History of Osteopathy
(and Twentieth-Century Medical Practice)

E. R. Booth, Ph.D, D.O.



Men's hearts ought not to be set against one another, but set with one another, and all against the evil thing only. - CARLYLE.

As shown in preceding chapters the success of individual osteopaths and the ready acceptance of Osteopathy by an intelligent public soon caused organized opposition. The medical profession was quick to recognize the vantage ground held by it because of its long experience in fighting against innovation and in trying to maintain its ancient and almost undisputed claim to be the sole conservators and restorers of the health of the people. To maintain this ascendancy, suppress innovations, and throttle the influence of any scientific methods that might be introduced from without the profession, the State Boards of Health, State Medical Societies, and National Associations were already in perfect working order and prepared to act.

Osteopaths saw at once that they labored at a disadvantage when they had to combat this almost numberless and well disciplined force opposed to them. Individuals could not bear the brunt of the attacks and organization became necessary in order that the common weal might be protected. Sometimes only the nearby friends of those assailed came to their assistance and thus a local society was formed. In other cases mutual interests in distress hastened the organization of state societies. These were especially influential when it became necessary for osteopaths to defend their rights in the balls of legislation. It was soon seen that unity of purpose should pervade all action, and. to that end a national association became a necessity. In this way, thoughtful, wide-awake osteopaths began to work together.

As a result we have a national organization, at first known as the American Association for the Advancement of Osteopathy, the A. A. O. A. The colleges also formed an association known as the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy, the A. C. O. In at least thirty-four states and territories societies have been formed to which all legitimate osteopaths are admitted, and many of the larger centers of population have local organizations.

At first the energies of these volunteer bodies were devoted to defense against assaults in courts and legislatures. Happily there is now much less occasion for this kind of work than a few years ago, and most of the organizations now devote their time almost wholly to professional interests. The national association holds its meetings annually and remains in session four or five days; the state societies once or twice a year in a one to three day session; and the local societies often once a month.


The American Osteopathic Association is the national organization of legitimate osteopaths. Till 1901 it was known as the American Association for the Advancement of Osteopathy, in short, the A. A. A. O. Throughout this book it is designated by its later name, the American Osteopathic Association, the A. O. A.

A meeting of students of Osteopathy and nearby practitioners was held at the American School of Osteopathy, Kirksville, Missouri, February 6, 1897, to take steps towards a national organization. A committee of sixteen, four students from each class in the American School of Osteopathy, was appointed to formulate a plan of organization. March 13, the committee submitted its report and a constitution was approved, but final action upon it was deferred till the next meeting. Meantime the proposed constitution was sent to all osteopaths and to other schools, inviting suggestions and co-operation. The next session, which was really the first annual meeting of the A. O. A., was held at Kirksville, Mo., April 19, 1897, the one hundred and twenty-second anniversary of the battle of Lexington, at which the Americans "fired the shot heard round the world," and a permanent organization was effected, through the agency of which Americans, unitedly fighting for a principle, have already been heard beyond the confines of their own land.

The following wise words were uttered by Dr. D. B. Macauley in making the formal announcement of the completion of the organization:

"The reasons for the organization are many, are obvious, are strong; and personal protection is the least of these. No; the members of this organization have laid upon them a heavier responsibility, a greater duty, than the so-called 'first law of nature,' self-preservation.

"The primary objects of the organization are, in the broadest sense, to work toward and attain all things that will truly tend to the advancement of Osteopathy, and the rounding of it into its destined proportions as the eternal truth and vital principle of therapeutic science."

The constitution also contained the following important paragraph:

"The Association shall elect Dr. Andrew T. Still to the exalted dignity of honorary member by virtue of his unique position as founder of Osteopathy, the A. T. Still Infirmary, and the American School of Osteopathy, located at Kirksville, Missouri. The Association hereby records and emphasizes its appreciation of Dr. Still's original, brilliant, and permanent researches into the constitution of man, by which Osteopathy, as a science, has become possible. This election is strictly ‘causa honoris et cum magna laude.’"

The officers for the first year were: President, Dr. D. B. Macauley; First Vice-President, Dr. Nettie H. Bolles; Second Vice-President, Dr. Adeline Bell; Secretary, Dr. Irene Harwood; Assistant Secretary, Dr. C. V. Kerr; Treasurer, Dr. H. F. Goetz; Trustees, Drs. J. D. Wheeler, G. J. Helmer, C. A. Peterson, Ella Still,. A. L. Evans.

