimulating the action of the sympathetic
or autonomic system, or retarding, or (inhibiting) the action of
the autonomic system. These two groups are antagonistic to
each other. Some tissues may have internal secretions.
These glands are richly supplied with afferent and efferent nerves,
lymphatics and two systems of blood supply. One to nourish
the gland and the other in general circulation with which the lymphatics
absorb the secretions. In this way the hormones stimulate
or inhibit as necessary every cell of the body in health, continually
revitalizing all the tissues of the body and mind, as well as regulating
the carbohydrate, protein and water metabolisms. All this
also has a profound effect upon the personality. For the personality
of the individual is grounded in his biological make-up. If,
for practical purposes, the personality is considered from the viewpoint
of intelligence, temperament, ego, impulse and character, then an
integral part of the individual’s make-up is the endocrine system.
Endocrine disorders have a profound effect on the metabolic processes
and consequently on the whole nervous system. Intelligence
being a component of the personality, it has been found that those
of slow intelligence and feeble-minded have, particularly the last,
a decided endocrine deficiency of the pituitary glands.
The changes of temperament which occur in thyroid disfunction cases
does sometimes result from a deficiency of thyroid extract.
In many cases of parathyroid, tetany has been found to affect the
whole personality due to a deficiency of calcium in the system.
In the individual impulses, especially the sexual impulse, there
are important relationships between the mental impulse, the gonads
and the accomplishment of the act, as well as the ovarian deficiency.
In all the above, hormones do have a psychological as well as a
physiological effect and deserve great interest and study by the
profession as an adjunct to their regular methods of practice.
For out of the proper functioning of the glands come much of the
elements that compose the normal personality exhibited in intelligence,
temperament, impulses, character and physical well-being.
Hormones will be described under their proper headings.
Diet is an important factor in the healing arts. With many
it is the only factor considered. We had a lecturer in town
recently who kept shouting, “You are what you eat!” A listener
in the audience must have been irritated for he sprang out of his
seat and shouted, “If what you say is true, that you are what you
eat, and you claim you have been a vegetarian all your life, then
according to the natural scheme of things you should be by this
time a horse or a cow.” The listener had taken the lecturer
too literally, but the lecturer was to blame, he insisted on a balanced
diet, but failed to mention how it could be attained. Physicians
cannot afford to be dogmatic as to the habits of the people at large.
Only as advice is sought, and as a part of the treatment, is the
physician effective as a teacher and healer. Otherwise, he
is considered to be nothing more than just a plain crank.
Whereas, the real physician practices applied dietotherapy only
as a fundamental part of his healing art.
Following are a Low and a High Calorie Diet. The Low Calorie
Diet can be used as a cleansing diet for those who are obese, or,
in lieu of fasting. The High Calorie Diet can be used in anemias,
and for build-up purposes. They must be modified by the physician
to meet the necessities of each particular case.
HIGH CALORIE DIET
Diet No. 1 Length of Diet___Days
Glass of hot water -- juice of one lemon or any
juice the physician may indicate.
One to three slices hard, brown toast.
One or two soft boiled eggs.
Dish of stewed fruit.
Any four of the following vegetables or fruits
as indicated by (X) Raw -- Cooked -- Combination:
Grapefruit Brussels sprouts
String beans Radishes
Cole Slaw Watercress
Glass of Orange Juice -- Four Graham Crackers
Glass of water -- juice of one lemon
Meat as indicated by (X)
Two non-starchy vegetables
Combination vegetable salad
One baked potato
One slice whole wheat or rye bread
Dish of stewed fruit or Jello on alternate days
LOW CALORIE DIET
Diet No. 2 Length of
Glass of hot water -- juice of half a lemon.
Orange or grapes -- If more fruit is desired,
of the following: berries, peaches, plums, pears,
applies, melons, soaked apricots or bananas
(should be ripe with a little cream)
One piece of toast and butter
Glass of milk
Luncheon (Choice of No. 1 or No. 2)
Choice of two vegetables (cooked)
One very ripe banana, with some nuts
Orange or pineapple juice, or lemonade
Choice of one fresh vegetable
One small baked potato
Small portion of fish, lean beef or one lamb
Two Graham crackers
Dinner (Choice of No. 1 or No. 2)
A salad or lettuce or romaine
Small portion of fish or lean beef
One or two vegetables (cooked)
A green salad
Glass of buttermilk between meals and before
For acid and alkaline balance the following
table of foods offers selections:
Fruits: Applies, Apricots, Bananas, Berries, Cherries, Citron,
Cranberries, Currants, Grapefruit, Grapes, Lemons, Limes,
Melons, Oranges, Peaches, Pears, Persimmons, Pineapple, Prunes,
Raisins, Tangerines, Tomatoes, Plums, Cataloupe.
