Treatment by Neuropathy
and The Encyclopedia of Physical and Manipulative Therapeutics
Compiled By Thomas T. Lake, N. D., D. C.
THE CIRCULATIONS AND THE CONTROLLING NERVE MECHANISMS
It is taken for granted that the reader of this book has had a basic
training in anatomy and that it is only necessary here to give a general
outline of the physiological functions and the controlling neural units.
In the course of Neuropathic treatment, the physician generally gives
first of all the “Lymphatic Treatment.” this part of the treatment consists
of certain defined pressures or manipulations to empty the lymph out of
an area or move it onward in the whole body. This technique is described
in Chapter VI. It is very important that lymph circulation be maintained
and should precede any other treatment so that the load on the general
circulation and nervous systems may be lightened.
The lymphatics which finally discharge their contents into the blood
stream at the junction of the subclavian and internal jugular veins by
means of the thoracic duct on the left, and the right lymphatic duct on
the right are remarkably influenced by Neuropathic treatment. The same
is true of all lymphatic glands, those of the neck, the mesenteric, mediastinal,
axillary, inguinal, popliteal and the coeliac glands.
Cyriax states: “The anatomical arrangements of the lymphatics are such
that the slightest pressure or stretching promotes the onward flow of the
lymph and hastens absorption.”
The student would be wise to review once again the anatomy of the lymphatic
system, and the transport of lymph. Here we are concerned only with thee
Under normal conditions the lymph is drained off as it is formed; while
under perversions or pathological the lymph may accumulate in the tissues
owing either to an excessive formation of lymph, or to a lack of muscular
contraction, or by lack of pressure which forces the plasma through the
capillary walls into the extravascular and pericellular spaces or to some
interruption in the nerve mechanism controlling circulation, then more
or less, according to the degree of perversion the functions of the lymph
[FIGURE 1: THE LYMPH SYSTEM]
FUNCTIONS OF THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
1. It conveys fluid and the products of digestion.
2. It removes effete matter from the tissues.
3. It relieves the blood vascular system of excess of fluid.
4. It acts as a powerful solvent to medication and hard foreign substances.
5. It is a reserve for the blood to draw on after hemorrhage or during
6. It is a lubricant in synovial and other fluids.
7. It has a part in the healing of wounds. (Glazing of the wound surface.)
Grapes outlines the following points on the lymphatic system:
1. Normal flow of lymph relieves cellular intoxication and normalizes
2. Best method to relieve pain is to insure adequate drainage. Remove
pressure caused by physiological block, for the cause is often remote from
3. Stabilizes the chemistry of the tissue fluid, slightly alkaline.
Relative acidosis alters the rhythmical tone of nerve impulses.
4. Prevents inter-cellular pressure -- edema and fibrosis.
5. Prevents congestion, which is the main cause of disease.
6. Does away with the possibility of tumors and cancer.
A. Lumps in the breast:: no cause for cancer if we
have normal lymphatic drainage.
7. Gangrene and phlebitis. A lymphatic condition rather than the veins.
8. Varicose veins. Pelvic stasis of lymph. Illustration -- Glass boot.
Local and does not remove the source of the trouble.
9. Pneumonia. Dr. Goode said: "Did you know that pneumonia can be broken
up by freeing the auxiliary lymph glands?"
10. Filter. Nodes and glands. Colloidal changes lower vitality so that
bacteria are allowed to creep into the tissues.
11. Maintain the tone of the tissues. Normal cell vibration (Ability
to respond to nerve stimulus) conductivity.
12. Slow venous return. Clogged lymphatics affect the general circulation
and burden the nerves to the heart.
13. Aids oxygen exchange. Disassociation of oxyhemoglobin. Completion
of oxidation and energy metabolism.
14. Transports cell products. Part played in digestion. (Villi -- liver
15. Prevent and relieve shock. Loss of plasma -- oxygen starvation.
16. Storehouse for tissues. Hibernating animals.
17. The greatest safety device.
A. Holds back poisons from the veins.
B. Kills bacteria and such.
A knowledge gained from a study of lymphatics and bloodvessels
helps us to better understand our bodies as a unit and the interrelation
of the tissues.
