Elmer D. Barber, D. O.
DISEASES OF THE STOMACH, INTESTINES, AND PERITONIUM
The stomach is a sac-like, pear-shaped dilatation
of the alimentary canal, between the esophagus and beginning of the small
intestine. Its large end is directed above and to the left, to the
diaphragm; its small end, below and to right.
The mouth of the stomach is the cardiac opening,
which passes from the esophagus like an inverted funnel without visible
external limit. On the inner surface a definite line is seen between
the esophagus and cardia; above the line the mucous membrane is whitish
and made largely of pavement epithelium, while below the color is red and
the mucous membrane shows characteristic cylindrical epithelium.
Sometimes an external ring, as well as an internal projection, is found
between the cardia and the rest of the stomach, forming a kind of antrum
Passing from the cardia to the left and above, we
find the first great pouch, blind sac, or fundus, whose relative size varies
with age. In early youth it is slightly developed; in the adult man
it forms one-fifth of the stomach.
This continues on the right into the body of the
stomach, which has two surfaces, anterior and posterior, and two borders.
At the right the body of the stomach gradually contracts
towards its duodenal end.
The division between the stomach and intestine is
marked externally by a circular constriction, sulcus pyloricus,
and more deeply by a muscular ring, sphincter pyloricus, and internally
by a corresponding projection of mucous membrane called valvula pylorica,
The valve usually presents a round opening, the
orificum duodenale, which may have a central or eccentric position.
It may not be an enclosing ring, but a crescentic projection, and rarely
consists of two halves lying opposite each other.
The size of the stomach varies, according to age,
sex, individual, and the degree of distension. A woman's stomach
increases more in length, is more slender, and is generally smaller than
that of a man.
The stomach lies in the epigastric region and left
hypochondrium, slightly in the right hypochondrium, about five sixths to
the left of the median line and one-sixth to the right. Of the left
segment, the greater part lies in the left hypochondrium - viz., the cardia,
fundus, and the most curved part of the body. The rest of the body
and a part of the pars pylorica fall in the left part of the epigastrium.
The only part belonging to the right half includes a very small portion
of the pars pylorica and the pylorus. The stomach lies under the
diaphragm and liver, above the jejunum, ileum, and transverse colon, extending
its greater part into the left hypochondrium, and its smaller part into
the epigastrium, between the spleen on the left and the gall-bladder on
the right. It does not lie transversely, unless in the infant, or
in the female deformed by corsets. It is directed from above and
the left downward and forward to the right. An empty stomach may
hang nearly vertically, and present an anterior and posterior surface;
but there is usually some obliquity. If the small intestines are
much distended, it may be transverse, or, if rigor mortis be rapid, it
may be cylindrical, especially below.
Movements of the Stomach. - When the stomach
is empty, the great curvature is directed downward, and the lesser upward;
but when the organ is full, it rotates on an axis running horizontally
through the pylorus and cardia, so that the great curvature appears to
be directed to the front, and the lesser backward.
The movements of the stomach are of two kinds: One
is the rotary or churning movement, whereby the parts of the walls of the
stomach in contact with the contents glide to and fro with a slow rubbing
movement. Such movement seems to occur periodically, every period
lasting several minutes. By these movements the contents are moistened
with the gastric juice, while the masses of food are partially broken up.
(The formation of hair-balls in the stomachs of dogs and cattle indicates
that such rotary movements of the contents of the stomach take place.)
The other kind of movement consists in a periodically
occurring peristalsis, whereby, as with a push, the first dissolved portion
of the contents of the stomach is forced into the duodenum, beginning after
a quarter of an hour, and recurring until about five hours after a meal.
This peristalsis is most pronounced towards the pyloric end, and, the muscles
of the pyloric sphincter relax to allow the contents to pass into the duodenum.
The longitudinal muscular fibers, when they contract, especially when the
pyloric end is filled, may act so as to dilate the pylorus.
The Nerves of the Stomach. - The stomach
is supplied by nerve-fibers from the two vagi and the solar plexus.
After forming the esophageal plexus, the left vagus descends rather anterior
to, and the right posterior to the esophagus, along which they continue
to the stomach. The left supplies chiefly the lesser curvature and
the anterior surface of the organ, together with branches to the liver
and the duodenum. The right gives branches to the posterior surface
of the stomach, about two-thirds of its fibers passing to the solar plexus.
From the solar or celiac plexus branches, composed
chiefly of non-medullated fibers, constitute the gastric plexus of the
splanchnic nerves along the gastric artery to the stoma h, while they intermingle
with the branches from the vagi under the peritoneal covering. Small
ganglia exist in the course of these nerves. Branches penetrate the
coats of the stomach, alone, with the arteries and between the longitudinal
and circular muscular coats.
Nerve-Influence on the Stomach. - Auerbach's
ganglionic plexus of nerve-fibers and cells, which lie between the muscular
coats of the stomach, must be regarded as its proper motor center, and
to it motor impulses are conducted by the vagi. Section of both vagi
does not abolish, but diminishes the movements of the stomach. The
muscular fibers of the cardia may be excited to action, or their action
inhibited, by fibers which run to the vagi. If the vagi be
divided in the neck, there is a short temporary spasmodic, contraction
at the cardiac aperture. On stimulating the peripheral end of the
vagus with electricity, after a latent period of a few seconds, the cardiac
end contracts, more especially if the stomach is distended, but the movements
are slight if the stomach be empty. Stimulation of the vagi in the
neck causes contraction of the pylorus, when the latent period maybe several
seconds. Stimulation of the splanchnics in the thorax arrests the
spontaneous pyloric contractions, the left splanchnic being more active
than the right.
In the cardia are automatic ganglionic cells, which
are connected with the vagus and sympathetic. The efferent channel
for impulses seems to be through the vagi, and partly through the splanchnics.
The center for the opening of the cardia lies in the anterior inferior
end of the corpus striatum, and the conducting paths in the vagi.
The cardia may be opened reflexly by stimulation of the sensory abdominal
nerves of the kidney, uterus, or intestine.
The body of the stomach also possesses a few automatic
ganglia in connection with the vagi and sympathetic. A center for
its contraction lies in the corpora quadrigemina, and the efferent paths
lie in the vagi, but chiefly in the spinal cord, and from the latter into
the sympathetic. Inhibitory centers lie in the upper part of the
spinal cord, and the efferent paths are in the splanchnics.
The pylorus also contains automatic centers.
The center for opening the cardia also inhibits the movements of the pylorus,
the path being through the cord and splanchnic. Inhibitory pyloric
centers lie in the corpora quadrigemina and olives; the paths are in the
spinal cord. The centers in the cortex for opening the cardia at
the same time contract pylorus. The contraction centers for the pylorus
lie in corpora quadrigemina.
Vomiting is caused by contraction of the walls of
the stomach, the pyloric sphincter being closed. It occurs more readily
when the stomach is distended. Dogs usually greatly distend the stomach
by swallowing air before they vomit. It readily occurs in infants,
in whom the cul-de-sac at the cardia is not developed. It is quite
certain that in children vomiting occurs through contraction of the walls
of the stomach, without the spasmodic action of the abdominal walls.