After the meeting the executive officers carried on the work already begun. Steps were at once taken to secure the revocation of the charter of the National School of Osteopathy, Kansas City, Missouri. The decision of the court compelled the school to cease issuing diplomas except in accordance with law, but, on account of a technicality, the charter was not revoked. The school, however, found its patronage cut off and voluntarily closed. In this manner the profession put itself on record as unequivocally in favor of a high standard of education, and showed that it would not tolerate frauds or deceptions in the name of Osteopathy, if in its power to prevent them.

The second annual meeting was held in Kirksville, Missouri, June 29 and 30, 1898. In the absence of both the President and Vice-President, Dr. C. A. Peterson, of the board of trustees, called the meeting to order. About two hundred of the leading osteopaths from all over the Ignited States were present.

Papers were read by Dr. N. Alden Bolles, on "One Reflex Arc," and by Professor Hazzard, on "Principles of Osteopathy." Dr. Matthews spoke on "The Osteopath in the Field," and Dr. Hildreth of "'Legislation." Dean C. M. T. Hulett, of the American School of Osteopathy, explained the objects of the organization to be known as the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy (A. C. O.). Several amendments to the constitution were presented, which came up for action at the next session.

Students were at first admitted to membership in the Association, but this privilege was to terminate in two years. The change making graduation from one of the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy requisite for membership, was made at this meeting.

The officers elected were: President, Dr. S. C. Matthews; Vice-Presidents, Dr. S. H. Morgan and Dr. G. L. Huntington; Secretary, Dr. Irene Harwood; Assistant Secretary, Dr. N. F. McMurray; Treasurer; Dr. D. L. Clark; Trustees, Drs. J. W. Henderson, T. L. Ray, Belle F. Hannah, E. E. Moore, Harry Nelson, H. J. Dann, J. W. Banning.

The new officers had a strenuous year's work before the third annual meeting. Vigorous action was taken in many places by medical boards against Osteopathy in attempts at prosecutions and prohibitive legislation. The Association assumed the defensive and appropriated the greater part of the funds at its disposal for this purpose. The results were very satisfactory in most cases; and Osteopathy was established beyond cavil as a complete and independent system by judicial decisions and legislative enactments. The necessity for such an organization was recognized and the best methods of carrying out its purposes were conceived at this time, and have since been put into execution. Dr. C. M. T. Hulett says of the work in 1898-9

"Three phases of the matter have been passed upon: It is established, first, that the practice of Osteopathy does not come under the jurisdiction of existing medical boards; second, that independent osteopathic legislation is just and necessary; and third (in the South Dakota case), that state executive officials shall not by artificial or forced interpretations contravene the intent of the legislature and therefore refuse osteopathists their legal rights."

The third annual meeting was held in Indianapolis, July 5, 6, and 7, 1899. A very full program was presented and a number of strong papers were read. Three of them bore directly upon the subject of osteopathic education. A closer affinity was established between the American Osteopathic Association and the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy. A reputable College of Osteopathy was defined as "one which is a member in good standing of the A. C. O." The annual dues were increased from one dollar to five dollars. The number of trustees was changed from five elected each year to nine, three of whom were to be elected each year. The complete minutes of this meeting, and all the papers read, appear in The American Osteopath for September, 1899.

The officers chosen for the next year were: President, Dr. A. G. Hildreth; First Vice-President, Dr. F. W. Hannah; Second VicePresident, Dr. Arthur Burgess; Secretary, Dr. Irene Harwood; Assistant Secretary, Dr. C. T. Kyle; Treasurer, Dr. C. M. T. Hulett; Trustees, for three years, Drs. E. W. Goetz, A. L. Evans, and L. A. Liffring; two years, Drs. D. Ella McNicoll, E. W. Plummer, and J. R. Shackleford; one year, Drs. A. T. Hunt, J. D. Wheeler, and H. A. Rogers.

The original constitution made those connected with schools ineligible to offices. Dr. Hildreth resumed his connection with the American School of Osteopathy, so the duties of President devolved upon the First Vice-President, Dr. Hannah.

The American Osteopathic Association took a high position from its organization with reference to education. Many of the earlier graduates, recognizing the fact that their education was inadequate, returned to school and spent months, and even years, in more thoroughly preparing themselves for practice. They, of course, joined hands with the more cultured members of the profession and have constantly demanded a high standard. The stand taken in 1899 is shown by the following resolution passed at the Indianapolis meeting.