POINTS TO REMEMBER ABOUT LYMPHATICS IN TREATMENT
1. Lymphatic lymph runs in one direction.
2. A lymph congestion cannot be fully overcome by adjustment alone;
they must be treated directly.
3. Keep recalling to mind the functions of the lymph and consciousness
of their importance will soon be a habit.
4. The first step in a Neuropathic treatment is relieving lymphatic
CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD
The blood is a circulating -- a living tissue, and, since the blood
is intimately linked to every organ and cell in the body, disease or changes
of such organs are reflected immediately in blood circulation and constituent
changes. An ordinary routine examination of the blood may show nothing
abnormal -- for, due to faulty circulation, stasis, congestion, etc., it
is possible that the blood may be of different constituents in different
parts of the body, and it is only when systematic acceleration of the circulation
is induced that blood taken from various parts of the body will show similar
During the life of a healthy person the blood flows at varying rates
of speed, rapidly when the cells need much Oxygen or nutriment, slowly
when the need is small. It may not be literally true that the functions
of the individual organs depend entirely upon the material they receive
from the blood, but it is certain that the same organs will perish when
the blood supply is cut off.
THE CONSTITUENTS OF THE BLOOD
It is not generally realized how complex are the constituents of the
living blood, nor how all important a part it plays in the maintenance
The blood consists of an amber colored fluid -- the plasma -- in which
are suspended the red and white cells. The red cells being in proportion
of approximately 6 to 1 of the white cells. In addition the plasma contains
proteins and all the various chemical extractives taken from the digestive
processes such as fats, sugar, nitrogenous material, salts such as sodium
chloride, calcium, etc. the blood also contains various gases in the fluid
itself, and in the Oxygen combined with Hemoglobin which is carried in
the red cells.
There are also various mysterious substances or solutions that so far
have not been identified by chemical means, which play an all important
part in maintaining glandular and cell life. Each particular cell seems
to be able to extract from the blood exactly the solutions that it must
have for its own existence and activity. Again, each organ after it has
taken its own requirements from the blood, deposits its own waste products
and other solutions it has manufactured to the circulating blood for exchange
and disposal in other organic activities.
On this intricate exchange between the glandular organs -- the cells
-- tissue and blood -- depends the health or disease -- pleasure or misery
-- vitality or inertia of every individual.
The blood gets its nutritive material from three sources: Oxygen from
the outside air by the activity of the lungs; extracts and solutions taken
from the digestive action of the intestines through its surface channels,
and it also receives the synthetic processes and hormones from the various
glands. In fact, all substances required by the body -- with the sole exception
of Oxygen -- come either directly or indirectly from the intestinal activity.
The blood also contains other ingredients such as mysterious bodies
-- called platelets -- various ferments which come into action when the
blood is attacked by an invader. These bodies apparently form part of the
defensive mechanism of life and remain dormant until called upon by the
organism for help.
THE FUNCTION OF THE CIRCULATION
The function of the circulation is to carry blood to the tissues so
as to maintain a proper environment for the tissue cells. This cellular
or internal environment is the intercellular fluid which
is both extravascular and extracellular; by virtue of the relative permeability
of the endothelial walls of the capillaries it is in equilibrium with the
blood within these vessels. A relatively constant condition of the internal
environment is a prime requisite for normal existence and this is achieved
by a transfer of material in both directions across the capillary walls.
The circulating blood must therefore do many things. It must carry oxygen
to the tissue and remove carbon dioxide from them. It must absorb food
materials in the intestine and carry them to muscles, glands and other
active tissues and to depots where reserves may be stored. It must carry
waste products to the kidney and other excretory glands where they may
be eliminated. It must distribute heat throughout the body, moving it from
the tissues where it is generated to the surfaces where it may be dissipated.
It must also carry from one tissue to another those specific chemical substances
known as hormones which serve to regulate the activities of various parts
of the body. The internal environment is kept relatively constant largely
because the slight variations which do occur, when reflected in the blood,
induce compensatory reactions. These responses are set up by changes in
the composition of the blood (humoral changes) acting on other parts of
the body, directly or indirectly, by stimulation of some nervous mechanism.