Vegetables: Almonds, Artichokes, Asparagus, Beans (dried lima),
Beans (fresh green), Beets, Beet tops, Brussels sprouts, Cabbage,
Carrots, Cauliflower, Celery, Corn (Sweet), Cucumbers, Endive,
Lettuce, Mushrooms, Olives (ripe), Onions, Oyster plant, Parsley,
Parsnips, Peas (fresh), Peas (dried), Peppers (sweet), Potatoes
(unpeeled), Sauerkraut, Radishes, Spinach, Summersquash, Tomatoes
Starches: Bran, Bread (white, rye, graham, whole wheat), Cereals,
Corn (dried), Cornstarch, Crackers, Flour (white), Gravies
(flour), Molasses, Oatmeal, Pastries, Peanuts, Popcorn, Potatoes
(peeled), Preserves, Rice, Spaghetti, Squash, Soups (thick), Sugar,
Proteins: Cheese, Clams, Crabs, Eggs (yolks), Eggs (whites), Fish,
Meats (lean beef, chicken, lean pork), Oysters, Poultry, Shrimps,
Fats: Bacon, Butter, Cotton seed, Cream, Lard, Milk, Olive Oil,
The writer has taken many Post Graduate Courses in foot treatments,
and bony structure adjustments. Two of them seem to offer
the largest selection of techniques and to be based on sound reason.
Collins and Taplin. We here speak of adjustment of the bony
structure not reflex zones. See Zone Therapy for the latter.
This subject of the feet is too large and the number of techniques
too many for full discussion here. The writer will just state
what he has found to be practical in the majority of cases.
The assumption here is that when the cuboid bone becomes displaced
in any manner, all the bones of the foot fall and impingement of
the nerve follows, giving pain and reflexly causing irritations
far removed from the feet. It is a very good habit for physician
to ask all patients, “Do you have any distress in your feet?”
The short techniques are as follows:
One -- Crack all the joints of the phalanges. Hold foot with
left hand, across the middle. Put thumb of right hand over each
joint, the remainder of right hand under the foot. Give a
quick, upward jerk. If it is quick no pain is given.
Two -- Bridge the foot with one hand, reaching almost to the scaphoid,
with the other hand braced against the cuboid, give a quick recoil
jerk with a round twist with the hand on the cuboid.
Three -- One hand bridging the foot, grasp the heel with the other
and give a sharp pull toward you.
This technique is used in the majority of all types of foot troubles.
In the most severe cases the strapping “U” is applied. See
Section on “Strapping.”
The above is only general, there are times when massage, kneeding,
vibrations, baths, the Taplin Block, and other forms of treatment
The application of Electro Therapy to the human body for therapeutic
effects is based on the theory of the human electro physiological
mechanism. The human body cell is stated to have a proton,
the nucleus and the electron or surrounding protoplasm. It
is also stated that the nervous energy of the body is electrical,
and subject to negative and positive controls.
The theory and the applications of electricity are immense, and
to be fully understood would take a lifetime study, and then the
question still remains, what is this force called “Electricity?”
But, the above is also true of all Nature’s Forces. An ultimate
knowledge is lacking. They are only known by their manifestations,
and from these certain rules or laws have been formulated and by
practical utilization of these laws it is possible not only to regulate
and measure the currents, but also have available from a single
source several currents having different properties.
Electricity has a very distinct and rather wide field of usefulness
as a therapeutic agent, but one which can be successfully utilized
only when its properties, physical as well as physiological, are
well understood. Although the limits of this chapter prohibit
a detailed presentation of the subject of electrophysics, certain
fundamental considerations of this phase of the subject are required.
Since no schools of the healing arts, medical or otherwise, have
given any courses of study adequate to a clear understanding of
the subject, the physician must depend on the manufacturer for the
data on construction of his treating machine and the types of current
used for therapeutic purposes.
Too many physicians are buying expensive electrical apparatus without
a full conception of the potentialities and as a result, are often
at a loss what the machine can do and cannot do. Sometimes
claims are made that are gross exaggerations, and the word “quack”
is applied to all users of that particular type of machine.
Sometimes salesmen have misled the physician in their eagerness
to make sales and fill the physician with a false enthusiasm.
The field of Electrotherapeutics has been so well explored, there
is no excuse now for anyone to be led astray, if he will but insist
that he be shown proof of possibilities, and have answered all doubtful
Within certain limits, the value of radiant light, Ultra irradiation,
Sine waves, Chromotherapy, Galvanic, Diathermy, Short Wave and some
forms of electronics have been established by long usage.