"Inasmuch as some impressions have gone forth that there is a disposition on the part of osteopathic institutions and educators to favor an inferior standard of qualification in our practitioners, we, therefore, desire to give emphatic expression to the following positions

"1. That the standard as at present projected by the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy is indorsed by the statutory enactments of the several states legalizing Osteopathy, and that this standard compares favorably with that of the medical colleges of those states thus favoring Osteopathy.

"2. That it is our conviction that the highest limit of this standard be maintained by all osteopathic schools and colleges, and that every department in the recognized curriculum be developed to its fullest extent.

"3. That we formally record our determination to raise this standard, as the emergencies of our practice may require, until it shall include every department of therapeutic equipment, with the exception of Materia Medica.

"4. That we hold as our ideal such qualifications as will enable us to meet and master such emergencies as may arise in the general practice of the therapeutic profession."

Owing to at least an apparent failure of the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy to maintain the standards laid down for itself, the relation existing between that organization and the American Osteopathic Association was not altogether satisfactory, and a committee of three was appointed to work in conjunction with the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy on all questions pertaining to the standard of requirements for membership in the American Osteopathic Association.

The fourth annual meeting was held in Chattanooga, Tennessee, July 5 to 7, 1900, Dr. F. W. Hannah presiding. A number of interesting papers were read and much important routine business was transacted. The Association put itself on record in favor of maintaining high standards of conduct and education. In this connection, a grievance committee consisting of Drs. A. L. Evans, J. R. Shackleford, Wm. Hartford, and L. A. Liffring, made the following report, which was adopted:

"1. WHEREAS, The present eonditions Necessitate a declaration of policy for the guidance of the Board of Trustees in dealing with members who may give instructions in Osteopathy in violation of the standard set by this association; therefore, be it

"Resolved, That it is the sense of this Association that any member who undertakes to instruct persons in the practice of Osteopathy, with the view that the recipient of such instruction may become a practitioner of Osteopathy, be deemed unworthy of membership in this Association, and that due notice shall be given to such offender when charges will be heard, and upon proof of such charges, the member shall be suspended, whether such member appears before the Grievance Committee or not.

"Provided, that the above shall not apply to members who may without compensation, give information on osteopathic points to students in regular and legitimate schools of Osteopathy, nor to teachers in such schools in giving instructions in their classes.

"2. We, your Grievance Committee, to whom has been referred charges of unprofessional conduct on the part of Dr. _______, Cincinnati, Ohio, in attempting to teach or in offering to teach Osteopathy in a manner contrary to the standard set by this Association, have found, according to the evidence submitted, and which is hereby appended, that the charges are true. Therefore, be it

Resolved, That Dr. ________ be hereby suspended from and deprived of all rights and privileges in the A. A. A. O., pending a fuller investigation and decision upon the matter by the Board of Trustees."

Along the same line the following adopted resolution is worthy of attention:

"Resolved, That it is the sense of this meeting that any practitioner who advertises any one as assistant in his practice who has not graduated from a reputable school of Osteopathy, is not working to the best interest of the science of Osteopathy, and hence, such action is condemned as it gives the public a wrong impression as to the qualifications necessary to the practice of Osteopathy. It is further

"Resolved, That such member be deemed unworthy of membership in the Association."

An interesting feature of the meeting was the presentation of a gavel to the Association by Drs. C. E. Still and A. G. Hildreth, a cut of which appears opposite page 256. It is composed of nine pieces of wood, - eight in the body and one in the handle. All are oak and came from objects closely allied with the early history of Osteopathy. The handle is made from an oak walking stick, or staff, which Dr. Still used for years. Beginning with the piece in the body just beyond the handle, as shown in the cut, and passing around the distant side, the pieces are as follows: (1) From a little house in which Dr. Still lived in the southeast part of Kirksville, Mo. (2) From his second and much more comfortable residence in the west part of town. (3) From the small residence near his house used as office and treating rooms when his practice grew so large he could not handle it at his, residence. (4) From the first osteopathic college, 14 by 28 feet, in which the first seventeen pupils of the first chartered school of Osteopathy were taught. (5) From the central section of the present college building, built in 1895. (6) From the first addition to the original building. (7) From the second addition to the enlarged building. (8) From Dr. Still's present residence. The gavel is gold mounted and bears the following inscriptions: On the central band: "Osteopathy, discovered 1874, by Andrew Taylor Still. First school chartered, Kirksville, Mo., May 10, 1892. Presented by A. G. Hildreth and C. E. Still, Chattanooga, Tenn., July 5, 1900." Also a monogram of the initial letters of the association. On upper band: "The American Association for the Advancement of Osteopathy." On the lower band: "Organized at Kirksville, Mo., May 1, 1897." Dr. Hildreth made the following comment concerning the gavel