In this way many of the functions of the various organs are coordinated
with one another to effect a physiological unity of the individual.
Of these various functions the most urgent is that of oxygen supply,
since the reserves of oxygen held within the body are relatively slight.
[See writer's book: Endo-Nasal, Aural and Allied Techniques, page 22.]
The pulmonary system is fed by the right heart and serves to bring the
blood into contact with the alveolar air in the lungs where it may gain
oxygen and lose carbon dioxide; thus all the blood is exposed to
this contact each time it completes a double circuit. The larger or systemic
circulation is supplied by the left ventricle and serves to carry the aerated
blood to the various tissues of the body. It also serves all the other
functions of the circulation. Here the blood flow is by no means evenly
distributed; as a matter of fact an elaborate system of controls exists
for the diversion of the stream to the various tissues according to their
THE NATURE OF THE CONTROL OF THE CIRCULATION
The circulation has to be controlled, not only to maintain an adequate
supply of oxygen and food for active tissues, but also to effect an adequate
transfer of heat and removal of waste matter.
The principles of the circulation are simple, but the regulation of
the circulation to meet the demands made upon it introduces many complexities.
The blood must be distributed differently along various alternate paths
according to the demands of different tissues. These adjustments have to
be attained without serious disturbance in the average level of capillary
pressure, which, if long maintained, would result in abnormalities of fluid
distribution. They must also be attained without any sudden considerable
change in blood volume. In addition, adjustments have to be made to overcome
the considerable pressures created by gravity, and safeguards have to be
provided to prevent the pump from being overstrained. This complex control
is partly attained by carefully balanced nerve reflex effects, partly by
the action of chemical substances on the vessels, and partly by physical
effects, such as the balances between filtration and osmotic pressures.
Neuropathy like many other therapies base the primary cause of disease
on the imbalance of the nervous system while others base it on irritations
aroused mentally and physically by wrong habits of thinking and living.
It is much like the argument, which came first, the chicken or the egg.
Both are complementary to the other. No physician can create a balanced
nerve action to the ailing stomach of the glutton without due consideration
to his eating habits, and an insistence that nothing can bee done for him
by treatments unless he conforms to a more reasonable diet. This same rule
applies to all habits of the patient that irritate any organ or tissue
of the brain that cause an imbalance of the Cerebro spinal nervous system.
THE CONTROLLING NERVOUS MECHANISM
The nervous mechanisms consist of nerve cells which have become altered
in form, and specialized in function to respond to changes in external
Before me are a hundred closely typewritten pages that give a complete
outline of the Anatomy and Physiology of the neural units to all parts
of the body. After reading them over many times, it was decided to only
publish the list of segments that have a direct bearing on treatment areas
so the physician can get along with his task of healing the sick. Detailed
outlines are already in the subconscious of the trained neurologist or
can be easily looked up in reference books. Practically all tissues of
the body have a dual nerve supply or two sets of controlling neural units.
One set is restraining or inhibiting in function, and the other set is
accelerating or dilating in function.
We will take the heart and arteries, for example, then we will give
a table of the constrictor and dilator neural units for the whole body.
The coordinated action of the muscle cells of the heart is regulated
by a nervous mechanism consisting of two sets of neural units. The cell
bodies of the restraining neural units are located in the nucleus of the
tenth carinal nerve.
Their paths of exit pass down through the tenth cranial nerve to the
heart, where they come in contact with the neural units located in the
ganglia in and about the heart. The neural units of these ganglia send
their paths of exit directly to the muscle cells of the heart.
The accelerating neural units are located in the medulla, in the cervical
segments, and in the first dorsal segments of the spinal cord. Their paths
of exit pass to the inferior cervical and to the first thoracic ganglia.
The accelerating neural units in these ganglia send their paths of exit
directly to the muscle cells of the heart. The heart is therefore under
the influence of two sets of neural units, one tending to constantly restrain
its activities and the other tending to increase its activity. The restraining
neural units are constantly active, and their activity may be compared
to the constrictor neural units of the blood vessels.
The accelerating neural units are only occasionally active, and their
activity may be compared to the dilator neural units of the blood vessels.