When vomiting is violent, the abdominal muscles act energetically.
Vomiting is generally preceded by a feeling of nausea, and usually there
is a rush of saliva to the mouth, caused by a reflex stimulation of the
afferent fibers in the gastric branches of the vagus; the efferent nerve
for the secretion of saliva being the corda tympani. After this,
a deep inspiration is taken and the glottis closed, and a violent expiratory
effort is made, so that the contraction of the abdominal muscles acts upon
the contents of the abdomen, the stomach being forcibly compressed.
The cardiac orifice is open at the same instant, and the contents of the
stomach are ejected.
The center for the movements concerned in vomiting
lies in the medulla oblongata, and is in relation with the respiratory
center, as is shown by the fact that nausea may be overcome by rapid and
In vomiting, the afferent impulses may be discharged
from the mucous membrane of the soft palate, pharynx, root of the tongue
- glosso-pharyngeal nerve - as in tickling the fauces with the finger;
the nerves of the stomach - vagus and sympathetic - stimulation of the
uterine nerves; the mesenteric nerves; nerves of the urinary apparatus;
nerves to the liver and gall-duct; and nerves to the lungs - vagus.
Vomiting is also produced by direct stimulation of the vomiting centers.
The efferent impulses are carried by the phrenics to the diaphragm; by
the vagus to the esophagus and stomach; and by the intercostal nerves to
the abdominal muscles.
Vomiting produced by the thought of something disagreeable
appears to be, caused by the conduction of the excitement from the cerebrum
to the vomiting center. It may also be excited through the brain
by a disagreeable smell, a shocking sight, or by other impressions on the
nerves of special sense. Vomiting is very common in diseases of the
The intestinal canal is in the form of a curved tube,
passing uninterruptedly from the pylorus to the anus. Its length
is about six times the height of its possessor, though in the adult it
may be independent of the age, weight, or height. Vegetarians may
have a longer intestine than those living on a mixed or flesh diet.
This canal is divided into the Small intestine, the upper four-fifths;
and the lower one-fifth, the Large Intestine.
Small Intestine. - This is that part of the
alimentary canal extending from the pylorus to the ileo-cecal valve.
Its average length is about 22 feet, the extremes being 34 feet and 8 feet.
Its circumference decreases from the stomach towards the large intestine.
The small intestine is divided into three parts, the Duodenum, the
Jejunum, and the Ileum. The wall of the ileum is so
thin and translucent that a newspaper may be read through it.
Large Intestine. - The large intestine extends
from the termination of the ileum to the anal orifice, differing from the
small intestine in its larger size, more fixed position, sacular form,
and appendices epiploicae. It is about 5 or 6 feet in length.
Its circumference decreases from beginning to end, except at the ampulla
of the rectum. In its course the large intestine describes a horseshoe-shaped
arch, which surrounds the convolutions of the small intestine. It
begins in a blind sac in the right iliac fossa ascends along the right
posterior abdominal wall to the right hypochondrium, where it is connected
with the under surface of the liver. It here bends to the left, and
takes a transverse, somewhat ascending, course to the spleen. In
the left hypochondrium it bends again and descends along the left posterior
abdominal wall to the left iliac fossa, then becomes convoluted, as the
sigmoid flexure. It enters the pelvis, and descends as the rectum,
along its posterior wall to the anus. It is divided into the Cecum,
Ascending Colon, Hepatic Flexure, Transverse Colon, Splenic Flexure, Descending
Colon, Sigmoid Flexure, and Rectum.
Movements of the Intestines, Peristalsis.
- The best example of peristaltic movements is afforded by the small intestine;
the progressive narrowing of the tube proceeds -from above downward, thus
propelling the contents before it. Frequently, after death, or when
air acts freely upon the gut, the peristalsis develops at various parts
of the intestine simultaneously, whereby the loops of the intestine present
the appearance of a heap of worms creeping among each other. The
advance of new intestinal contents again increases the movement.
In the large intestine the movement is more sluggish and less extensive.
Peristaltic movement may be seen and felt when the abdominal walls are
very thin, and also in hernial sacs. They are more lively in vegetable
feeders than in carnivorous. The movements of the stomach and intestines
cease during sleep.
Nerve-Influence on the Intestines. - Stimulation
of the vagus increases the movements of the small intestine either by conducting
impressions to the plexus mesentericus, or by causing contraction of the
stomach, which stimulates the intestine in a purely mechanical manner.
The splanchnic is the inhibitory nerve of the small intestine only as long
as the circulation in the intestinal blood vessels is undisturbed and the
blood in the capillaries does not become venous. When the latter
condition occurs, stimulation of the splanchnic increases the peristalsis.
If arterial blood be freely supplied, the inhibitory action continues for
some time. Stimulation of the origin of the splanchnics of the spinal
cord in the dorsal region, under the same conditions, and even when general
tetanus has been produced by the administration of strychnine, causes an
It is believed that the splanchnic contains, besides
the inhibitory fibers, which are easily exhausted by a venous condition
of the blood, motor fibers, which remain excitable after death, for a longer
time, because, stimulation of the splanchnics always causes peristalsis,
the same as stimulation of the vagus. It is the vaso-motor nerve
of the intestinal blood-vessels, governing the largest vascular area
in the body. When it is stimulated, all the vessels of the intestine, which
contain muscular fibers in their walls, contract; when it is divided, they
dilate. In the latter case a large amount of blood accumulates within
the blood-vessels of the abdomen, so that there is anemia of the other
parts of the body, which may be so great as to cause death, owing to the
deficiency of blood in the medulla obloncata.
Effect of Nerves on the Rectum. - The nervi
erigentes, when stimulated, causes the longitudinal muscular fibers of
the rectum to contract, while the circular muscular fibers are supplied
by hypogastric nerves. Stimulation of the hypogastric also exerts
an inhibitory effect on the longitudinal muscles. Stimulation of
the nerve erigentes inhibits not only the spontaneous movements of the
circular fibers of the rectum but also those movements excited by stimulation
of the hypogastric nerves.
Excretion of Fecal Matter. - The contents
of the small intestine remain in it about three hours, and about twelve
hours in the large intestine, where they become less watery, and assume
the character of feces. The feces are gradually carried along with
the peristaltic movement until they reach a point a little above that part
of the rectum which is surrounded by both sphincter muscles.
Immediately after the expulsion of the feces, the external sphincter
usually contracts vigorously and remains so for some time; afterwards it
relaxes, when the elasticity of the part surrounding the anal opening,
particularly the two sphincters, suffices to keep the anus closed.
In the interval between two evacuations there does not seem to be a continuous
tonic contraction of the sphincter. As long as the feces lie above
the rectum, they do not excite any conscious sensation. The sensation
of requiring to go to stool occurs when the feces pass into the rectum;
at the same instant the stimulation of the sensory nerves of the rectum
causes a reflex excitement of the sphincter. The center for these
movements lies in the lumbar region of the spinal cord.
