Osteopathy Complete
Elmer D. Barber, D. O.
1898     


PRELIMINARY MISCELLANIA

 

RESEARCHES OF DR. ELMER D. BARBER

    The author was born in Oneida, N. Y., May 17, 1858, and when a mere boy arrived at the conclusion that the age of miracles was past, and that all results could be traced to a reasonable cause.
    While in Jersey City, N. J., we met a gentleman who, without the use of drugs or surgical instruments, by manipulations which he could not explain, was curing hundreds of people in a public hall.
    Then came Paul Castor, whose cures were equally marvelous and likewise inexplicable.  We visited faith doctors and spiritualistic mediums and witnessed their results, but found the principle on which the worked shrouded in mystery.
    We next heard of Dr. Andrew T. Still, who was effecting cure after cure in a marvelous manner, upon (as he claimed) scientific principles.  We visited the old doctor, were convinced that he had discovered the fundamental principles on which were based the results accidentally reached by others, and entered his School of Osteopathy, from which we graduated March 2, 1895, with an average grade of 99 in Anatomy and Physiology and 100 in Osteopathy.
    Immediately after graduation we, removed to Baxter Springs, Kansas and engaged in the active practice of Osteopathy.  It was at this period, when fresh from the school at Kirksville, Missouri, with our pockets bursting with notes gathered eagerly from the lips of the discoverer of Osteopathy that our small book, "Osteopathy, the New Science of Drugless Healing," was written.  Since the publication of that volume, having, studied very carefully all works that we could procure having any bearing upon this subject, besides treating and curing hundreds of patients osteopathically, we are led to believe that there is not so much that is new, except the name, but that Osteopathy is a combination of many movement-cures scientifically applied.
    From a careful study of Gray and Landois, we find that Dr. Still has discovered no new nerve-centers; he has simply discovered a fact that has been overlooked by the ordinary physician: that a steady pressure over a given nerve-center will produce a certain result; while stimulating by manipulation over the same center produces an opposite result; and that by, working, upon these centers we can control the organic system.
    He has, therefore, simply discovered a correct and scientific method of manipulation, whereby the osteopath can equalize the circulation, and, in fact, all the forces of the body - in very many cases, after all other methods have been tried and failed.
    While it is our desire to give Dr. Still credit for any points which he has discovered, we must differ with him as to the true cause of the results reached by the Osteopath.  While the good Doctor believes that nearly all diseases are caused by dislocated bones, nearly always finding them and thereby winning for himself the name of "Bone Doctor," in our practice we never find a great number of dislocations and by the same manipulation effect the same cures as Dr. Still. If a bone is really dislocated and has been in that condition for years, the dislocation can not be reduced, but if muscles are contracted, causing a stiff joint or depressing the ribs, they can be quickly relieved by manipulation, and the patient is easily led to believe that the bone was dislocated.  While we do not doubt for an instant that our classmates are sincere in their belief that in catarrh, sore eyes, deafness, and other disease of the head, the atlas is dislocated, and that they cure these diseases by setting the atlas, we believe that twisting, pulling, and stretching the neck in a vain attempt to move the atlas stretches the muscles, thereby freeing the circulation and permitting Nature to assert herself.  Be they right or wrong, our readers can cure almost any acute disease in the head, almost instantly, by gently pulling on the head and rotating it in all directions; and many chronic complaints by a continuation of the same method.  We all agree upon the one great point, that man is a machine, and that nerve-centers have been discovered upon which a pressure of the hand will cause the heart to slow or quicken its action, from which we can regulate the action of the stomach, bowels, liver, pancreas, kidneys, and the diaphragm.  The thousands of people snatched from the grave by an application of these never-failing principles are proof positive that at last the keynote has been struck; and a school established that can explain intelligently why certain manipulations produce certain results.