In addition to these two sets of neural units are only occasionally active,
and their activity may be compared to the dilator neural units of the blood
vessels. In addition to these two sets of neural units, there are in the
heart the beginning of the paths of entrance of the depressor neural units,
which pass upward in man through the tenth cranial nerves.
The paths of exit of these neural units pass from the cell bodies in
the ganglia, through the tenth cranial nerves to the medulla, where they
come in contact with constrictor neural units in the governing arterio-constrictor
nucleus. Activity upon the part of the depressor neural units brings about
a dilation of the blood vessels, especially those of the neural units in
the governing arterio-constrictor nucleus.
When the resistance against which the heart has to pump is increased
by a constriction of the arterioles, due to hyperactivity of the arterio-constrictor
neural units, messages are carried through the depressor paths to the governing
arterio-constrictor nucleus, and the activity of the governing nucleus
is lessened, the muscle cells of the walls of the arterioles relax and
the heart is automatically relieved of the resistance against which it
The arterio-motor mechanisms consist of an orderly arrangement of neural
units whose cell bodies are located in the medulla, in the spinal cord
and in the ganglia of the ganglionic system.
All these neural units come in contact with each other and form paths
through which messages are carried out from the central nervous system
to all parts of the body and from all parts of the body into the central
The governing arterio-motor nucleus is located in the floor of the fourth
ventricle of the brain. The cell bodies of this nucleus are arranged in
groups; the activity of one group brings about dilation of the blood vessels,
and it is called arterio-dilator nucleus; the activity of the other group
brings about a constriction of the blood vessels, and it is called the
This governing nucleus controls the constriction and dilation of the
blood vessels in all parts of the body through subsidiary neural units
whose cell bodies are located in the nucleus of the cranial nerves and
in the anterior horns of the spinal cord: these subsidiary neural units
send their paths of exit to the ganglia of the ganglionic system. The neural
units in the ganglia of the ganglionic system send their paths of exit
to the muscle cells in the walls of the arterioles.
The arterio-constrictor portion of the governing nucleus is in a constant
state of activity, keeping up a partial constriction of the arterioles
and thereby preserving arterial tone.
The functional activity of the governing arterio-motor nucleus is modified
by the centripetal messages carried to it through the ingoing paths from
all parts of the body and from the cerebral cortex.
Messages coming to the nucleus through these paths produce arterial
constriction by increasing the functional activity of the arterio-constrictor
portion of the nucleus, or they produce arterial dilation by decreasing
the functional activity of the arterio-constrictor portion of the nucleus,
or by increasing the functional activity of the arterio-dilator portion
of that nucleus.
The afferent paths which decrease the functional activity of the arterio-constrictor
nucleus are called depressors; those which increase the functional activity
of the arterio-constrictor portion of the nucleus are called reflex constrictors;
and those which increase the functional activity of the arterio-dilator
portion of the nucleus are called reflex dilators. Located in the various
areas of the cerebral cortex are the cell bodies of neural units of the
governing arterio-dilator portion of the governing nucleus and others to
the arterio-constrictor portion of the governing nucleus. Thus, various
emotional and mental conditions will modify the circulation in various
parts of the body.
As example of this we have dilation of the blood vessels of the skin
of the face producing a blush of the face, or constriction of the blood
vessels of the skin of the face, producing a pallor of the face.
The paths of exit from the cell bodies of the governing arterio-motor
nucleus pass into the cranial nerves and into the spinal cord. Those passing
into the spinal cord pass down, chiefly through the antero-lateral descending
pathway, and come in contact with neural units located in the anterior
horns of the spinal cord.
One path of exit may, by means of side paths, come in contact with a
number of neural units in the anterior horns. Those paths of exit which
come from the arterio-dilator portion of the governing nucleus comes in
contact with arterio-constrictor neural units in the anterior horns of
the spinal cord.
Both the constrictor and dilator neural units located in the anterior
horns of the spinal cord send their paths of exit out through the anterior
bundles into the spinal nerve. They leave the spinal nerve a short distance
beyond the junction of the anterior and posterior bundles, and pass through
the white connecting pathways to one of the ganglia of the ganglionic system
of nerves as the pre-ganglionic paths of exit. In the ganglion the pre-ganglionic
path of exit ends in contact with one or more neural units whose paths
of exit, as post-ganglionic paths of exit, are distributed to the muscle
cells of the blood vessels.