Our object in entering thus briefly into the anatomy
of the above named organs is to prove to our readers by such standard works
as Gray and Landois the intimate relation existing between the alimentary
canal and the nervous system. We will endeavor to prove to the satisfaction
of the most skeptical that the human system is a machine governed by the
great dynamo, the brain, reinforced and assisted by numerous nerve-centers;
that an obstruction of undue pressure upon any nerve or nerve-center, from
any cause, breaks the circuit, and causes partial or complete paralysis
of the part controlled by the nerve involved, and consequent disease.
We also expect to prove that irritation, or undue stimulation from any
cause, to the brain, nerve-centers, or any nerve, has the opposite effect,
and consequent disease in a different form.
If the osteopath, by a thorough knowledge of anatomy
and physiology, can remove the cause by skillful manipulation, thus equalizing
the forces, health will be the inevitable result in all cases where the
disease has not reached a stage in which the tissues are hopelessly destroyed.
This last proposition all unprejudiced, fair-minded physicians will admit.
While we cannot agree with the discoverer of Osteopathy,
that in all cases of constipation a rib is dislocated, pressing upon the
splanchnic nerve, and thereby causing constipation and kindred troubles,
we believe there are instances where such is the case, and that by reducing
the dislocation we turn on the current from the brain, thereby starting
the peristaltic action of the bowels, which immediately move.
It is always advisable, in examining the patient,
to first satisfy yourself that the framework is in line, as very many diseases
have been traced to a partial or complete dislocation, obstructing the
nerve-wave or blood-supply, perhaps, to a distant part; and a speedy cure
effected by reducing the dislocation.
It has been our experience that the muscles are
usually at fault, and we believe that Dr. Still and his associates, in
a vain attempt to reduce an imaginary dislocation, accidentally stretch
the right muscles, thereby freeing the obstructed nerve-wave or blood-supply.
It is always well, in endeavoring to ascertain the
cause of any disease of the thorax or abdomen, (1) to place the patient
upon the face, and carefully examine the spine and ribs for dislocations;
(2) beginning at the atlas, with one finger on each side of the spine,
move the hand downward, slowly and gently. If careful, we are very
apt to discover, upon one or possibly both sides of the spine, an irregularity
in the temperature, which must be equalized by a skillful manipulation,
if we hope to obtain satisfactory results; (3) once more beginning at the
cervicals, and moving the hand down the spine in a similar manner, working
more deeply, we are very liable to discover contraction of the muscles,
which may be detected by their hard, cord-like, knotty condition.
By referring to cut 15, and carefully inspecting it, the reader will begin
to realize how utterly impossible it would be for the brain to control
the various organs of the body, unless the muscles which surround and assist
in protecting this delicate piece of mechanism - the nervous system - are
in a perfect and normal condition; one had as well expect an uninterrupted
telephone service immediately after a cyclone, when the wires are crossed,
broken, and covered with fallen timbers. By a thorough understanding
of anatomy, the osteopath is enabled to so manipulate the muscles at fault
as to restore harmony of action.
It would be impossible to lay down a set of manipulations
that could be correctly applied in all the complications arising in various
cases. A great deal must depend upon the good judgment of the operator.
Anyone at all familiar with anatomy and physiology may hope to attain very
gratifying results in almost all diseases of the stomach and intestines
by keeping in mind the fact that we must not only have a free and uninterrupted
circulation of blood, but must have a free and uninterrupted circuit of
nerve-wave between the brain and each muscle and organ of the system.
Take, for instance, the solar plexus, or "Great
Abdominal Brain," formed by the pneumogastric and splanchnic nerves; is
it not reasonable to suppose that any obstruction or pressure upon either
of these nerves, breaking the circuit with the brain, would cause constipation
or torpid liver, or that an undue stimulation or irritation might cause
diarrhea or bloody flux? Is it not equally reasonable to suppose
that to remove the cause in the same common-sense and methodical manner
in which the telephone company adjusts its wire would cure the disease?
After locating the cause of the trouble, the operator
will have the best success who applies the manipulation, or combination
of manipulations, which seems best adapted to the case in question.
Diseases of the Stomach, Intestines, and Peritoneum
(Sluggish action of the bowels.)
While we admit that constipation is not desirable,
and may almost invariably be avoided, yet persons thus predisposed are
generally long-lived, unless they commit suicide by purgative medicines,
while those who are subject to frequent attacks of diarrhea are soon debilitated.
A daily action of the bowels is no doubt desirable in most cases, but by
no means invariably so. An evacuation may take place daily, or every
second day, or even every third day, in persons who are equally healthy.
There is no invariable rule applying to all persons. Purgation produced
by drugs is an unnatural condition, and although temporary relief often
follows the use of aperients, they tend to disorganize the parts on which
their force is chiefly expended. The intestinal canal is not a smooth,
hard tube, through which can be forced whatever it contains without injury;
it is part of a living organism, and needs no force to propel its contents
on their way; nor can such force be applied with impunity. Not only
does the frequent use of purgatives overstimulate the liver and pancreas,
but also and especially the numerous secretary glands which cover the extensive
surface of the intestinal canal, forcing them to pour out their contents
in such excessive quantities as to weaken and impair their functions, producing
a state of general debility, and thus suspending the normal action of the
stomach and intestinal canal.
Nausea, vomiting, griping, and even fainting, are
produced; the brain and vital energies are disturbed, occasioning lowness
of spirits and melancholy, alternating with mental excitement and peculiar
irritability of temper.
We will now endeavor to prove to the satisfaction
of our readers that, viewing man as a machine, constipation can be traced
to its true cause, and cured by an application of the never-failing principles
of Osteopathy. The digestive organs in constipation may be compared
to an electric car with the current partially cut off; with a light load
it might possibly work in a feeble, halting manner, while the slender wire
transmits the power to move the heavy car. The dynamo generates that
power; break the connection, and the car stops. So in the human being;
the brain is the great generator, the center of all power. Stop for
one instant the current on these slender nerves, and the heavy muscles
of the giant are weaker than those of a tiny child. There is one
peculiarity about the nerves which is liable to lead one astray, and that
is the fact that a pressure on the main trunk of a nerve causes no pain
at that point, but at the extremity of the nerve.
In constipation we find the intercostal and spinal
muscles contracted from the fifth dorsal vertebra and fifth rib to the
eighth. The sixth or seventh rib may be turned slightly, and either
the muscles or rib pressing on the splanchnic nerves (which, with the pneumogastric,
control the digestive organs), thus depriving the intestines of half their
motor power. Taking physic for constipation is like whipping a weak,
half-starved horse. He will go just as long as you continue to apply
the whip, but is left in a more enfeebled condition after each application
of the lash. Would it not be more human and sensible to increase
his feed and reduce his load, as we now propose doing with the splanchnic
By relaxing the contracted muscles we not only allow
the ribs to spring back, thus releasing the nerve, but also permit the
blood to pass down and supply the nerve with food, and in a comparatively
short time it will be able to once more convey the current that will start
the peristaltic action of the bowels, and also furnish a motor power
to the sluggish liver and pancreas, enabling these organs to resume their
work. As an obstruction to the nerve-force of the splanchnic system
not only weakens the peristaltic action of the bowels, but also the action
of the liver: that great chemical laboratory, placed on the highway by
which the great majority of material absorbed from the intestines reaches
the blood, it is obviously in a position to act as the guardian of the
blood's purity and health. It certainly in some respects performs
this duty, for many poisons, when introduced into the digestive tract,
are stopped by the liver, and, if their amount be not excessive, are eliminated
with the bile. But we have reason to believe that this enormous mass
of protoplasm is placed in this peculiar position in the circulation to
preside over much more important duties than that of a mere gatekeeper.