"This gavel, made of so many separate pieces of wood yet so perfectly united by the mechanic who made it, representing as it does the structures in which and from which the foundation of Osteopathy has been builded, was presented to the Association with the hope that it might be the instrument in the hands of men of wisdom who would ever wield it in an honest endeavor to create for the future of our profession a superstructure that would prove worthy of the splendid foundation laid by our illustrious discoverer, and that as years go by it might prove emblematical of the close union of all our good men and women who give their lives to our grand work."

The following report, which was adopted, is also of importance as showing the close relation existing between the Association and the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy:

"Your Committee appointed to confer with the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy, begs leave to report:

"That we have attended two meetings of the A. C. 0., and have observed mode of procedure in the matter of applications for membership in their body,

"As far as we have been able to observe, their requirements for admission and methods of examination of colleges seem to be satisfactory.

"By virtue of the close relations existing between the A. A. A. and the A. C. O., particularly relating to membership in our Association, we would recommend that a standing committee of three

(3) be appointed by the President to meet with the A. C. O.

"And we further recommend that the A. C. O. be requested to accord to the members of this Committee all the rights and privileges of membership on all questions pertaining to standard of requirements for membership in our Association. Henry E. Patterson, D. 0., Chairman; H. E. Nelson, W. L. Riggs, S. D. Barnes."

The officers elected for 1900-1 were: President, Dr. C. M. T. Hulett; First Vice-President, Dr. Alice Patterson; Second Vice-President, Dr. S. D. Barnes; Secretary, Dr. Irene Harwood; Assistant Secretary, Dr. T. M. King; Treasurer, Dr. M. F, Hulett; Trustees, Drs. H. E. Nelson, W. L. Riggs, and II. E. Patterson.

The Association returned to the birthplace of Osteopathy, Kirksville, Missouri, for its fifth annual meeting, July 2, 3, and 4, 1901. Mayor T. J. Dockery delivered the address of welcome, and Dr. A. T. Still was present at almost every session and participated freely in the exercises.
The report of the Board of Trustees was elaborate and specific, In the case of Dr. _______ of Cincinnati, which was referred to the Board at the last annual meeting, the following was adopted:

"The formal vote of censure above provided for operates to terminate his period of suspension from the rights and privileges of membership in the Association, but in view of his unprofessional conduct, we recommend that the Association deprive him of membership on the Board of Trustees, and that the place be declared vacant and be filled by election at this meeting."

The decision referred to settled the questions as to whether those professing to be legitimate osteopaths could ignore the standards of conduct and education established by the profession.

Many valuable papers were presented and several clinics were conducted, all of which were practical and presented the most scientific views of the profession. The Committee on Revision of the Constitution made its report, and after much discussion and mature deliberation, the constitution still in force was adopted. The most important changes were the adoption of the name, the American Osteopathic Association, instead of the cumbersome name, the American Association for the Advancement of Osteopathy; and provisions for Standing Committees on Publication, Education, and Legislation, consisting of three members each.

Probably the most important act of this meeting was the launching of an osteopathic journal, to be published by the Association as its official organ. The committee, consisting of Drs. C. M. T. Hulett, G. A. Wheeler, W. B. Davis, W. F. Link, and E. R. Booth, was appointed to consider plans for such a journal and report recommendations. The report of the committee was as follows

"The name of the magazine shall be the Journal o f the American Osteopathic Association.

"It shall be a bi-monthly of about 48 pages, the pages to be about 7x10 inches.

"It is recommended that there be one managing editor and six associate editors, selected primarily for qualification, and for location as much as possible, to be distributed in different parts of the country.

"Contents - Proceedings of A. O. A. Papers read before Association and discussions thereon. Official communications of all kinds. Articles prepared by corps of editors. Articles contributed by other members of profession. Directory of members in good standing in each number. General news of interest to members of Association. Reports of legislative work in various states from time to time. Judicial matters, etc., etc. Reports of State Associations.

"Subscription price to non-members shall be $3.00 per annum. Membership carries with it subscription to Journal at $5.00 per annum, provided the same is paid in advance.

"Estimated cost to be about $60.00 per issue of 500 copies, exclusive of editorial and clerical work."