    Viewing the brain, the cerebro-spinal cord and the nerves as an immense telegraph system (the brain acting, not only as a great dynamo, generating the forces which control and move  the body, but as headquarters, receiving and sending messages to all parts of the body; the slender nerves passing through, under, over, and between the hundreds of bones, muscles, arteries, veins, ligaments, and various organs), can you wonder that the wires are sometimes down, that the communication is occasionally cut off between headquarters and some important office, or that paralysis is the result?  Do you wonder that occasionally the wires are crossed, and that the message (possibly to the bowels, to discharge their load) is received by the kidneys, which promptly obey the order?  The bowels having failed to respond to orders from headquarters, a second message goes over the wires, and again the kidneys answer the summons; the result is kidney disease and constipation.  While we cannot go directly to the nerves at fault, we can, by manipulations, which will be fully described under their proper head, stretch the contracted muscle that is obstructing the current; whereupon, if the case has not become chronic, the bowels will immediately resume their functions and the excited kidneys will cease to act so rapidly.  In chronic cases it usually takes Nature from two to six weeks to assert herself.  In the nervous system, as in the telegraphic, the current must not be obstructed.
    The massage treatment effects many remarkable cures by moving the flesh and muscles in all possible directions over the entire body.  They unwittingly and unavoidably, if they are very thorough, free the right spot establishing the circuit, thus permitting Nature to assert herself.
    Another very important part in this complicated machine is the systemic, pulmonary, and portal circulation: the arteries are cylindrical vessels, conveying the blood through this network of nerves and muscles to all parts of the body; the veins gathering up and returning it to the never-tiring heart, pumping steadily throughout a lifetime, driving the blood to the most remote parts of the system and forcing it to return.  Is it to be wondered at that occasionally a muscle contracts, after a hard day's work or exposure to the cold, possibly obstructing some little river of blood on its journey to nourish a given part?  Do you wonder that the part in question weakens from lack of nourishment and fails to perform its allotted task?  As it is the blood that must convey all substances of nourishment to the different parts, is it a wonder that the medicine never arrives at its destination?  Should a large artery be obstructed in a similar manner, would it be surprising if the heart, working, against heavy odds, trying to pump the blood past the obstruction, in time felt the pressure? in which case heart disease would be the result.  Should the contraction be in the thigh, obstructing the femoral artery, we have cold feet and limbs on one side of the obstruction, and heart disease on the other.  If the veins returning the blood are obstructed in the same region, we may have either dropsy, inflammatory rheumatism, erysipelas, eczema, or varicose veins, caused by the stagnant, pent-up blood, on one side, and heart disease on the other.
    Having briefly referred to the bones that support, the nerves that control, and the blood that supplies, let us dwell for a moment on the muscles that move and propel this wonderful living machine.  As the only power muscles have is in contraction, they must be arranged in such a position and so attached to the bone as to pull from any direction in which it may be necessary to move a given part.  Receiving as they do not only their orders to act, but their motor power, from that great dynamo the brain, they may be justly compared to so many electric cars.  One car may be larger and stronger than another, but, deprived of the current from that slender wire, which of itself is nothing, neither can move from its position.  Is this not indeed a delicate and complicated piece of machinery, the nerves and fluids of the body moving unobstructed through the hundreds of rapidly contracting and relaxing muscles?  We state most emphatically that the true cause of many diseases may be traced to some muscle which has contracted and for some unaccountable reason has failed to relax, thus interfering with all the forces of life.  It is by working on these principles, which we have briefly sketched, that we achieve results bordering on the miraculous; it is by working on these principles that we draw patients and students from the length and breadth of our land; it is by working on these same principles, fully explained and illustrated in the following pages, that any family can attain some very remarkable results.
 