For good reading on this subject the reader is referred to Johnson’s
Principles and Practice of Drugless Therapeutics.
In the treatments following, whenever, Electrotherapeutics are
indicated the types will be selected from those that have been established
from long experience.
MANIPULATIVE MINOR, SURGERY
Joshua Lake, N.D., D. O., Professor of Minor Surgery in the American
College of Neuropathy, called the attention of the writer to this
form of therapy in 1916.
He used it as a part of the Neuropathic Traction Treatment.
His method of discovering adhesions was patterned after Lyons who
claimed that if an adhesion existed between two organs, and the
stethoscope was placed over one organ and the tuning fork over the
other, that the vibrations could be heard very distinctly even very
tympanitic. If no adhesion existed, the vibrations were not
of a distinct and clear nature. Lake not only used this method,
but also claimed, that by massing the muscles of the abdomen, adhesions,
and small masses of congestions could be felt with the fingers.
It was the writer’s good fortune in his student days to spend many
hours with Dr. Lake in his office and to be able to ascertain by
experience the truth of his claim.
As the years have gone by, there have been many exponents of this
type of therapy, and there is much confusion. Among its exponents
as to who originated it, and whose techniques are the best, please
refer back to our conception of “Originality” found on Page 1 of
this Second Book. This confusion has kept this specialty from
approaching any degree of standardization and general acceptance,
and in many cases led to ill will among many practitioners.
This is unfortunate for the profession as a whole, because in the
rivalry of the factions many claims as to the effectiveness of the
techniques have been made that have not, or cannot be validated
under the present conditions. Lake confined this technique
to the minor surgery of breaking adhesions for better functioning
of the viscera, the raising of the abdominal ptosis, the replacement
of soft hernias and soft lumpy congestions, and the kneading of
granulation tissue in the joints. (Dr. Joshua Lake is in no
way related to the writer.) It is in that sphere we will confine
the indicated treatments in the following pages. Since the
writer was first taught the above techniques, there has come to
his attention manipulative surgeries with the following names: Bloodless
Surgery, Finger Bloodless Surgery, Manipulative Bloodless Surgery
and Conservative Bloodless Surgery. In our travels throughout
the Country, we can say, no other form of therapy has created so
much doubt as this one. It should not be thus. This
is a good therapy and if some uniformity could be attained it would
be universally accepted and practiced.
The first doubt arises from the word “Bloodless.” It is doubtful
if tissue within or without can be broken, or an operation actually
performed without an extravasation within or without the body of
blood, and a consequent hyperemia of some duration on the periphery
over the area of operation.
There is much doubt in all sections of the Country to some claims
that hard uterine fibroids as big as a cocoanut or a watermelon
have been made to slough off, or fall away and be gone forever,
without any toxemia appearing. If there is any validity to
these claims, they need to be verified by an impartial group of
physicians who can study a number of cases preoperative and postoperative
-- preoperative observation and examination and postoperative observation
and examination for at least two months. Tumors of this nature
are easily identifiable, as one physician put it, “You can
feel ‘em when they are, and you can’t feel ‘em when they ain’t no
more.” These doubts should be dispelled, because this form
of treatment is of great value and the doubts keep many physicians
in such a state of prejudice they will not even look into the matter.
Testimonials by patients are not a sufficient guide to men of scientific
leanings. It is to be deplored that this form of therapy passed
from the minor to the major stage without the appraisement of an
impartial group, so that physicians in general would actually know
what cases to accept with prospects of good results, and not delay
too long before consultation with a major Surgeon. We have
seen cases where delay has been fruitful of some serious results.
This is a relatively new concept in the healing arts and the rapid
increase in our knowledge of these accessory food factors and of
the deficiency diseases to which they are related has stimulated
much interest and enthusiasm for the clinical applications of that
knowledge. At the same time it has been difficult to keep
abreast of new developments and to transfer knowledge from the laboratory
to practice while a multiplicity of units, doses, preparations,
names, and mixtures has been the source of much confusion.
As a result there has been an uncritical use of these necessary
food factors as well as a failure to apply much of the knowledge
which is available and applicable. But this can be said of
these accessory food factors, that if not given in excessive doses
in ignorance of the units required for any clinical case, there
is very little danger of toxicity appearing. However, without full
knowledge of the required excessive doses running into the hundred
and more thousand units there is a great element of danger.
A normal young man of 38 with a blood pressure of 135 was discharged
as requiring no further treatments. In three months he was
back in the physician’s office and his blood pressure was 201.