The report was adopted, after careful consideration. The work was placed in the hands of the Committee on Publication, which chose Dr. A. L. Evans, Editor-in-Chief, and the first number appeared in September, 1901. It contained an historical sketch of the Association, the minutes of the fifth annual meeting, reports of officers, trustees, committees, etc., the new constitution, several papers on professional subjects, a directory of members, and other items of interest to the profession. Subsequent issues contained the other papers presented at the annual meeting. The Journal was published bi-monthly the first year, monthly thereafter.

The following officers for 1901-2 were unanimously elected: President, Dr. E. R. Booth; First Vice-President, Dr. J. H. Sullivan; Second Vice-President, Dr. W. B. Davis; Secretary, Dr. Irene Harwood; Assistant Secretary, Dr. T. M. King; Treasurer, Dr. M. F. Hulett; Trustees, Drs. George F. Nason, Charles H. Whitcomb, Nettie H. Bolles, three years; Dr. S. A. Ellis, one year.

The following committees provided for by the new constitution were chosen by the trustees: Committee on Publication, W. F. Link, H. E., Patterson, D. Ella MeNicoll; Committee on Education, C. M. T. Hulett, W. B. Davis, C. C. Teall; Committee on Legislation, A. G. Hildreth, M. F. Hulett, Louise P. Crow.

The work for the suppression of so-called correspondence schools, begun by President C. M. T. Hulett, was continued by the Committee on Education during the year. A number of reputable magazines were found to be carrying the advertisements of such professed schools. The chairman of the committee sent a communication to each of those magazines, in which he stated the main facts relating to preparation necessary to become an osteopath. Among other things he said:

"This, communication is addressed to you in the hope that the matter to which it refers is the result of inadvertence or of incomplete information on your part.

"You are carrying the advertisement of a correspondence school which proposes to fit persons for the practice of Osteopathy. Would you accept the advertisement of an institution which offered to fit persons for the practice of medicine by a correspondence course of study, or which offered to fit them for the practice of surgery in the same way? Yet it is just as impossible to fit a person by mail for the practice of Osteopathy as it would be to make a qualified surgeon.

"In the name of a profession which is possessed of a unity and a solidarity based on a definite formulated standard by which its growth has been determined; in the name of two thousand regular practitioners of Osteopathy; in the name of the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy, with twelve members; in the name of one thousand students who are spending one thousand to two thousand dollars each and two years of their time in these colleges to properly qualify themselves for entry into this profession; in the name of the twenty-five state societies, and in the name of the American Osteopathic Association, we ask that your influence for a high standard of professional ethics be rightly exerted in this instance."

As reputable magazines no longer carry such advertisements, and the correspondence school business has lapsed into desuetude, it is reasonable to conclude that the work of the committee was effective. The committee also sent a long letter to all the reputable schools in which it gave an outline of its proposed plans for formulating a standard. This met with the hearty approval of nearly all of the schools. Then the committee embodied its suggestions in the form of a report, which was presented at the Milwaukee meeting.

The sixth annual meeting was held in Milwaukee, August 6, 7, and 8, 1902, and an official report of the proceedings appears in the Journal of the A. O. A., September, 1902. The reports of the Committee on Publication and on Legislation showed what remarkable progress had been made during the year, and made suggestions for the future.

Much interest centered in the report of the Committee on Education, which was presented in three sections, namely, (1) on education; (2) on relations of members to each other and to the public; (3) on standard for osteopathic colleges. Each section was thoroughly discussed and finally adopted and recommended for execution by the trustees. The following relating to education appears in the part of the report on standard for colleges.

"It should teach Osteopathy pure and unmixed with any other system of healing, either separately or in the sense of modifying the science of Osteopathy by combining with such system. This does not exclude such accessory procedures in prophylaxis and therapeutics as are in consonance with its principles, and therefore a part of the science of Osteopathy, nor does it prevent any college from teaching surgery as a cognate profession.

"Before entering upon the study of Osteopathy, a student should pass an examination, the minimum requirements of which should be as follows

"In English, such a knowledge as would be afforded by a course which included, in addition to structure, some study of literature, composition, and thesis work, with some attention to preparation of manuscript for the printer, to be evidenced by a composition of not less than 200 words on one of several assigned subjects, to be written at the time of examination, which is to be judged on thought, construction, spelling, punctuation, and handwriting.

"In mathematics, a thorough knowledge of arithmetic, including compound numbers, fractions, percentage, ratio and proportion, factoring and the metric system.

"Algebra, including fundamental operations, factoring, fractions, simple and quadratic equations.