Many if not all of the absorbed materials are found to be altered during
their visit to the liver. In fact, we must regard this organ as the
great chemical laboratory of the blood, where many important analyses are
made. It has an immense double blood-supply; it receives all the
blood of the portal veins coming from the digestive tract and spleen.
This supply of blood varies much in amount; after meals, it equals one-fourth
of all the blood in the body. Among the many important functions
of the liver are the formation of the urea and uric acid, and the secretion
of the bile. Its failure to supply in sufficient quantities the latter
(which is mixed in the abdomen with the pancreatic juice, to assist in
digesting the food) is one of the secondary causes of constipation; another
is the inability of the pancreas, through lack of nerve-force, to do its
part in furnishing pancreatic juice. Thus, when we turn the current
on the splanchnic, we start a three-horse team, which, pulling together
in perfect harmony, will safely carry our constipated friend to the highway
of perfect health.
Make careful examination of the spine to ascertain
the cause of the trouble. The ribs, in the normal condition, should
present a flat surface and be an equal distance apart.
If one is turned partially on its side, presenting
its edge as is very often the case, we have discovered the cause of a multitude
of evils; if pressing either directly or indirectly upon the splanchnic,
it cannot fail to produce constipation; while its pressure upon the intercostal
nerve, artery, and vein produces other complications; neither is the pressure
of its edge upon the vital organs which it is supposed to protect pleasant
to contemplate. If physicians would make this examination in chronic
cases which had failed to respond to drugs, they would be surprised at
the number of cases in which this condition exists.
To set the rib, place the patient on the side; with
the thumb of one hand upon the angle of the rib at fault, place the thumb
of the disengaged hand upon the edge of the rib at about its middle; have
the patient inhale, filling the lungs to their utmost capacity, while an
assistant draws the arms high above the head.
It will be observed that the pectoralis major attaches
to the seven or eight upper ribs, and to the humerus at the external bicipital
ridge; thus the arm can be used as a lever to pull any of the upper ribs
into line; at the instant the arm is thrown backward to be lowered while
the assistant is pulling hard, and patient's lungs are expanded, spring
the rib forward by a hard pressure of the thumb upon its angle; at the
same instant a pressure of the thumb upon its edge will turn it into position
(cut 16). This treatment may not necessarily occasion
much pain, and should be continued, making two or three trials each treatment,
until the dislocation is reduced, providing it is stubborn and fails to
respond promptly to the first treatment. The time required to set the rib
will depend much upon the skill of the operator and length of time that
the rib has been in an abnormal position.
In all cases where the difficulty is traced to an
abnormal temperature in the spinal column, or contraction of muscles, thus
affecting a nerve-center, the following accessory treatment should be given.
This treatment should also be given where a rib is turned or partially
1. Place the patient on the side, and proceed
to free all the muscles of the spine on each side as low as the
twelfth dorsal vertebra. Let the arm of the patient rest on
that of the operator, the patient's elbow pressing against the humerus,
forming a lever with which the muscles of the scapula can be manipulated.
With the fingers between the spine and scapula, pressing hard, move
the scapula and muscles under the fingers upward (see
cut 7), being particular not to let the hand slip over the muscles,
but to move them. After each upward motion, move the fingers
down an inch, until the last dorsal vertebra is reached, taking
care not to work lower than the last rib.
2. With the patient lying on the back, grasp
the right wrist with the right hand, drawing the arm slowly but with some
strength high above the head, at the same time placing the left hand between
the shoulder-blades on the right side of the spine, about two inches below
the upper part of the shoulder-blades, pressing hard as the arm comes up;
lower the arm, the elbow passing below and at the side of the table.
Repeat, moving the hand down the spine one inch every time, until you have
reached the tenth dorsal vertebra, which will be found one inch below the
inferior angle of the scapula. This excites and stimulates the splanchnic
3. Knead the bowels (cut
17), beginning on the right side and at the lower portion
of the abdomen, close to the bone, and immediately over the ileo-cecal
valve. Work lightly at first, gradually using more strength,
following the ascending colon upward from its commencement at the
cecum to the under surface of the liver on the right side of the
gall-bladder, where it bends abruptly to the left, forming, the
hepatic flexure; it now becomes the transverse colon, and passes
transversely across the abdomen from right to left, where it curves
downward beneath the lower end of the spleen, forming the splenic
flexure. The descending colon passes almost vertically downward
to the upper part of the left iliac fossa, where it terminates in
the sigmoid flexure. The sigmoid flexure is the narrowest
part of the colon. It is situated in the left iliac fossa,
commencing at the termination of the descending colon at the margin
of the crest of the ileum, and ending in the rectum opposite the
left sacro-iliac syphysis. Work across the abdomen, following
the transverse colon and down the descending and sigmoid portions
to the rectum. Next knead the small intestine, which is contained
in the central longer part of the abdominal cavity, surrounded above
and at the sides by the colon or large intestine.
4. Place the patient upon the back; with one
hand upon the ribs, over the liver, press them down several times quite
strongly, holding them a moment in this position before slowly removing
the pressure, thus starting the circulation in and through the liver.
Work as deeply as possible with the fingers over the liver, under the ribs,
raising them gently. Also carefully knead and manipulate the gallbladder,
endeavoring empty its contents into the duodenum.
5. Place the hand lightly over the liver,
vibrating gently for two minutes. See Vibration.
6. Place the patient upon the back; and with
the hand under the chin, pull the head backward to the right and left,
thus stretching the muscles, and freeing as much as possible the pneumogastric
nerve, which so largely controls the digestive organs. It is also
well to manipulate, thorough and deep, the muscles on the front and sides
of the neck, the object being to remove all obstructions, and equalize
as much as possible the nerve-wave between the brain and solar plexus.
This treatment should be given every other day,
and can be administered in fifteen minutes. It will cure the most
stubborn cases of constipation or torpid liver. Care should be taken
to work as deep and as far under the ribs as possible. Children and
young people are often cured in a single treatment, but the average time
required for a cure is from two to six weeks. In very stubborn cases
it is well to flush the bowels once or twice, until Nature begins to act.
This treatment, if applied as directed, will be found infallible.
GASTRITIS, OR INDIGESTION; CHRONIC GASTRITIS OR DYSPEPSIA
(Inflammation of the stomach, characterized by difficulty or failure
in changing food into absorptive nutriment.)
These vary greatly, both in character and intensity,
but there is commonly one or more of the following: impaired appetite,
flatulence, and nausea; eructations, which often bring up bitter or acid
fluids; furred tongue, often flabby, large, or indented at the sides; foul
taste or breath and heartburn; pain and a sensation of weight and inconvenience
or fullness after a meal; irregular action of the bowels; headache, diminished
mental energy and alertness, and dejection of spirits; palpitation of the
heart or great vessels, and various affections in other organs.
