Text-Book of Osteopathy
American College of Mechano-Therapy
    The Spinal Column is divided, for convenience sake, into six divisions: The Cervical, Brachial. Dorsal, Lumbar, Sacral and Coccygeal. The cervical embraces the four upper vertebrae; the brachial, the three lower cervical and first dorsal the dorsal, the first dorsal and including the twelfth the lumbar, the five lumbar vertebrae; the sacral, all of the sacrum; and the coccygeal, the last set of ganglia on the inner side of the coccyx.
    The atlas is directly concerned with disturbances to the vaso-motors of the eye and ear, and with diseases of the face.
    The axis and third cervical is a general vasomotor center, through the superior cervical ganglion. It is a center for the side of the head, face, eye, nose, pharynx, tonsils and vessels of the brain.
    The third, fourth and fifth cervical is the center for hiccoughs, as it is the origin of the phrenics.
    The middle cervical ganglion is situated at the fifth and sixth cervicals, and is the center for the thyroid gland. It also augments the heart action.
    The second to sixth dorsal are vaso-constrictors to the pulmonary blood vessels.
    The third to seventh dorsal are vaso-motors to the arms, through the brachial plexus.
    The heart, thyroid gland, inferior cervical ganglion, the vertebral and basilar arteries are supplied and controlled by the center of the seventh cervical and first dorsal.
    The fibres augmenting the heart action come from the second, third, fourth and fifth dorsal. The first three control the regularity of the rhythm, while the fourth and fifth give regularity and strength to the beat.
    The stomach center is located at the fourth dorsal on the right side.
    The center for the ciliary muscle is found at the second and third dorsal. This is also the center for vomiting and for the bronchial tubes and bronchi.
    The origin of the great splanchnic is between the sixth and tenth dorsal. The inhibitory, vasoconstrictor and secretary fibres are distributed to the stomach and small intestines.
    The center for the liver is found between the eighth, ninth and tenth dorsal on the right side.
    The center for the spleen is at the ninth and tenth dorsal on the left side. This is also the center for the uterus, through the hypogastric plexus.
    The small intestine, kidney and ovary are controlled by the center in the eleventh and twelfth dorsal.
    The second lumbar contains the center for parturition, micturition and the uterus.
    The center for diarrhea is situated at the second, third and fourth lumbar.
    The pelvic plexus is formed by the separation of the hypogastric plexus into two halves on either side of the rectum. The center is located at the fourth and fifth lumbar. The fibres are distributed to the pelvic organs.
    The anterior divisions of the sacral nerves are distributed to the rectum, bladder, sphincter ani, vagina and uterus.
    The second and third sacral center controls the bladder; the fourth sacral, the vagina; and the fourth and fifth sacral, the sphincter ani.
    Landmarks - The following landmarks are of importance in locating certain structures.
    The sixth cervical spine will be found at the commencement of the esophagus and opposite the cricoid cartilage.
    The seventh cervical spine is on a level with the apexes of the lungs.
    The eighth thoracic spine is opposite the lowest level of the heart and the central tendon of the diaphragm.
    The ninth thoracic spine is on a level with the cardiac opening of the stomach.
    The lowest level of the lungs is found opposite the tenth thoracic spine.
    The eleventh thoracic spine marks the level of the lower border of the spleen and upper border of the right kidney.
    The renal vessels and pelvis of the kidney are on a level with the first lumbar spine.
    The second lumbar spine is opposite the third portion of the duodenum and receptaculum chyli.
    The third lumbar spine lies just above the umbilicus.
    The fourth lumbar spine marks the bifurcation of the aorta and the crests of the ilium.
    The junction of the first and second part of the rectum takes place at about the end of the coccyx.
    In order to apply the treatment intelligently and to understand the lesions properly, it is necessary to know where the principal spinal nerves are located and their origin.

    The eight cervical nerves arise from the spinal cord above the level of the sixth cervical vertebra; the upper six dorsal, between the levels of the sixth cervical and fourth dorsal vertebrae; the lower six dorsal, between the fourth and eleventh dorsal vertebrae; the five lumbar, between the levels of the eleventh and twelfth thoracic vertebrae; and the sacral, between the 1st dorsal and first lumbar vertebrae.