"Physics, including the principles of physical science, the elements of mechanics, hydrostatics, hydraulics, optics and acoustics.

"In history, one year in History of the United States.

"In place of all or part of this examination, colleges may accept the equivalent of a diploma from a reputable college, academy, normal school, or high school, issued after four years of study, or a state or permanent teacher's certificate. If physics was not included in the course of study represented by a certificate, then the student should be required to make it up as a condition in the first year. Failure in examination in any one subject need not bar a student from matriculation, providing such subject be passed as a condition before entering the second year.

"The minimum course should be three years, of thirty-six weeks, or 720 recitation periods actual time in one year, making a total of 2,160 recitation periods in the three years. The year would open conveniently about September 15th, and should be divided into two terms of eighteen weeks. This should be the minimum for the osteopathic course.

"When surgery is taught, another year should be added, making a four-year course. The committee would recommend that the Association consider the advisability of making a four-year course, including surgery, obligatory as soon as it is practicable."

The report discussed fully methods of instruction and presented an elaborate syllabus of the course of study. Summarizing, it said:

"Briefly, the plan should be: Laboratory work to lay the foundation, supplemented by lectures and text to broaden the field, and by quizzes to fix the knowledge.

"Anatomy, five hours per week for three terms.
"Biology, three hours per week for one term.
"Embryology, two hours per week for one term.
"Histology, five hours per week for one term.
"Chemistry, five hours per week for two terms.
"Pathology, four hours per week for one term.
"Physiology, five hours per week for two terms.
"Neurology, two hours per week for one term.
"Principles of Osteopathy, five hours per week for one term.
"Diagnosis, five hours per week for two terms.
"Therapeutics, five hours per week for four terms.
"Gynecology and Obstetrics, three hours per week for one term.
"Minor Surgery, two hours per week for one term.

"The following subjects should be included in the complete curriculum, receiving such attention as will be proportionate to the subjects already discussed: Psychiatry, Jurisprudence, Professional Ethics, Sanitation, Dietetics."

Special features of the meeting were the clinics and the animated discussion as to the prevalence of lesions, in the osteopathic sense, in all diseased conditions. So-called adjuncts also received much attention. These discussions all showed how closely most osteopathic physicians adhered to the teachings of the founder, Dr. A. T. Still, and furnished ample evidence that pure Osteopathy is able to cope with many diseases that cannot be reached by other methods, and when properly applied can handle all diseases treated successfully by other methods.

Officers for the ensuing year were as follows: Dr. C. C. Teall, President; Dr. C. V. Kerr, First Vice-President; Dr. Ella D. Still, Second Vice-President; Dr. Irene Harwood, Secretary; Dr. Hezzie C. Purdom, Assistant Secretary; Dr. M. F. Hulett, Treasurer.

Pursuant to the adoption of the report of the Committee on Education the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy and the trustees of the American Osteopathic Association took steps before adjournment of their meeting at Milwaukee to put its provisions into practical effect. They agreed to a joint inspection of all osteopathic colleges by one man, the expenses to be divided equally between the two associations. The Committee on Education of the American Osteopathic Association and the Executive Committee of the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy were instructed to carry out this agreement. Early in 1903, Dr. E. R. Booth, was appointed to do that work, and he entered upon his duties in March. All the schools belonging to the A. C. O. were inspected; also the American School of Osteopathy, and the Ohio College of Osteopathy, Chillicothe, Ohio. A report was made to the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy at the Cleveland. meeting, and to the Committee on Education of the American Osteopathic Association which incorporated the report of the inspector into its report made at Cleveland. It appears in full in the supplement of the Journal of the American Osteopathic Association for September, 1903. A few short quotations from the inspector's report are given to show the status of Osteopathy in March and April, 1903.

"Medical colleges have been hundreds of years passing through the process of evolution by which they have reached their present standing. Osteopathic colleges are of recent growth, the oldest being only eleven years of age. It was really a surprise to me in some cases to see the excellent work being done. But we must not imagine that perfection has been reached in any. I have been fairly familiar with the work in several medical colleges for a number of years, and within the last six months visited classes in four of at least average reputation. I think I can safely say that in two of these I saw more idleness, laziness, indications of a lack of determined purpose than in all of the osteopathic colleges I have visited. In the osteopathic colleges I found almost everywhere an earnestness in work, a desire for knowledge, and a determination to make the best of their opportunities unsurpassed in any other class of schools which it has been my good fortune to visit. These are conditions which should encourage us and give us unbounded hope for the future. The pupils on an average, axe more mature than in medical colleges. They seem to be accustomed to work and know what they are in school for. These facts are all to our credit.

