A Manual of Osteopathy
Eduard W. Goetz, D.O.
ANATOMY: THE ESSENTIAL POINTS IN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
THE sciences, Anatomy and Physiology, are the foundation
of the theories and principles of Osteopathy.
HUMAN ANATOMY is that science which treats of the
construction of the human body, giving a description of the various organs
or parts which make up the body; their external form, their internal arrangement,
and their relation to each other.
All the tissues and the organs of which the body
is composed were originally developed from the microscopic body (the ovum),
a cell from which every part of the body has been developed, these cells
differing only in their constructive power to build the different parts
of the body, such as bone, cartilage, muscle, skin, nerves, glands, etc.
'The skeleton contains 206 distinct bones and these
are divided in the body as follows:
Bones of the skull, 29, exclusive of the teeth.
Bones of the trunk, 51. Vertebral column, 26;
ribs, 24; and the sternum, 1.
Bones of the upper limbs, 64. Arms, 2; forearms,
4; hands, 26; fingers, 28; scapulae, 2; collar bones, 2.
Bones of the lower limbs, 62. Pelvis, 4; thighs,
2; legs, 4; feet, 24; toes, 28.
The above does not include the knee caps, of which
there are two.
The bones of the body are bound together by cartilage
and ligaments, completing the bony framework; to these are attached the
muscles which move the different parts that are movable.
The skull contains the brain and the sense organs
of sight, smell, hearing, and taste.
The trunk contains, in the upper part, the lungs
(2), and the heart with its blood vessels. In the lower part or abdomen,
separated by the diaphragm, are the stomach, liver, spleen, kidneys (2),
pancreas, and intestines.
The pelvis contains the bladder and generative organs
of woman, uterus, ovaries (2), Fallopian tubes (2).
The relation of these different parts may be seen
in cuts Nos. 1 and 2, pages 24 and 25.
HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY is that science which treats of
the functions performed by the various organs of the human body in the
state of health.
The Physiologic Apparatuses of the body are:
1. Digestive Apparatus, composed of the mouth, stomach, intestines,
with the glands connected with them; the function of which is the complete
digestion of food.
2. Absorptive Apparatus, composed of the capillary blood vessels
and lymphatic vessels, especially those in relation to the small intestines;
the function of which is the introduction of new material into the blood.
3. Circulatory Apparatus, composed of the heart and blood vessels;
the function of which is the distribution of blood to all parts of the
4. Respiratory Apparatus, composed of the lungs, trachea, diaphragm,
and walls of the chest; the function of which is the introduction of oxygen
into the blood and the elimination from it of carbon dioxide and other
5. Urinary Apparatus, composed of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder;
the function of which is the excretion of waste matter from the system.
6. Perspiratory Apparatus, composed of the skin and the sweat
glands; the function of which is the excretion of waste products from the
7. Secretory Apparatus, composed of the liver, pancreas, mammary
glands, and all other glands; the function of which is to elaborate some
specific material necessary to nutrition to the individual.
[The function of the foregoing apparatuses is to
nourish the body, and they have for their final object the preservation
of the individual.]
8. Nervo-muscular Apparatus, composed of the nerves and the muscles;
the function of which is the production of motion.
9. Sense Apparatuses, composed of the eye, the ear, the nose,
the tongue, and the skin; the function of which, as a whole, is the reception
of impressions and the transmission of nerve impulses to the brain where
they give rise to the sensation of seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting,
and feeling, respectively.
10. Vocal and Articulating Apparatuses, composed of the larynx,
and its accessory organs, the lungs, trachea, respiratory muscles, and
the mouth; the function of which is to produce voice, and articulate speech.
[The Sense and Articulating Apparatuses are classified
as functions of relation, bringing the individual into conscious relationship
with the external world.]
11. Reproductive Apparatus, composed of the ovaries, the Fallopian
tubes, the uterus, and the vagina in the female, and the testes and urogenital
canal in the male; the function of which is the development of new being
and the perpetuation of humanity.
The body is made up of minute cells which exhibit
the fundamental properties of life: growth, motion, and reproduction.
Through this power of the cells the different organs of the body, are developed.
By organs are meant all the different parts of the body: bones, cartilage,
blood vessels, nerves, glands, skin, teeth, besides the well-defined structures,
such as the heart, lungs, stomach, brain, liver, kidneys, etc.
The voluntary muscles closely invest the bones of
the body and are the immediate cause of the active movements of the body.
In addition to the muscles that. are attached to the skeleton are also
the involuntary muscles surrounding the stomach, intestines, blood vessels,
etc., which impart motility to their walls and so influence the passage
of material through them.