OSTEOPATHY IN A NUTSHELL

    First: Using the arms and limbs as levers, stretching all muscles to which they give attachment and moving the flesh and muscles from side to side the entire length of the limb stretches and softens those muscles, thus permitting a free flow of the fluids and nerve forces to these parts, a stoppage of which means disease in some of its varied forms.  One thorough treatment of an arm or leg will often instantly cure, and almost always relieve an acute case of any nature in the extremities, and a very few treatments, administered one each day, will cure any acute case.  Chronic cases can be usually cured by a continuation of the treatment every other day, for from two to six weeks, even after all other methods have been tried and failed.
    Second: Move and soften by deep manipulations and by rotating the spinal column as much as possible, all the muscles of the spine.  The spinal cord is the great trunk from which springs the spinal nerves, and is contained in, and protected by the upper three-fourths of the spinal column, which is very flexible, consisting of many separate bones, between which is placed the elastic intravertebral cartilage. As the spinal nerves which control the different muscles, organs, etc., escape from the spinal cord through openings or foramina in the different sections of the vertebral column, it will be readily understood that the numerous muscles which are attached to and move the spine must always be very soft and elastic; that contraction here means interference with nerves that may control some distant part and a consequent partial or complete paralysis of that part, until by manipulation or accidentally the muscle at fault is relaxed, thus turning on the current from that great dynamo the brain, and once more the machine moves forward.
    Third: Using the head as a lever, move and stretch all the muscles of the neck.  This treatment frees the circulation to the head, an obstruction of which is the true cause of catarrh,, weak eyes, deafness, roaring in the head, dizziness, and, in fact, almost all disorders of the head.  Many acute cases can be instantly cured, while those that have become chronic require a much longer course of treatment.
    Fourth: Bending the patient backward, with the knee pressing on the back just below the last rib, will usually cure any case of looseness of the bowels, from common diarrhea to bloody flux, and a continuation of the treatment will cure any case of chronic diarrhea.
    Fifth: A nerve-center has been discovered at the base of the brain, termed vaso-motor, which can be reached by a pressure on the back of the neck over the upper cervicals.  A pressure at this point continued from three to five minutes will slow the action of the heart, often reducing the pulse from l00 to a normal condition in a few minutes time.  It is from this center that, without the use of drugs, we control fevers, curing any fever that is curable in one-half the time that the same work can be done with medicine.
    Sixth: In all cases where the general system seems to be affected, give a general treatment, thus freeing and permitting all the forces of the machine to act.
    Seventh: Never treat an acute case oftener than once in three hours, or a chronic case oftener than once a day.
    Eighth: It is never safe to use this treatment during pregnancy, except in diseases of the head or extremities, and in those with caution.  To draw the arms high and strongly above the head, at the same instant pressing on the spine below the last dorsal vertebra, or to flex the limbs strongly against the chest, during this period, is dangerous in the extreme.
    Ninth: While this treatment will improve the action and remove the pain in stiff, chronic dislocated joints, the dislocation can never be reduced.  We have seen it tried, and tried it ourselves a great many times, meeting with no success where there was really a dislocation of long standing.  There are a great many cases where the patient is suffering from rheumatism or a similar trouble in which the muscles are contracted, and he can easily be led to believe that a dislocation does really exist, and that the operator who simply stretches the muscles has reduced the imaginary dislocation.  This we believe also to be the case regarding the many dislocated ribs found by the average "bone doctor."     While they may be correct, we have demonstrated the fact, times without number, that drawing the arms high above the head, at the same instant pressing at almost any point with the knee immediately below the scapula, thus stretching the muscles of the chest and springing the ribs forward, will instantly cure sharp acute pains in the sides or chest and certain cases of heart disease, while a continuation of the same treatment will cure asthma or consumption in its early stages.  It is on this vital point that we differed in class as well as in practice with the other members of our profession.    While they trace most effects to dislocated bones, and never fail to effect a cure if it is within the bounds of reason, we effect equally remarkable cures in many instances by simply stretching and manipulating the muscles, thus freeing the circulation.  While we do not believe it possible that to hide his secrets a "bone doctor" would deceive the public, we believe that in a vain attempt to set the bones in the manner prescribed by Dr. Still the circulation is freed and the patient recovers.
    Tenth: We have recently discovered that shaking or vibration administered by the hand quickens, stimulates, and strengthens.  In reducing inflammation and congestion it diminishes pain, and if applied over certain nerve-centers, it increases the secretion of the glands.
 