The post-ganglionic paths of exit of both the constrictor and dilator
neural units are found together, except those supplying the blood vessels
of the head, the blood vessels of the abdomen and pelvic viscera and the
external organs of generation. The post-ganglionic paths of exit to the
blood vessels of the legs, trunk and the arms follow the path of distribution
of the spinal nerves, reaching the spinal nerves through the gray connecting
pathways, between the ganglionic systems and the spinal nerves. Those which
supply the blood vessels of the muscles follow the course of distribution
of the musculo-motor nerves, and those supplying the blood vessels of the
skin follow the paths of distribution of the sensory nerves.
The post-ganglionic paths to the blood vessels of the brain, the retina,
the thoracic and abdominal viscera, as a rule, follow the course of the
blood vessels supplying those parts. The blood vessels of the legs, arms
and trunk, with the exception of those of the ano-genital region, receive
their post-ganglionic, arterio-dilator and arterio-constrictor paths through
the spinal nerves. The blood vessels of the head, face, eyes, ears, nose,
salivary glands, tongue and mucous membrane of the mouth receive their
arterio-dilator paths through the cranial nerves, while they receive their
arterio-constrictor paths through the ganglionic system of nerves. The
paths to the skin follow, as a rule, the distribution of the sensory nerves,
and those to the deeper parts follow the course of the blood vessels.
The following is a brief outline with a chart appended for quick reference:
The Spinal Segments controlling the vaso-motor mechanism to the different
parts of the body are found as follows:
The 7th and 8th Cervical, 1st and 2nd
Dorsal send branches to the inferior cervical and first dorsal ganglion.
These send branches to the ganglia in around the heart. These transmit
impulses controlling both the constrictor and vaso-motor dilators to the
coronary arteries, and the accelerators to the heart muscle. The restraining
nerve is found in the nucleus of the 10th Cranial nerve.
The 2nd and 3rd Dorsal nerves give off branches
to the superior cervical ganglion, which give off branches that follow
the internal carotid arteries and give off branches to all the arteries
of the brain. The 2nd and 3rd Dorsal are both constrictors
and dilators to all the brain tissue.
Face, Scalp, Eye, Nose, Palate, Parotid, Lingual, Sublingual Glands:
The 2nd, 3rd, 4th, Dorsal nerves give
off constrictor branches to the superior cervical ganglion which gives
off branches that follow the internal carotid arteries and give off branches
that follow the facial and lingual arteries to the sympathetic ganglia
on and about the trifacial nerve. The dilator nucleus to these parts are
found in the 5th, 7th, and 9th Cranial
Mouth, Tonsils, Pharynx, and Larynx:
The 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th,
Dorsal nerves send branches to the superior, middle, and inferior cervical
ganglia, which gives off branches that follow the arteries to thee parts
The blood constriction can bee controlled through these parts or nerves.
For dilation of parts named, treat the 5th, 7th,
and 9th Cranial nerves. The 5th Cranial nerve can
be treated through its maxillary region at the side of the nose, and through
its mandibular division on the mandible below the canine teeth. The 9th
can be treated at the angle of the jaw. The dilator directly to the tonsil
is found in thee middle cervical ganglia.
Lungs and Bronchial Tubes:
The 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th,
and 7th, Dorsal nerves send branches to the corresponding ganglia
of the sympathetic, which send branches that follow the blood vessels to
The blood supply to these parts can be constricted and dilated through
these segments. Extra dilation can be secured by treating the 10th
The Stomach -- the 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th,
and 9th Dorsal nerves on the left side send branches to the
corresponding Dorsal ganglia of the sympathetic which communicates with
the semilunar ganglion.
This gives off branches that follow the arteries or blood vessels to
the wall of the stomach. The blood supply of the stomach can be controlled
through these segments in connection with the dilator nucleus of the 10th
Small and Large Intestines:
On both sides of the spine. The liver on the right side. The 6th,
7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 11th,
and 12th Dorsal nerves send branches to the corresponding ganglia
of the sympathetic, which send branches to the solar plexus.