The Nervous System which unites and co-ordinates
the various organs and tissues of the body, and brings the individual into
relationship with the external world, is arranged in two systems, termed
the Cerebro-Spinal and the Sympathetic.
The Cerebro-Spinal System consists of the brain,
spinal cord, and the nerves emanating from them, and controls motion and
The Sympathetic System consists of a double chain
of nervous centers, connected nerves situated on each side, anteriorly,
of the spinal column, extending from the base of the skull to the end of
the coccyx, and communicating with the cerebro-spinal system; it controls
nutrition, growth, secretion, etc. While each of these two nervous
systems has separate functions, yet they must work together and in harmony;
the sympathetic nerves being modifiers of the actions of the other set
All nerves which emerge from the brain and spinal
cord have the power of carrying impulses to and from the peripheral terminations.
The Efferent and Afferent Nerves
1. The Efferent nerves convey impulses from the brain and spinal
cord to the various peripheral organs. They are:
a. Muscular or Motive nerves, which conduct impulses to the muscles
and give rise to the muscular contraction.
b. Glandular or Secretory nerves, which conduct impulses to the
glands and excite secretion.
c. Vaso-motor or Vascular nerves which convey impulses to the
walls of the blood vessels. which stimulating or inhibiting the muscular
fibers, vary the caliber of the blood vessels.
d. Inhibitory nerves, which conduct impulses that inhibit the
activity of any organ.
2. The Afferent nerves carry the impulses from the peripheral
or to the brain and spinal cord. They are:
a. Special Sense nerves, which conduct impulses from the different
organs of sense, e. g., eye, ear, nose, mouth, skin, which give rise in
the brain to conscious sensations.
b. Reflex nerves, which conduct impulses to the nerve centers
to be reflected out through the efferent nerves to muscles, glands, blood
Digestion is a physical and chemic process, by which
the food, introduced into the alimentary canal, is transformed by digestive
fluids into nutritive substances capable of being absorbed into the blood.
The digestive apparatus consists of the alimentary
canal and its appendages, viz., teeth; salivary, gastric, and intestinal
glands; liver; and pancreas.
The different stages of digestion are:
1. Mastication, the trituration of food in the mouth.
2. In salivation, the incorporation of the food with the saliva
secreted by the glands in the mouth. This saliva softens and moistens
the foods preparatory to swallowing, and has the power of converting starches
3. Deglutition, the act of transferring the food from the mouth
to the stomach accomplished by the muscular walls of the esophagus, which
contract from above downward, propelling food onward to the stomach.
4. Gastric digestion, the action of the gastric juice upon the
food, acidulating it, preventing fermentative changes, converting the proteid
foods into peptones, and liquefying the contents of the stomach for passage
into the small intestines.
5. Intestinal digestion: the action of the pancreatic juice, the
bile, and the intestinal juice on the chyme (a term given to the food after
having been acted upon by the juices of the stomach), which prepares it
for absorption by the blood vessels and the lymphatic vessels. The
waste matter is carried on to the large intestine and expelled through
ABSORPTION: Certain elements of the food which has
been converted into chyle are taken up by the lacteals in the small intestines
and conveyed through the lymphatic vessels to the thoracic duct, and thence
emptied into the blood stream. The other part of the food is absorbed
by the blood vessels and carried to the liver through the portal vein,
where it is elaborated by the secretions of the liver and then sent to
the heart, which organ pumps the blood into the lungs, where carbon dioxide
is exchanged for oxygen; it is then returned to the heart which sends the
blood into the general circulation to all parts of the body, and the nutritious
part deposited with each organ or tissue, which is essential to the growth
and repair of such parts. The waste matters are taken up by the capillaries,
conveyed through the veins to the different excretory organs and expelled.
EXCRETION: The principal excrementitious fluids discharged
from the body are urine, perspiration, and bile; they hold in solution
principles of waste generated during the progress of nutrition, and are
the ultimate forms to which the organic constituents are reduced in the
KIDNEYS: The organs for the secretion of urine, which
is extracted from the blood, carried to the kidneys by the renal arteries.
The urine passes down the ureters to the bladder and from there to be expelled.
LIVER: A complex organ having a variety of relations
to the general processes of the body. The physiological actions of
this organ are not yet wholly understood, but it may be said that it:
1. Secretes bile.
2. Forms glycogen.
3. Assists in the formation of urea and allied products.
4. Modifies the composition of the blood as it passes through
BILE is both a secretion and an excretion.
It contains new constituents which are found only in the substance of the
liver and play an important part, ultimately, in nutrition.
It has the power to prevent putrefaction of the foods
contained in the small intestines and is the natural purgative of the bowels.
SKIN serves as a protective covering to the body; an organ
for tactile sensibility, and an organ for the elimination of waste matters,