"There are now existing all the colleges necessary to meet present requirements. It does not follow that others might not in course of time be established to the advantage of the profession. But no new school should in the future receive the commendation of the American Osteopathic Association without first laying its plans before the Board of Trustees, presenting unmistakable guarantee of future stability, and securing the sanction of the board before entering upon its work. The report of the Committee on Education at the Milwaukee meeting said: ‘If it is within the province of this Association to approve or condemn the work of an established college, it ought to be within its province to pass judgment upon the plans for a proposed college.’ Such a course would prevent some of the impositions hitherto practiced upon a credulous public and exonerate the profession from the charge of connivance with fraud or incompetency.

"Wherever I went, I sought the opinions of osteopaths who were also graduates in medicine. With the one single exception mentioned above, they declared that they do not make use of drugs as therapeutic agents under any circumstances whatsoever. Their almost unanimous opinion was that the practice of Osteopathy and drug medication will not mix. They claim that even in the most severe suffering they can secure such relief by osteopathic procedures as to make the pain tolerable, and then they are able to perform their osteopathic work with a view to removing the cause of the trouble more effectively than if they bad been hampered by the use of drugs. In one case I found an M. D. practicing Osteopathy in the same office where he had formerly practiced drug medication, but had even removed his medical diploma from the wall, preferring to be known only as an osteopath. My attention was called to another case somewhat similar to this. The conclusion at which I arrived was inevitable, namely, that the testimony of those who had tested the merits of both systems was practically unanimous in favor of the superiority of Osteopathy, pure and simple, as taught and practiced by its discoverer and founder.

"The school authorities, the student body, and most of the practitioners with whom I talked, are almost unanimous in favor of a three years' course of thirty-six weeks each, as recommended in the report at Milwaukee. When surgery is taught, another year should be added, making a four-year course. The schools in Boston, Los Angeles, and San Francisco have already made arrangements for a three years' course of at least eight months each. It only remains to decide upon a time after which all shall be required to conform to the lengthened course."

The seventh annual meeting was held in Cleveland, Ohio, July 15 to 18, 1903. A report of the proceedings appeared in the September Journal o f the American Osteopathic Association, and the full reports of the boards of trustees, officers, and standing committees was printed in a thirty-two page supplement to the same issue.

An important feature of several preceding meetings was the clinics. This meeting gave still more time to that important work, which was conducted by such well-known osteopaths as Drs. Tasker, Hildreth, Achorn, Gerrish, Lauglilin, Sullivan, Proctor, Forbes, C. E. Still, and others. The cases demonstrated included locomotor ataxia, paraplegia, hysteria, torticollis, appendicitis, goiter, double lateral curvature, synovitis, etc.

In the early history of Osteopathy, case reports had been neglected. The American Osteopathic Association saw the necessity of such reports and. was active in its endeavors to secure them. The Publication Committee took the subject in hand and published the first series of one hundred cases as a supplement to the Journal for February, 1904.

The report of the Committee on Education was elaborate, containing as it did Dr. E. R. Booth's report as inspector of osteopathic schools, and a proposed code of ethics. The inspector's report consisted of two parts. One dealt with the details of the conditions of the schools, such as buildings, equipment, organization, faculty, character of the work being done, etc., and suggested changes to make the work more efficient. It was read before the Board of Trustees of the American Osteopathic Association and approved, and was also presented to the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy, but not read. The other was a more general report of conditions found, but contained specific statements as to the weaknesses existing, and advice as to the course that should be pursued in order to improve the schools now recognized, and to require those hereafter organized to attain the requisite standard before they should be recognized by the association. It was read before the association as part of the report of the Committee on Education, discussed at considerable length, adopted, and the work of the inspector commended. The proposed code of ethics was read in full, discussed, ordered printed, and laid over till the next annual meeting for final action.

The Committee on Legislation reviewed the work that had been accomplished during the eleven years of the existence of Osteopathy, and especially what had been done during the past year. That report was very helpful in the preparation of Chapter IV of this book.

One of the notable features of the Cleveland meeting was the banquet at the Hollenden, Friday night, July 17. The audience room of the hotel was not large enough to accommodate the guests. The menu was elaborate and the toasts with the responses interesting and inspiring.