Upon inquiry the physician learned that this young man had taken
excessive doses of vitamin B. On the other hand Youman maintains
that “an inadequate supply of them is inimical to the cell, an optimal
supply favors optimal growth and function, while an excess is without
effect and is eliminated without injury. This means that in
general such substances are without pharmacologic action.”
Vitaminotherapy has a large place in the healing art. For
the conclusion must be reached that the function and action of these
essential food factors is to maintain health of the tissues and
participate in the normal functions of the body. All we can
hope to do amidst the confusion of claims, is to relieve a deficiency
as it exists or prevent its occurrence. The use of vitamins
apart from the purpose so far developed is based on wishful thinking
and a waste of the patient’s time and money. Since very few
physicians compound their own Vitamins but depend on the old reliable
companies for their literature, supplies and dosage, we will but
give the following chart of the main indications. If we made
a classification here of usage, units and dosage, it probably would
not be of any value by the time this book is off the press, so rapid
are new discoveries made.
Lack of Vitamin A Results in:
Lowered resistance to eye infections.
Lack of full growth.
Lowered resistance to infections of the sinuses and the ears.
Disturbances of the tear glands.
Sediment and stones in kidney and bladder.
Lack of Vitamin B-1 Results in:
Polyneuritis (inflamation of the nerves.
General bodily emaciation.
Loss of appetite.
Decreased peristalsis (wave-like move-ments) of the intestinal tract.
Deficient milk flow in nursing mothers.
Symptoms of fatigue.
Lack of Vitamin B-6 causes cirrhosis of the liver.
Sources of Vitamins B-6 are:
Wheat germ oil
Lack of Vitamin C Results in:
Bleeding and ulcerated gums.
Hemorrhages of the mucous membranes and skin.
Dental caries (tooth decay).
Loss of weight.
Joint pains and swelling.
Lack of Vitamin D Results in:
Rickets (bending and softening of the bones)
Bone deformities which may involve ribs, cranial bones, legs, chest
Failure of calcium and metabolism.
Improperly calcified tooth structure.
Lack of Vitamin E Results in:
Loss of reproductive powers.
Disturbances during pregnancy.
Death of the foetus or embryo.
Now claimed to be of value in prostatis.
Lack of Vitamin G Results in:
Inflammation of the skin.
Pigmentations of the skin and oral (mouth) inflammations.
(Blood Clotting Time)
Lack of Vitamin K Results in:
Sources of Vitamin K are:
Soy bean oil
Many green vegetables
Lack retards digestion and growth.
Sources of Vitamin P-P are:
Is that part of practice whereby there is produced a local partial
or a complete relaxation of the patient, for the purpose of performing
some special manipulations. It can also be used for sedation
of hysterical patients apart from manipulative minor surgery.
There are several methods used. The uses of lights and goggles
are on the same principle of concentration, relaxation and soothing.
Some use a blinker or flickering light. Others, a steady light.
There are various ways that lights and goggles can be used for relaxation
in any special work the physician wishes to do. One is to
have a blue light about four feet above and a little in front of
the patient’s head, and then have the patient look into the light
until there is a drowsiness. The other is to have the blue
light overhead, and a pair of adjustable goggles on the eyes of
the patient with blue lenses about one-quarter inch thick.
Allow to look in the light for ten minutes then insert a red lens
over the left eye, and allow to remain five minutes. This
will produce relaxation enough for the manipulation.
Another method is by pressing gently over the carotid sinus until
some of the tissues of the brain are deprived of a certain amount
of blood, and a state of relaxation is induced. Another method
is to cuff the fingers under the ridge of the occipital bones and
press gently upward for five minutes, then to hold the thumb and
forefinger with very light pressure over the fronto nasal suture.
Spondylotherapy over the whole spine for ten minutes is an excellent
Hydrotherapy is defined as the scientific application of water
in various temperatures to the body for curative effects of the
Cold is a depressant to functional activity, while heat is a stimulant
to functional activity. Increased temperatures mean increased
metabolism by increasing cell life and growth. Cold is the
Neutral baths or alternate applications of hot and cold do not
change the temperature, but favor elimination and bring about nutritive
changes. The same action can be obtained from heat as can
be obtained from cold, but the degree of heat would be so high that
it would cause destruction of the skin. Hence the use of cold.
To every action there is a reaction. With hydrotherapy it
is possible to prolong the action or reaction. This is a direct
method of treatment, easy of application, and quick, favorable results
can be obtained with little discomfort.
Much of the old-time techniques of hydrotherapy have been discarded
by the development of diathermy and short wave. But there
is still a large field of usefulness for some of the techniques.