This gives off fibers that follow the blood vessels to the parts named.
The blood supply to these parts can be controlled through these segments,
in connection with the 10th Cranial dilator nucleus.
This sends fibers to the parts named. The dilator nucleus is found in
the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th
Sacral. The blood supply to the parts named can be regulated through these
Spleen and Pancreas:
The 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th,
10th, 11th, and 12th Dorsal and the 1st,
2nd, 3rd, and 4th Lumbar nerves send branches
to the solar plexus.
This gives off fibers, that follow the arteries to the parts named.
The dilator nucleus is found in the 6th Dorsal, and the 1st
Lumbar and the 10th Cranial nerve. The blood supply can be regulated
through these segments.
The 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th
Lumbar nerves through direct mechanism control the vaso-constrictors to
The 3rd and 4th Sacral nerves through the nerve
mechanism control the vaso-dilators to the bladder.
Penis, Testicles, Scrotum, Anus, Vagina, Tubes, Ovaries interfuse:
The 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th
Lumbar nerves through the nerve mechanism control the vaso-motor dilator
nerves to the parts named. The blood supply to these parts can be increased
through these segments.
A restrainer nerve is one that will decrease the functional activity
of an organ. An accelerator nerve is one that will increase the functional
activity of an organ.
When an accelerator nerve to the sigmoid is active, there must be a
restraining nerve to the anus active to make defecation possible. The accelerator
to the sigmoid and rectum will increase the peristaltic action of the bowel
The accumulated fecal matter in the sigmoid flexure creates impulses
that are sent to the center of defecation in the cortex of the cerebrum.
From here impulses are reflexed to the intellectual center.
If convenient to empty the bowel, accelerating impulses are sent to
the sigmoid and rectum. After defecation the restrainer to the sigmoid
and rectum will become active to lessen the peristaltic action and the
accelerator to the anus will become active to contract the sphincter ani.
The same nerve mechanism controls the bladder and uterus.
Defecation is the act of sigmoid flexure expelling the fecal matter
through the anus and the fecal matter is passed from the body. If it is
not convenient to empty the bowel, the intellectual center sends restraining
impulses to the sigmoid and rectum and accelerating impulses to the sphincter
ani and defecation is postponed.
Urination is the act of the bladder expelling the urine through the
urethra. The accumulation of urine in the bladder creates impulses that
are sent to the center of urination.
If convenient to empty the bladder, the impulses that are reflexed to
the intellectual center return accelerating impulses to the muscle cells
of the bladder wall and restraining impulses to the muscle cells in the
neck of the bladder and the urine is passed from the body.
If not convenient to empty the bladder, the intellectual center returns
restraining impulses to the muscle cells in the neck of the bladder and
urination is postponed. In urination, the glottis closes, the abdominal
walls contract and the downward pressure of the diaphragm makes the abdominal
cavity smaller, thus assisting the bladder in expelling the urine.
Restrainers of the Bladder:
The 10th, 11th, and 12th Dorsal and
the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th
Lumbar nerves control through the nerve mechanism, the restrainers to the
sigmoid, rectum, and uterus, also the accelerators to the neck of the uterus
and sphincter of the anus.
Accelerators to the Sigmoid and Rectum:
The 1st, 2nd, and 3rd Sacral nerves
through the nerve mechanism control the accelerators to the Sigmoid and
rectum, also the restrainers to the sphincter of the anus.
Accelerators to the Uterus:
The 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Sacral nerves
control, through the nerve mechanism, the accelerators to the body of the
uterus, also the restrainers to the neck of the uterus, sphincter, vaginae
and the floor of the perineum.
Accelerators to the Bladder:
The 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th
Sacral nerves control, through nerve mechanism, the accelerators to the
bladder, also the restrainers to the neck of the bladder.
[FIGURE 2: CEREBROSPINAL AND SYMPATHETHIC NERVOUS SYSTEMS]
The blood supply to the spinal cord can be controlled by the segments
of the entire length of the cord.
Skin and Muscles of the Trunk and Limbs:
The blood of the skin and muscles of the trunk and limbs controlled
by the segments of the spine from the 4th cervical to the sacral
The fourth Cervical nerve controls through its motor branches of the
supra-spinatus, intra-spinatus, teres major, and biceps.