Dyspepsia, or indigestion, is usually caused by
a constipated condition of the bowels, which, becoming overloaded, hinder
the action of the stomach until the glands of that organ become diseased.
Thus we are again confronted with the parallel of an electric car, which,
having lost its current, obstructs the main track. We expect to prove
to the intelligent reader that when the peristaltic action of the small
intestine loses part of its nerve-power, occasioned by a pressure on the
splanchnic center at or near the spine, the foundation is laid not only
for constipation, liver complaint, and various stomach and kidney
troubles, but by blocking the main track, one organ after another becomes
diseased, and finally the stomach, bloated or filled with gas, presses
so hard upon the diaphragm, compressing the left lung, that it affects
even the lungs and heart. Many cases of heart trouble we have traced
directly to this cause, and cured by working on these never-failing principles.
1. Place the patient on the side; with
the fingers of both hands upon the spine, beginning at the upper
cervicals, move the muscles upward and outward, very deep and thoroughly,
as low as the last dorsal (see
cut 7). Tender spots will usually be found between the
second, and sixth dorsal, over the nerves of assimilation, and should
be treated thoroughly. As soon as the soreness begins to disappear,
the patient will commence to recover. Careful investigation
in the immediate region where the tenderness is discovered will
usually enable the operator to detect some slight contraction in
the deep muscles, thus obstructing the circulation, and producing
a congested condition.
2. Place the hand gently over the stomach
and vibrate strongly two minutes, thus stimulating the circulation through
3. In all cases where constipation is present,
beginning at the cecum manipulate the colon very thoroughly and
carefully, following it its entire length to the rectum, endeavoring
to manipulate and move forward any hardened lumps of feces that
may be discovered. Also manipulate the gallbladder and liver.
4. Stand behind patient, and, raising the
right arm high above the head, lifting strong, press hard with the thumb
on the fourth dorsal vertebra, lowering the arm with a backward motion.
This pressure reaches the nerves that control the pyloric valve, causing,
after a few treatments, the pyloric orifice to permit the escape of gases
and undigested food into the duodenum.
5. With left hand under patient's chin,
draw the head backward and to the side; with the right manipulate
the muscles of the neck, thereby freeing the pneumogastric nerve
This disease is usually caused by a complication
of troubles, all of which must be removed before we can hope to effect
a cure. A great deal, therefore, depends upon the good judgment of
the operator in discovering the real cause, and employing such treatment
as will reach the conditions as they exist.
6. In all cases of fever, hold the vaso-motor
two or three minutes. See Vaso-motor.
(Neuralgia of the stomach.)
Spasmodic pains, shooting and shifting, usually
brief in duration, and may be relieved by vomiting or belching.
1. Place the patient on the back; if there
are any indications of constipation, give thorough treatment for
2. Place the hand lightly over the sternum,
and vibrate gently for three minutes.
3. Place the patient on a stool; and with
the thumbs upon the angles of the fifth pair of ribs, have an assistant
standing in front, raise the arms high above the head, lifting quite strong,
as the patient fills the lungs with air; press hard with the thumbs as
the arms are lowered with a backward motion, patient permitting the elbows
to bend, as the arms are pressed quite strongly backward and downward.
This treatment stretches the muscles, frees the intercostal nerves,
arteries, and veins, at the same time acting upon the splanchnic
nerves. Place the thumbs upon the next two lower ribs, raise
the arms as before, and repeat until the tenth dorsal is reached.
4. Place the patient on the back, with
one hand under the chin, draw the head backward, rotating it from
side to side, at the same instant manipulating the muscles over
the pneumogastric with the disengaged hand (cut
18). It is also advisable to place one hand under the
occipital, the other under the chin, and give gentle extension.
This treatment usually gives immediate relief, and
a continuation of the same once each day, occupying about fifteen minutes,
a speedy cure.
(Dilatation of the stomach, due to obstruction of the pyloric orifice.)
Heart dislocated, action rapid; upper portion of
the abdomen enlarged; pressure on the surrounding structures; palpitation;
difficult breathing; and inability to remove the gas.
In this disease, while we can hardly hope to effect
a cure, the patient can often be greatly benefited by the following treatment:
1. Place the patient upon the left side; an
assistant holding the hip, draw the right arm slowly but strongly above
the head, holding it in this position for a moment; lower the arm with
a backward motion, pressing hard with the thumb of the disengaged hand
upon the fourth dorsal vertebra; repeat this operation, pressing hard the
second time upon the fifth dorsal.
2. Place the patient on the back; the hand
of the operator resting lightly, as near as possible, over the pyloric
orifice, vibrate strongly for three minutes.
3. Place the patient upon a stool; the
knee of the operator between patient's scapula, grasp the patient's
wrists, and draw the arms slowly but strongly high above the head
pressing hard with the knee as the arms are lowered with a backward
motion (cut 5).
Repeat this operation two or three times, as it expands the chest
and relieves the difficult breathing.
This treatment should be given every day, and occupy
about ten minutes.
(Cancer of the stomach.)
Loss of appetite, flesh, and strength; the vomitus
is dark and streaked with blood.
No cure in Osteopathy.
(Ulcer of the stomach.)
Annoying and burning pain, confined to small area
in the epigastrium; pain increased by food, and relieved after digestion
or by vomiting; pain and tenderness near the spinal column, opposite the
site of the epigastric pain.
1. Place the patient on the side; beginning
at the upper cervicals, move the muscles upward and outward the entire
length of the spinal column, deeply but gently, being very thorough in
the dorsal region, and particularly thorough and gentle in the immediate
region of all spots where tenderness exists along the spinal column.
2. Place the hand under the chin, and draw
the head backward, rotating it from right to left; with the disengaged
hand manipulating the muscles immediately over the pneumogastric nerve.
3. Place the hands under the shoulders of
the patient, an assistant grasping the ankles, and give thorough and strong
extension of the spinal column, as this extension, together with the two
preceding treatments, tends to stimulate and equalize the nerves which
control the alimentary canal.
4. Place the hand lightly and as near as possible
over the ulcer, and vibrate gently for three or four minutes.
This entire treatment should not occupy over ten
or fifteen minutes; should be administered each day; and if given correctly,
will produce very gratifying results.
(Functional derangement of the stomach, due to impairment of motor
or sensory powers, or secretions.)
Manifestations of hysteria; feeling of fullness,
tension, and nausea; sensation of heat or cold, annoying or pulling; may
be relieved by food, apt to be aggravated by fasting, or restriction of
1. See 1, 2, and 3, Treatment for Gastric
2. Flex the limbs strongly against the chest,
abducting and adducting them several times and extending with a light jerk.
This treatment starts and increases the circulation to the limbs.
Should the patient bit constipated, apply Constipation
3. Place the patient upon a stool; operator
placing knee between the shoulders, draw the arms strongly above the head
two or three times as the patient inhales; lower the arms with a backward
motion, pressing hard with the knee as the shoulders are forced backward.
This treatment is very beneficial, as it expands the chest and frees the
4. Place the hand on the stomach and vibrate
gently two or three minutes.