HOW TO APPLY OSTEOPATHY

    First: While it is very necessary to have a leather upholstered table, 2 feet 2 inches high, 2 feet wide, and 6 feet long, for office work, a cheap pine table of the same dimensions, over which is spread a bed-quilt, with one or two pillows, will answer the same purpose at the home of chronic invalids who cannot reach the office.  It is always advisable, if possible, to have a table, not only being very much easier and more convenient for the operator, but being a firm support the patient can be placed and retained in the most desirable position for successful treatment.  In acute cases, however, we are often obliged to treat the patient upon the bed, a couch, chair, and sometimes upon the floor, usually getting very good results.
    Second: In treating a patient osteopathically, while the treatment can be applied through a reasonable amount of clothing, enough should be removed to enable the operator to administer the treatment in a thorough and intelligent manner.
    Third: It is always advisable for a lady to remove her clothing, putting on a loose robe, which every osteopath should have in his office for this purpose.
    Fourth: It is entirely unnecessary, except in rare instances, to expose any portion of the patient's person, except the spine in making first examination.
    Fifth: All manipulations should be given in a slow, gentle, thorough, careful manner, thus giving the muscles of the patient an opportunity to relax.  The patient should always be cautioned or instructed to permit the muscles to relax as much as possible.  The object of the manipulation being to stretch the muscles in any manner that will best tend to free the circulation and remove the pressure that may be obstructing the free and uninterrupted flow of the nerve-wave to any given point.
    Sixth: A thorough general treatment tends to stimulate and equalize all forces of the entire system.
    Seventh: A pressure upon a nerve-center, to control a certain organ, should not be continued over two to four minutes, and should not be administered oftener than once in four hours.
    Eighth: Acute cases should be treated each day, the treatment occupying, according to the case, from ten to thirty minutes.  Great care must be exercised in discriminating between patients who can stand a light or a strong treatment.  In no case should the treatment be so strong or long continued as to exhaust the patient; on the contrary, the patient should feel relieved and refreshed after each treatment.
    Ninth: In chronic cases the first treatment should be very light, each treatment growing stronger until the operator has determined just how strong a treatment will produce the best results. Most chronic cases should be treated every other day, from ten to thirty minutes, according to the disease and number of different manipulations employed.  In most chronic cases we should see some change for the better in a very few days.
    Tenth: Vibration. - We have recently discovered that vibration administered by the hand quickens, stimulates, strengthens, and assists very materially in reducing congestion and inflammation, and is very beneficial in many cases, in addition to the regular osteopathic treatment; in fact, we have cured cases of stammering, asthma, and various other troubles in which we failed to get results by the regular osteopathic manipulations.  Vibration should be applied with a loose wrist-joint, the whole or a part of the palmar surface of the hand or fingers being used.  The movements in the wrist-joint are abduction and adduction, while the movements of the elbow are flexion and extension; the hand lies immovable upon the part of the body on which it rests.  Through a quick succession of individual movements, with a perfectly loose wrist-joint the vibrations are produced.  Flexion and extension of the wrist must be carefully guarded against, as this would produce pressure, which would be injurious in many localities.  In fact, vibration correctly applied is such a wonderful. instrument in relieving pain that we cannot impress this one point too forcibly upon the minds of our readers:    Always vibrate with a loose wrist-joint, using no greater pressure than the weight of the hand, as the entire benefit to be derived from the treatment is lost if this point is neglected.
    Eleventh: In applying osteopathic treatment in the (manipulation of muscles, the operator should avoid using the end of the fingers as much as possible, as much stronger and better treatment can be given by using the palmar surface of the fingers or hand.
    Twelfth: After three years of active practice, we desire to correct a number of erroneous statements which appear in our former book written immediately after graduation, and from notes taken at the A. T. Still Infirmary.  While all treatments given in that work are substantially correct as laid down by the discoverer of Osteopathy, we find that where, in acute cases, we used the word "instantly," it should have been in most cases "a few hours," and that in chronic cases, while we usually get immediate results, about double the time specified is generally required to effect the cure.
 