The fifth cervical nerve through its motor branches, the brachialia,
anticus, deltoid, supinator, and longus.
The sixth Cervical nerve controls through its motor branches, the subscapularis,
pronator radii teres, latissimus dorsi, pectoralis major and serrator magnus.
The seventh Cervical nerve controls through its motor branches, the
extensors to the wrist.
The fourth Cervical nerve to the eighth control through their sensory
branches the skin of the arm, forearm, wrist and hand.
The Dorsal nerves supply through their motor branches, the muscles of
the thorax and abdomen, also through their sensory branches, the skin of
The first Lumbar nerve controls through the sensory branches, the skin
of the Ilie-hypogastric regions.
The second Lumbar nerve controls through the sensory branches, the skin
of the thigh.
The third Lumbar nerve controls through the motor branches, the abductor
muscles of the thigh; third lumbar vertebra on a line with umbilicus.
The fourth Lumbar nerve controls through the motor branches, the semi-tendinosis,
semi-membranosus, and biceps muscles, also the sensory branches to skin
on the posterior aspect of the thigh.
The first sacral nerve controls through the motor branches, the muscles
of the gluteal region, perineum and calf of the leg.
The second Sacral nerve controls through the motor branches, the extensors
of the ankle of the foot.
The third Sacral nerve controls through the motor branches, the muscles
of the perineum, erector penis and accelerator urine.
The fourth Sacral nerve through the motor branches controls the bladder
The fifth Sacral, and branch of the fourth Sacral and coccygeus nerves
supply the coccygeal muscle with motor fibers and sensory fibers to the
skin over the coccyx.
Constrictors and Inhibitors.
Dilators and Accelerators
||D 3, 4
||D 3, 4
|Spinal cord and membrane
||Throughout spinal cord.
||Throughout spinal cord.
|Face and scalp
||D 3, 4, 5
||7, 9 Cranial
||D 3, 4, 5
|Iris and ciliary muscles
||C 6 to D 3
||D 3, 4, 5
|Nose, palate, upper gums and part of pharynx
||D 3, 4, 5
|Tongue, lower lips, mucous membrane of cheeks &
||D 3, 4, 5.
||D 3, 4, 5
|Sublingual and submaxillary glands
||D 3, 4
|Pharynx, tonsils and larynx
||D 3, 4, 5, 6
||7, 9 Cranial
|Lungs and Bronchial tubes
||D 4 to 8
||10 Cranial and D 4 to 8
|Bronchi and bronchioles
|Heart C restraining
||C 6, 7, D 1, 2, 3
||C 7 to D 3
||D 5 to L 2
||D 6 to L 2
||D 7 to L 3
||D 6 to 10
||D 7, to L 1, 2, 3
|Stomach and intestines have a double viscero motor
|Cecum, ascending, transverse, descending colon.
||D 7 to L 1, 2, 3
||10 Cranial, D 7 to L 1
|Sigmoid flexure and rectum.
||D 11, 12, L 1 to 5
||Sacral 2, 3, 4, 5
||D 7 to L 5
||D 7 to L 5
||D 9 to L 4
||D 7 to L 5
|Uterus, Fallopian tubes, ovaries, testicles.
||L 2, 3, 4, 5
||Sacral 2, 3, 4, 5
||L 2, 3, 4, 5
||Sacral 4, 5
|External organs of generation, skin of ano-genital
||L 3, 4, 5
||Sacral 4, 5 Coccygeal
|Skin, muscles of trunk and limbs
||D 3 to L 3
||Spinal cord throughout
POINTS TO REMEMBER
1. The function of the circulation is to carry blood to the tissues
to maintain a healthy environment..
2. The control of the circulation is influenced by a number of factors:
A. The quality and
quantity of oxygen supply.
B. The quality and
quantity of food supply.
C. The chemical and
hydrolytic factors. Water and toxic substances.
D. Changes in blood
volume and conveying vessels.
E. Capillary pressure
created by gravity.
F. The above must be balanced
by reflex effects of the vaso-constrictor and vaso-dilator effects of the attending