In case of fever, place the hands upon the sides
of the neck, the fingers almost meeting over the spinal processes of the
upper cervicals, and press gently two or three minutes on the vaso-motor
This treatment will occupy about fifteen or twenty
minutes; should be administered every other day. We should expect
to see a decided improvement after the first few treatments, a continuation
of which will effect a cure.
(Dizziness, usually associated with disorders of the stomach.)
In acute form there is coldness; objects appear
to go round and round; patient reels; seasick feeling; may vomit! face
pale; pulse feeble; vision blurred. In chronic form there is headache;
noise in the ears; feeling of reeling and dizziness.
See General Treatment.
(Inflammation of the small intestine.)
Colicky pains about the umbilicus; urine highly
colored and scanty; tenderness over the abdomen; diarrhea.
1. Very gentle but thorough kneading of the
bowels, being very particular to work from left to right, as this treatment
not only assists in checking the diarrhea, but starts the circulation,
thereby assisting in reducing the inflammation in the small intestine.
(Treating from left to right assists in checking the peristaltic
action of the bowels, and diarrhea. Manipulating the bowels from
right to left assists in increasing the peristaltic action, and should
be always given in constipation.)
2. Place the hand lightly over the intestine,
and vibrate gently two or three minutes.
3. Standing at the side of the bed or table,
place the arms around patient's body, the ends of the fingers pressing
upon each side of the spine in the lumbar region and immediately
below the last dorsal vertebra; raise the patient gently until only
the shoulders and limbs touch the bed (cut
19); hold in this position a moment, and repeat. This
treatment seems to get the body in such a position as to throw a
direct pressure upon the solar plexus, thereby obstructing the nerve-wave
to the bowels and checking the peristaltic action
4. Drawing the arms slowly but strongly above the
head, pressing strongly upon the fourth or fifth dorsal vertebra as they
are lowered with a backward motion, will almost instantly check the colicky
pains in the region of the umbilicus.
5. In this disease we often discover the lumbar
region in a very sensitive condition, in which case the muscles of this
region on each side of the spine should be manipulated, moving them upward
and outward gently but deeply. The soreness will immediately begin
to disappear, and with it the urine will resume its normal quantity and
In all cases of fever hold the vaso-motor two
or three minutes after each treatment.
This treatment, which must be given in a very gentle
and careful manner, occupying fifteen or twenty minutes each day, should
give the patient immediate relief.
CHRONIC ENTERITIS, OR INTESTINAL CATARRH
(Usually follows acute attacks.)
Sallow complexion; constipation, alternating with
diarrhea; stools containing undigested food; headache; impaired nutrition;
colicky pains; and abdomen distended.
1. Place the patient on the side; beginning
at the upper cervicals, move the muscles upward and outward, gently but
deeply, the entire length of the spinal column, being very particular to
treat thoroughly in all regions where any tenderness is discovered.
Stimulation in this manner over all the nerve-centers the entire length
of the spinal column tends to equalize the nerve-wave to the various organs.
2. Place the patient on the back; with the hand
under the chin, draw the head backward, rotating it from side to side,
with the disengaged hand manipulating the muscles immediately over the
3. In all cases where constipation is present,
a light Constipation Treatment should be given. In cases of
diarrhea, give a light treatment for the same; the object being
to equalize the action of the bowels.
4. Drawing the arms strongly above the head two
or three times, at the same instant pressing hard upon the fourth or fifth
dorsal vertebra, will relieve the colicky pain.
This treatment will occupy about fifteen minutes;
will usually give immediate relief; and should be given every other day
until complete recovery is effected.
(Inflammation of the stomach and intestines, resulting from an irritating
Cholera morbus is a violent purging and vomiting,
attended with gripes and a constant desire to go to stool. It comes
on suddenly, and is most common in autumn. There is hardly any disease
that kills more quickly than this when proper means are not used in due
time for removing it. It is generally preceded by heartburn, sour
belchings, and flatulence, with pain in the stomach and intestines; to
these succeed excessive vomiting and purging of green, yellow, or blackish
colored bile, with distension of the stomach and violent griping pains.
There is likewise great thirst, with a very quick unequal pulse, and often
a fixed acute pain about the region of the navel. As the disease
advances, the pulse often sinks so low as to become quite imperceptible;
the extremities grow cold or cramped and are often covered with a clammy
sweat, the urine is obstructed, and there is palpitation of the heart.
Violent hiccoughing, fainting, and convulsions are the signs of approaching
Cholera morbus can often be cured instantly.
Of the hundreds of cases treated by us, we have yet to find the first that
did not respond, and we stand ready to wager our reputation that there
never was and never will be a case of this disease that cannot be cured
by this method of treatment if properly applied. This may justly
be considered the grandest discovery of this or any other age. And
we beg the medical fraternity throughout our land, who usually look with
eves of skepticism on anything out of the ordinary, to try this one great
principle, which is destined to save thousands of lives each year.
We trust that each and every one who may chance to read these pages will
remember our treatment for cholera morbus. Not because it is more
reliable than any other great principle laid down in this work, but it
is so simple and of such vast importance in times of need, so infallible,
and gives such immediate relief.
That the reader may gain a correct understanding
of this great principle, we will return to the anatomy of the machinery
of human life. Once more comparing the cerebrospinal cord, the brain,
and the nerves to a telegraphic system, we will trace the cause of cholera
morbus and the excited condition of the digestive organs directly to the
brain. It will be wise, in this connection, as some of our readers
may not be very familiar with anatomy and physiology, to sketch briefly
the process of digestion.
Food, when taken into the mouth, undergoes two processes,
which are inseparable and simultaneous in action, being mastication and
insalivation. In the short time occupied by the passage of the food
through the esophagus no special change takes place. In the stomach
the food is mixed with the juices of that organ, and is converted into
chyme. The chyme begins to leave the stomach through the pyloric
orifice soon after gastric digestion has begun, some passing into the duodenum
in about half an hour. The materials which resist gastric secretion
or are affected very slowly by it are retained many hours in the stomach,
and the pylorus may refuse exit to such materials for an indefinite length
of time, so that, after causing much uneasiness, they are finally removed
by vomiting. Many solid masses escape through the pylorus, however,
when it open s to let out the chyme.
The small intestine is a convoluted tube, varying
in length from twenty to thirty feet, which gradually diminishes in size
from its commencement to its termination. The power which forces
the food and chyme through this long convoluted tube is called the peristaltic
action and is controlled by the "main battery," the brain. A wave
of contraction passes from the pylorus along the circular fibers so as
to look like a broad ring of constriction, progressing slowly downward.
The longitudinal fibers at the same time contract so as to shorten the
piece of intestine immediately below the ring of constriction, and also
causes a certain amount of rolling movement of those loops of intestine
which are free enough to move. In cholera morbus this peristaltic
action becomes increased to an alarming extent. Food has been taken
into the stomach, to remove which a great amount of nerve-power is required;
and when it is finally expelled, and the current still on, we have a machine
running away with itself. We are as yet unable to determine the precise
cause of Nature failing to apply her brakes, and check the current at the
proper moment, but we have succeeded in locating the point on which a slight
pressure of the hand will instantly slow up the machine.