HOW TO MAKE THE EXAMINATION

    So much depends, from an osteopathic standpoint, upon the human framework being correctly adjusted, that in all cases where the nature of the disease does not render the cause apparent, the spine is first examined.
    First: Place the patient upon the face, a pillow under the breast and chin, the nose and mouth just far enough above the pillow to enable the patient to breath as he lies face downward, with the head and neck perfectly straight; let the arms hang down over the sides of the table.  In this position the spine should be perfectly straight laterally, and any deviation from the correct line is easily detected, and must be corrected before we can hope to remove the cause of the disease, and thereby effect a cure.  In this position, an anterior or posterior curvature is also easily discovered.
    Second: With the patient lying in this position, examine the ribs.  If in a normal position, they will present a flat surface to the hand passed over them, and should be about an equal distance apart.  If an edge is discovered, the rib is slightly turned; the space is unequal between it and the adjoining rib, and its inner edge is pressing upon some portion of the anatomy which it is supposed to protect; being turned slightly in its articulation, it can hardly fail to press upon some nerve or artery, which may control or nourish a distant part.  In other instances we discover the floating ribs turned under or partially under the rib above.  It is hardly necessary to state that with the framework in this condition we could not hope to restore the patient to health by the use of drugs or in any other manner, except by a skillful manipulation, to adjust the ribs to their normal position.  In the practice of Osteopathy very many of these cases are found, and chronic troubles cured which for years have baffled the medical fraternity.  In making this examination, the  patient should lie in the position named, for if the head is turned slightly, the cervicals are out of line; if an arm is thrown above the head the ribs upon that side are drawn slightly upward and turned partially upon their edges.  It is thus that a dishonest osteopath always finds dislocations, shows them to his patient and his friends who may be present, and reduces the dislocation in a moment without the slightest apparent effort, and so skillfully as to give no pain.  In these imaginary dislocations, by freeing and equalizing the circulation, the patient is usually made to recover quite rapidly, and never for an instant imagines that recovery is not due to the reduction of a dislocation.  If the vertebra or rib is really partially dislocated, and has been in this condition for any great length of time, it will take several treatments to return it to normal position, and the operation will not be entirely painless.  The different dislocations of other joints are too familiar to the average physician to require mention in this connection.
    Third: With the patient in the same position, beginning at the first cervical, with the first and second fingers of the right hand upon each side of the spine, move the hand downward slowly and carefully the entire length of the spinal column.  We are very liable to discover a spot, possibly no larger than the end of the finger, much warmer or colder than the surrounding surface, in which case a contracted muscle has obstructed the circulation over or to a certain nerve-center; and we have ascertained the cause of the difficulty with that part of the anatomy controlled by the nerve involved.
    Fourth: Beginning again at the cervicals, and working downward a little deeper, we often discover muscles which from their knotted, cord-like appearance lead us to believe that they are contracted, interfering with the machinery of life.
    Fifth: In making this examination of the spine we often discover places very tender to the touch of which the patient was entirely ignorant, and upon which a slight pressure will sometimes cause the patient great pain.  Such a condition over an important nerve-center is the cause of many diseases, which we cannot hope to relieve without first removing the cause of the congested condition in than spine.
    Sixth: Place the patient on the back, the body, head, and limbs perfectly straight, the arms at the sides, with all muscles relaxed.  Examine the ribs once more to discover, if possible, any abnormality.  Carefully examine the neck in all diseases of the head or organic troubles.  A contracted muscle pressing upon the pneumogastric nerve, which has so much to do in controlling the viscera, might cause a multitude of evils.  While it is well to examine in the usual manner the liver, stomach, spleen, bowels, kidneys, bladder, and other organs, the skilled osteopath has diagnosed the case before leaving the spinal column, and simply makes further examinations to satisfy himself that his conclusions are correct.
    Seventh: Always examine the pulse to ascertain the action of the heart and the condition of the circulation.
    Eighth: A skilled osteopath seldom looks at the tongue, arriving at his diagnosis almost entirely through the examination of the spine.  Patients often wonder how it is possible to discover so readily, without removing the clothing, tender spots, of which they knew nothing, along the spinal column.  In the majority of instances there is something in the countenance, the gait or carriage of the chronic invalid that tells the story to one familiar with disease.  Reasoning from effect to cause, knowing the origin of the nerve that controls the diseased organ or limb, it is not difficult to detect tender places upon the spinal column, neither is it difficult to cure the disease, having located and, removed the cause.
 

A FEW IMPORTANT QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

1. What is Osteopathy?
    The human system is a machine capable of running for an indefinite length of time, unless interfered with by accident, dislocation, or contraction of the muscles, obstructing the free nerve-force, the free circulation of the blood, or other fluids of the body.  Osteopathy, based upon a thorough knowledge of anatomy and physiology, enables the operator to reduce dislocations and to so manipulate the muscles at fault as to free the circulation; harmony being thus restored, health is the result.