Not many physicians outside of sanitariums make much use of hydrotherapy
in their offices. But there is a large field of usefulness
for it, in the home by the patient himself under the instruction
of the physician, and it is this phase of it that we will lay the
emphasis on here.
The terminology of the effects of hydrotherapy is divided into
five main divisions:
(1) Sedatives, which have the effect of relaxing the patient.
(2) The Anodynes. Heat here is regarded as the great pain
reliever in most cases.
(3) Antipyretics. The reduction of fever, by the cold
sponge bath, cold spray bath, ice compresses, etc.
(4) Eliminants. To stimulate the excretion of perspiration,
also toxins, from the body. These may consist of the cold
wet sheet pack, the hot blanket pack, electro cabinet bath, colonic
irrigations and gastric lavage.
(5) Stimulants. To quicken circulation of the blood.
This may consist of wet mitten friction, wet hand friction, and
manipulation. The salt glow rub, body shampoo, soap applied
(6) Douches are a part of the stimulative procedure for tonic
effects. These may consist of needle spray or circular douche
or jet douche, whirlpool baths, the hose bath.
So much for the principles of hydrotherapy. To give all the
outline of techniques here would require a large book in itself.
Whenever a disease is encountered that requires any of the above
hydrotherapy principles, the outline of procedure will be given.
Many times this writer has tried to find a definition that would
put into a short sentence a survey of what the Naturopath stands
for. But each attempt has only resulted in a long drawn out
list of things it doesn’t mean, or a long list of what it does mean.
The earliest recorded one is found as follows: “A misnomer, literally
meaning nature disease, but accepted to mean cure of disease through
natural methods. It recognizes as the cause of disease interference
with natural law and natural operation and as the cure the removal
of obstruction and the elimination of the cause by natural healing
reactions. In the process of cure, it makes use of all systems
and methods that are in agreement with natural law and physiological
operations. Its system of hygiene and prophylaxis is based
on natural living and clean, wholesome habits of body and mind.”
-- From the Naturopathic Directory.
James Montgomery Irving, M.D., N.D., writing in the Naturopathic
Directory, page 793, states that “The term Naturopathy covers everything.”
This was the early concept and from reading of bills introduced
into Legislatures this is still the concept today.
Naturopathy is the oldest of the healing arts and the hardest to
define. Recently some new efforts at definition have been
made and two are given below. Early American Manual Therapy
The first appeared in The Maryland Naturopathic Digest, issue of
February 1946. It is written by Henry Krause, N.D.:
“Naturopathy may be defined as a science, philosophy and practice,
following definite physical, chemical, biological and mental laws
for the restoration and maintenance of health and for the correction
of bodily disorders, without the use of drugs and surgery.
Naturopathy is known to be a distinct system of the healing art--not
a fad, cult or cure-all, as some people may imagine. The naturopathic
practitioner must be capable and willing, to serve his patients
as a personal counsellor, he must have analytical insight and intelligent
The second is quoted from The Naturopathic Journal of Texas, issue
of February 1946:
“Naturopathy is a therapeutic system embracing a complete physianthropy
employing Nature’s agencies, forces, processes and products, except
The writer was Dean of the Philadelphia College of Neuropathy and
Naturopathy from 1922 to 1938 when the college became a Post Graduate
Institution and is now Dean of the Post Graduate School. For
teaching purposes it was necessary to have a starting point in the
form of a brief definition, and the writer coined the following:
“Naturopathy is a science of the healing art, eclectic in practice,
by which abnormal conditions of the human body are restored to normal
through selection of the healing agencies that are fundamental to
Twenty years ago that definition was submitted to a group of older
Naturopaths but the discussion went on and on until every one was
tired out and went home without making a decision of any kind.
Naturopathy can be called “The Mother” of all the healing arts.
Surely it deserves a better dressing up, by definition, philosophy
and practice than it has received in the past. However, because
Naturopathy is eclectic and selective the Naturopath should find
this book helpful.
Chiropractic. Literally, “done by the hand.” A system
of spinal adjustment. Treatment applied to the spinal column
or special vertebrae thereof for the purpose of restoring normal
position to malimposed vertebrae, the theory of such practice being
that subluxations or malpositions of vertebrae cause disease manifestations
through pressure on the spinal nerves.
Chiropractic has gone far beyond the original concept, for the
majority have added most if not all of the methods and modalities
of other professions. X-ray-physiotherapy in all of its forms,
hydrotherapy, vitaminotherapy, etc. This is all to the credit
of Chiropractic, for it reflects a serious research for the greater
usefulness of the profession.