The great splanchnic and right pneumogastric
nerves form the solar plexus, or "great abdominal brain," and control
the peristaltic action of the bowels. Now it is obvious that a pressure
on these nerves long enough to break the current will check the peristaltic
action of the intestines. The pneumogastric has a more extensive
distribution than any of the other cranial nerves. Passing through
the neck and thorax to the upper part of the abdomen, it is composed of
both motor and sensory fibers. It supplies the organs of voice and
respiration with motor and sensory fibers, and the pharynx, esophagus,
stomach, and heart with motor fibers. It emerges from the cranium
through the jugular foramen, passes vertically down the neck within the
sheath of the carotid vessels, lying between the internal carotid artery
and the external jugular vein as far as the thyroid cartilage. Thus
it will be seen that it can be reached by a strong, steady pressure on
the right side of the windpipe, as it is commonly called, in the lower
part of the neck. The right splanchnic nerve will respond to a pressure
close to the spine between the sixth and seventh ribs.
While this treatment will cure cholera morbus, and
was arrived at by studying man as a machine from a scientific standpoint,
a much simpler method, producing the same results, will be given as our
infallible mode of treating these diseases.
1. Place the patient on a stool, the operator
standing behind. The operator now places his knee on the spine,
just below the last rib, grasping the patient's shoulders, and draws
him gently but firmly backward as far as possible (cut
20). Let all motions be slow, allowing the patient time
to relax the muscles. Ninety per cent of all cases will be
cured instantly by this one move. In aggravated cases, where
the patient is bedfast, while lying on the back, place one hand
under each side, the fingers pressing on each side of the spine
just below the last ribs, and two or three times slowly raise the
patient until only the shoulders and pelvis touch the bed (cut
2. Press lightly with the palm of the hand
on the umbilicus (and stronger as the patient becomes accustomed to the
pressure) for one minute.
3. Hold the vaso-motor center for two or
three minutes, and your patient is out of danger (see
cut 13). It is very seldom that anything further than
one backward movement is necessary.
Taken suddenly with cholera morbus between St. Louis and Kansas City,
the writer cured himself instantly by bending far backward over the back
of the car seat. Any of our readers can do likewise.
While on this subject, we will mention the case
of a lady at Miami, I. T. We received an urgent call from her husband one
Tuesday morning, but, being overwhelmed with office work, it seemed impossible
for us to take the time to drive twenty miles into the Indian Nation; so
it was arranged that if the drugs of the local doctors failed, and she
was still alive, we should drive down Friday night.
We reached her bedside at midnight (Friday night), and found her just alive.
We treated her once, and in a week she was walking on the streets of Miami
in perfect health.
CRAMP IN THE BOWELS
Cramp in the bowels is caused by the too rapid action
of the intestines, one fold being thrown over another; this can usually
be instantly cured by bending the patient far backward as in flux.
In rare cases it will be found necessary to place the patient on the back
and gently but firmly knead the bowels, working deep, thus freeing the
parts and giving immediate relief.
Vibration two or three minutes over the bowels
is very beneficial in all cases of diarrhea or cramp in the bowels.
(Inflammation of the stomach and bowels of children.)
Usually occurs in the summer months. Rapid
wasting; fever; vomiting; watery and fetid diarrhea; convulsions; coma;
1. Place the child upon its back; the hands
of the operator on each side of the spine below the last dorsal, the ends
of the fingers pressing hard on each side of the spine; raise and hold
the patient a moment in this position, the head and limbs only touching
2. Place the hand lightly over the bowels,
and vibrate gently one or two minutes.
3. Place the hands upon the sides of the
neck, the fingers almost meeting over the spinous processes of the
upper cervicals; press gently two or three minutes with the fingers
upon the vaso-motor (cut
This treatment, if properly applied, is infallible.
If the child is restless, and refuses to submit to the operation, it can
be treated upon the mother's lap by bending it backward while pressing
upon the lumbar vertebra; the object being to get the body in such a position
as to throw a direct pressure upon the solar plexus.
We might mention in this connection a very prominent
physician at Galena, Kansas, who was converted to Osteopathy by the results
achieved in the treatment of a case of cholera infantum. While the doctor
was fairly liberal in his views, and willing to investigate this new science,
it seemed unreasonable to him to believe that this disease could be cured
without the use of medicine. Having a case of cholera infantum, in
its last stages, after having applied the drug treatment in vain, he gave
the little one, one evening, an osteopathic treatment, and was surprised
upon his visit the next morning to find it improving quite rapidly.
A continuation of the treatment in a few days effected a cure.
CRAMP IN THE STOMACH AND VOMITING
1. Bend the patient backward as in diarrhea.
2. Press steadily on the pit of the stomach
with the palm of the hand for a moment.
3. Place the knee between the shoulders,
raising the arms high above the head (see
4. Permit the patient to lie on the back,
and, reaching over as in cut 21,
with each of the fingers close to the spine, between and a little
below the scapulae, press strongly a moment, after which hold the
vaso-motor center (cut
This treatment will cure the most aggravated cases,
usually in a few moments. It will be observed that we are working
here on the splanchnic nerves, which are in direct communication with the
(Frequent evacuation of the bowels, usually resulting from amyloid
diseases, but may be due to chronic inflammation of the bowels, causing
Increased movement of the bowels; stools light in
color, containing mucus; nervousness; intestinal indigestion. More
common in females.
1. Place the patient on the side; beginning
at the upper dorsal, move the muscles upward and outward) very deeply,
the entire length of the dorsal region. Treat the opposite side in
a similar manner.
2. Place the patient on a stool; the operator
placing the knee against the back of the patient, just below the last dorsal,
draw the patient backward, slowly but strongly, as far as the patient can
stand without too much inconvenience; hold in this position a moment and
3. Place the hand lightly over the bowels,
with the patient lying on the back; vibrate gently two minutes.
4. Place the hand under the chin, drawing
the head backward, rotating it gently from side to side, with the disengaged
hand manipulating the muscles immediately over the pneumogastric.
This treatment should be applied each day; will
require about fifteen minutes; and, if correctly given, will cure any case
of chronic diarrhea.
FLUX OR ACUTE DYSENTERY
(Inflammation of the large intestine, with frequent evacuation of the
Prostration; fever; evacuations mucous and bloody;
vertigo; weakness; vomiting; nausea; and headache. Usually occurs
in summer or fall.
1. Place the patient on the side; beginning
at the upper cervicals, move the muscles upward and outward, gently and
carefully, along the entire length of the spinal column. Treat the
opposite side in a similar manner.
2. Stand beside the bed, patient lying on
his back; place one hand on each side of the spine, below the last dorsal,
the fingers pressing close to the spine upon each side; raise the patient,
his weight resting upon the ends of the fingers, until his body is several
inches off the bed; hold in this position for a moment; and repeat, this
time placing the fingers nearer the sacrum.
3. Place the hand lightly over the bowels,
and vibrate gently two or three minutes.
4. Place the hands upon each side of the
neck, the fingers almost meeting over the spinous processes of the
upper cervicals (see
cut 13); press gently two or three minutes, to reduce the fever.
Treatment will occupy ten or fifteen minutes, and
should be given every four hours.
(May follow an acute attack.)