2.  Upon what does an intelligent application of its principles depend?
    Upon a complete knowledge of Osteopathy, Anatomy, and Physiology.

3.  How may osteopathic treatment aid in the production and maintenance of healthy tissue?
    (1)  By reducing dislocations, thereby freeing nerves or arteries that control or nourish certain parts of the anatomy;  (2) by stimulating or desensitizing certain nerve-centers, thereby controlling the action of the heart, stomach, bowels, kidneys, and other organs;  (3) by manipulating the muscles, thereby freeing the entire circulation.

    4.  Give an example of an impaired function caused by an abnormal skeleton. and state how the bones may be used as levers in correcting the same.
    Constipation which is sometimes caused by the seventh or eighth rib being turned in such a manner as to obstruct the free nerve-wave over the great splanchnic, would be a happy illustration.  In the nervous system, as in the telegraphic, we must have a perfect circuit between headquarters and all branch offices.  In this instance the brain is headquarters, and the bowels are the branch office, while the great splanchnic and right pneumogastric nerves form the circuit, which, being obstructed where the great splanchnic leaves the spinal column, affects the peristaltic action, causing the bowels to act in a weak and halting manner.
    Using the pectoralis major (which attaches to the seven or eight upper ribs and inserts into the external bicipital ridge of the humerus) and the arm as a lever, placing the thumb upon the angle of the rib at fault by drawing the arm high above the head as the patient inhales, pressing hard upon the angle of the rib as the arm is lowered with a backward motion, the rib is thrown in its proper articulation, the circuit is established, and health is the result.

    5.  Give an example of some perverted function in some organ of the body, and the osteopathic treatment for the same.
    Many cases of heart disease are caused by a contraction of the abductor muscles of the thigh, obstructing the femoral artery or vein.  Should the pressure be sufficient to obstruct the artery, we have atrophy of the limb on the one side, while, the heart, overworked in trying to force the blood past the obstruction, soon feels the strain.  In case the vein, and not the artery, is affected, the blood is pumped into the limb and failing to properly escape, the anastomoses around the large joints become engorged; and perhaps we have a case of inflammatory rheumatism on one side of the obstruction, and heart disease on the other.  In either case flex the limb against the abdomen, abducting the knee strongly and adducting the foot as the limb is extended, thus stretching the adductors, thereby freeing the circulation.  Many cases of heart disease and accompanying complications have been cured in this simple manner.

    6.  What general principles are involved in the osteopathic treatment of diseases of the respiratory organs, such as consumption, asthma, and bronchitis?
    In diseases of the respiratory organs the intercostal and other muscles of the thorax are usually found contracted in such a manner as to reduce its dimensions, thus not only interfering with deep and full respiration, but with the nerve and blood-supply of the pleurae, bronchi, and lungs; using the arms, which are attached to the pectoralis major and minor, as levers, drawing them high above the head, pressing at the same instant upon the angles of the ribs, as the patient inhales, enables the operator to expand the chest, thereby freeing the circulation to these organs.  Immediate relief is usually the result of the first treatment.

7.  What are the four great principles that should be constantly kept in mind in all osteopathic practice?
    (1)  The framework must be perfectly adjusted. (2) The circulation must not be obstructed. (3) We must have a free and uninterrupted circuit between the brain and each muscle and organ of the body. (4) By stimulating or desensitizing certain nerve-centers, the action of the heart, stomach, liver, bowels, kidneys, and other organs may be usually controlled.

8.  How does the osteopath control fever?
    By light general treatment, and holding, the vaso-motor, thereby controlling the action of the heart.

9.  How often should an osteopathic treatment be given?
    In acute cases a gentle, careful treatment may be given every six hours; usually once a day is sufficient.  The vasomotor may be held in fevers once in four hours; in most chronic cases every other day is sufficient.  It is much better not to treat quite often enough or long enough than to overdo matters and exhaust the patient.