Similar to the acute form, but without fever; complexion
sallow; wasting; skin dry; urine albuminous; and anemia.
See Flux or
Acute Dysentery. Treatment should be given each day, omitting
(Inflammation of the vermiform appendix.)
Fever; anorexia; severe pain in the right iliac
fossa, increased by motion; indication of a sausage-shaped tumor; vomiting
usually attended with nausea, but may not occur if there is diarrhea.
1. Place the patient on the back; beginning
at the ileocecal valve, manipulate gently, but as deep as possible, the
ascending, transverse, and descending colon, endeavoring to move any hardened
lump of feces toward the rectum.
2. Place the patient on the left side and
manipulate very gently at first, gradually working deeper and stronger
over the cecum and vermiform appendix, manipulating these parts as thoroughly
as possible. If this treatment is given in a very gentle, careful
manner, it is surprising bow deep and thorough these parts can be manipulated,
without giving pain, and the immediate relief experienced by the patient.
3. Place the hand lightly over the cecum,
and vibrate gently one or two minutes.
4. Grasping the right hand of patient,
an assistant holding the hip, draw the arm strongly above the head,
giving thorough extension (cut
5. Place the patient on the side; beginning
at the upper cervicals, move the muscles upward and outward gently the
entire length of the spinal column, giving particular attention to that
portion which seems sensitive to the touch; treat the opposite side in
a similar manner.
6. Place the hands on each side of the neck,
fingers almost meeting over the spinous processes of the upper cervicals;
press gently with the fingers three or four minutes upon the vaso-motor,
to check the fever.
This treatment should be given each day, and occupy
about fifteen minutes. First treatment will usually give immediate
(Inflammation of the cecum.)
Pain in the right iliac fossa; nausea; constipation;
fever; sausage-shaped tumor.
(Inflammation of the tissues surrounding the cecum.)
It usually occurs in the course of appendicitis
or typhlitis. Symptoms, except the tumor is not sausage-shaped, similar
to the latter. Patient usually lies with thighs partly flexed upon
the right side.
(Falling down of a number of the abdominal organs on account of relaxation
of the supporting ligaments.)
Heaviness and weight in the abdomen, with distress;
and displacement of the organs.
This disease can be greatly benefited and is
sometimes cured by a long continuation of our General Treatment,
the object being to free and stimulate the circulation to the weakened
muscles and ligaments supporting the displaced organs.
(Slipping of one part of the intestine into another.)
Paroxysms; sudden pain; sausage-shaped tumor in
the abdomen; dysentery; small intestine entering the large one at the ileo-cecal
orifice is the most common.
Beginning a few inches above the sausage-shaped
tumor, manipulate the bowels, gently at first, gradually working stronger
and deeper, endeavoring, if possible, to move the intestine backward and
out of the larger one. This treatment should be very careful and
thorough, and continued at intervals until the desired result is accomplished.
It is always advisable to place the hand lightly over the tumor and vibrate
two or three minutes.
(May be calculus, gall-stone, or fecal impaction.)
Pulse feeble and rapid; surface cold and clammy;
abdominal pain; vomiting; rumbling, and distended abdomen.
1. Very thorough, careful manipulation of the large
and small intestines; working gently at first, gradually deeper and stronger,
as the patient becomes accustomed to the manipulation. Patient should
lie upon the back, with the limbs slightly flexed, thus relieving the tension
upon the abdominal muscles. After manipulating the bowels a few moments,
work deeper, and endeavor to locate, if possible, the obstruction, which
must be kneaded and manipulated in any manner which will best tend to move
it onward toward the rectum.
2. Thorough and careful Treatment to Equalize
Treatment should be given every day, and will occupy
about twenty minutes.
(Cancer of the bowels.)
There may be no symptoms, except general failure
of the health, until obstruction of the bowels takes place.
No cure in Osteopathy.
(Consumption of the bowels.)
Anemia; diarrhea; irregular fever; rapid emaciation.
No cure in Osteopathy.
INTESTINAL AMYLOID DEGENERATION
(Starch-like wasting of the bowels.)
Diarrhea, associated with amyloid diseases of other
organs; changes in the urine; and enlargement of the liver and spleen.
No cure in Osteopathy.
(The most common are Cestodes, or Tape-worms, and Nematodes,
or Round-worms. The former are Penia Solium, Penia Mediocanellata,
and Bothriocephalus Latus. The most common of the latter are Lumbricoides,
Oxyuris Vermicularis, and Prichina Spiralis.)
Capricious appetite; uneasiness in the abdomen;
colicky pains; nausea; insomnia; possibly vomiting; itching of the nose
and anus; and epileptic convulsions.
No cure in Osteopathy.
(Inflammation of the peritoneum.)
Sudden and chilly feelings, or rigor; intense pain
in the abdomen, aggravated by movements or pressure; patient lies on the
back, with legs drawn up; tympanites; nausea; vomiting; elevation of temperature;
drawn face and anxious expression.
1. Place the patient on the back; beginning
at the cecum, manipulate very gently, following the colon its entire length
to the rectum. This treatment should occupy several minutes; gradually
working deeper and stronger. The small intestine must also be kneaded
very carefully. Great caution must be exercised to begin very gently,
gradually working deeper and stronger, as in this manner the patient can
be greatly relieved and the treatment given with very little pain.
2. Place the hand lightly over the intestine;
vibrate gently for two minutes, thus starting the circulation, and reducing
the inflammation in the peritoneum.
3. Grasp the patient's wrists, and draw the
arms slowly, gently, but with some strength, above the head, as the patient
4. Place the patient upon the side; moving
the muscles upward and outward the entire length of the spinal column,
gently but deep; treat the opposite side in a similar manner.
5. Place the hands on each side of the
neck, the finger-tips almost meeting over the spinous processes
of the upper cervicals (cut
13); press gently with the fingers three or four minutes, to
reduce the fever.
This treatment, if carefully given, will occupy
about thirty minutes, and give immediate relief.
Should be give once each day, until recovery.
(May follow an acute attack.)
The omentum is hard and rolled up close to its attachment
to the stomach; coughing or speaking often increases pain; tongue often
cracked and red; greenish vomit; and constipation.
See Acute Peritonitis.
(Dropsy of the abdomen. Fluid in the peritonea cavity.)
Skin tense; enlargement of the abdomen; the navel
may project; fluctuation or waving of fluid on tapping.
1. Thorough manipulation of the bowels
and abdomen. See Constipation Treatment.
2. Place the patient on the side; beginning
at the tenth dorsal, move the muscles upward and outward very thoroughly
and deeply to the lower end of the sacrum. This treatment stimulates
the kidneys to more rapid action.
This treatment should be very thorough and careful,
and occupy about fifteen minutes, every other day.
(Cancer of the peritoneum.)
This disease usually occurs in old people, and follows
cancer in other organs; pain, with appearance of a tumor.
More common in females. Progressive emaciation;
ascites usually develop, with bloody exudation.
No cure in Osteopathy.
(Tuberculosis of the peritoneum.)
May continue without any symptoms; may simulate suppurative
peritonitis, except that its course is more prolonged and less pronounced; fluctuation
No cure in Osteopathy.