10.  How long a time is usually required to give an osteopathic treatment?
    This depends so much upon the case and condition that it must be left to the judgment of the operator; from ten to thirty minutes is usually sufficient.

11. Has a patient ever been injured by Osteopathy?
    While man thousands have been cured or benefited by this treatment, we have never heard of a single instance in which the patient was injured.  When we take into consideration the fact that nearly all cases treated by the osteopath are chronic, in which nearly every other known method of treatment has been tried and failed, the results obtained by osteopathic treatment are indeed surprising.
 

MAN AS A MACHINE.

    The entire skeleton in the adult consists of two hundred distinct bones, articulating with each other in perfect harmony.  Some are arranged to allow the utmost freedom of motion, others are limited, while others are fixed and immovable.  On the bones are many prominences for the attachment of muscles and ligaments and many openings (or foramina) for the entrance of nutrient vessels.
    The thorax is a bony cage formed by the ribs, the dorsal vertebrae, and the sternum; it contains the principal organs of respiration and circulation.
    Should the muscles of the chest contract, as is often the case, springing the ribs, which are the most elastic bones in the body, lessening the dimensions of the thorax, we have asthma, consumption, or heart disease; while a partial dislocation of the lower ribs, caused by contracting muscles, causes enlargement of the spleen, stomach trouble, and various other diseases, which can readily be cured by manipulations.
    There are over five hundred muscles in the human body connected with the bones, cartilages, and skin, either directly or through the intervention of fibrous structures called tendons or aponeuroses.  Muscles differ much in size; the gastrocnemius forms the chief bulk of the back of the leg, and the fibers of the sartorius are nearly two feet in length, while the stapedius, a small muscle of the internal ear, weighs about a grain, and its fibers are less than two lines in length.
    Now, having, briefly mentioned the bones and the muscles, we will touch upon the arteries that nourish this most interesting and intricate piece of machinery.
    The course taken by the blood on its way to the various parts of the body is called the systemic circulation, on account of its having to make repeatedly the circuit of vessels leading to and from the heart.
    The arteries are small cylindrical muscular vessels, and might be compared to rivers throwing a branch to each muscle in their course, while the veins gather up and return the venous blood to the heart, where it is pumped through the pulmonary arteries to the lungs.
    It will now be readily understood, as the heart is a double pump, driving the blood through the arteries and veins, that the contraction of muscles throwing a pressure on arteries or veins which pass through, under, or between them would certainly affect the heart and necessarily derange the entire system.  We trust that our readers will note these points carefully, as we expect to prove that many cases of heart disease, rheumatism, dropsy, neuralgia, tumor, goiter, and cancer are caused by contracted muscles and are readily cured by a system of treatment which removes the cause and gives Nature a chance to act.
    To illustrate more fully, let us compare the systemic circulation to an irrigating system.  Through your fields run innumerable ditches; one is obstructed by a fallen tree, causing the water to back up, seeking some other channel or a weak place in the bank to escape.  What is the result? Too much water in one end and too little in the other.  Thus it is that when confronted with heart disease you should immediately ascertain if the patient is troubled with cold extremities; such being the case, using the limbs as levers, stretch the muscles, thus freeing the arteries from this undue pressure, permitting the blood to pass down to and warm the extremities, at the same time relieving the heart.
    We will now pass to the nerves, which not only control the action of the muscles and various organs, but also control the caliber of the arteries, thus regulating (when not interfered with by slight dislocations of bone or contraction of muscles) with the utmost precision the entire systemic, pulmonary, and portal circulation.  The central part of the nervous system, or cerebro-spinal axis, consists of the spinal cord (medulla spinalis), the bulb (medulla oblongata), and the brain; the spinal cord being the great bond of connection between the brain and the majority of the peripheral nerves.  As most of the nerves originate in the spinal cord, and as the cord is in direct communication with, and might be considered part of the brain, it will be readily understood that a pressure on any of these nerves, interrupting communication between the brain and some distant part, will cause paralysis of the part controlled by the nerve involved.
    While we have touched but briefly on the anatomy, and physiology of the human body, we trust we have proven to our readers that man is a machine, and laid the foundation for a thorough understanding of our method of treating, diseases by manipulation and without the use of drugs or surgical instruments.