The following officers were elected: President, Dr. Charles Hazzard; First Vice-President, Dr. Ellen L. B. Ligon; Second Vice-President, Dr. Dain L. Tasker; Secretary, Dr. Irene Harwood Ellis; Assistant Secretary, Dr. Harry L. Chiles; Treasurer, Dr. M. F. Hulett; Trustees, three-year term, Drs. Hairy M. Vastine, Edythe Ashmore, Addison S. Melvin.

The largest convention of osteopaths ever held was the eighth annual meeting of the American Osteopathic Association, at the Missouri Building of the World's Fair, at St. Louis, July 11-15, 1904. The interest and enthusiasm were intense from first to last. Dr. C. Hazzard presided and a vast amount of business was transacted with dispatch. A complete report of the business transacted, the speeches made, the papers read, and the discussions on the many topics of vital interest may be found in the Journal o f the American Osteopathic Association for September, 1904.

The address of welcome was delivered by Ikon. J. H. Hawthorne, of Kansas City, one of the World's Fair Commissioners for Missouri, and one of the staunchest friends of Osteopathy in the state. He paid a glowing tribute to the late Judge Andrew Ellison. He said his attention was directed to Osteopathy in 1895, by meeting the Judge at Jefferson City. When he asked the Judge why he was there, he replied.

"I will tell you. We have got a little institution in our town that we think the world of. It is run by people that we believe ought to have fair treatment, and who represent a branch of the
medical profession that must grow. This fight is upon us, and I will camp in this town as long as this legislature is in session to do what I can to see that they get fair treatment."

The presence of Dr. A. T. Still, the founder of Osteopathy, at the convention created intense interest. When he first entered the hall be was greeted with cheers and continued applause. He made a speech which brought to the mind of all former students in his school memories of his many efforts to impress the fundamental principles of pure Osteopathy upon their minds. The following quotations from his speech illustrate this point:

"I have long since been told that the works of God would prove His perfection. I have searched for the man that could prove that that assertion was not correct. I have also searched for the theologian who could take that assertion and prove it. That assertion can only be proven by the thoroughbred, loyal, genuine osteopath, because he will start with the human skeleton and terminate with the soul of man. The union between life and matter, mind and motion is the proof of the perfection of the Divine Architect of the universe. That Architect was not asleep. He was not drunk on beer and whisky. He was cool-headed and wise in thought when He planned the human life - animal life. With mature thought and deliberation He took up the subject, and as the Architect of the universe He made the doors necessary for the building; He made all the posts to hold it up, all the ribs to do The work. He set in then His furniture and gave it necessary room and covering, and He placed therein the batteries, sub-batteries, and parts through the whole system to drive it; and, as I tell the students in my classes, no failure has been found in it.

"The great God of the universe is a chemist and is a skilled mechanic, possessing all that is necessary to make a perfect job, and when He puts it out it is self-protecting, not only from foreign bodies, but as a healing system. I want to emphasize the thought that had the God of the universe omitted the chemical and physiological laboratory, and that which is necessary to keep man in good health, he would either have been dishonest or ignorant. Take either horn of the dilemma you wish. I take it that my God was honest; He was wise, and when He made the work He said: Not only good, but 'very good.' The supposed ignorance of God is the pill doctor's opportunity.

"He who drops the study of bones, of physiology or anatomy and takes up something else without having proved his God, is a poor architect; a poor physiologist, a poor chemist. That man is to be pitied, and I would say, Lord, give him a little bit more of anatomy. Give honor to the old doctors; they did their honest best, but do not worship them. Cleave to nothing but that which you can demonstrate before God and man."

Tuesday, July 12, was specially designated by the World's. Fair authorities as Osteopathic Day. No other system of therapeutics received such an honor or so much attention. The special exercises were held in the evening in Festival Hall. Hon. D. R. Francis, President of the Fair, sent a letter of welcome with regrets that he was unable to be present. In his response to the welcome, President Hazzard delivered an appropriate address in which he traced briefly the development of the germ of Osteopathy in Dr. Still's brain upon the virgin soil of Missouri.

Dr. A. G. Hildreth delivered the address of welcome on behalf of the Missouri State Osteopathic Society, which was responded to by Dr. J. Foster McNary for the Association.

Judge Edward Higbee, of Lancaster, Missouri, who introduced the first osteopathic bill in the Missouri Legislature, in 1895, was introduced and gave a most interesting account of some of the early vicissitudes of osteopaths.

Rev. Dr. J. D. Vincil was called upon and made a brief impromptu speech. He and his wife had been saved from death by Osteopathy, and he spoke from the heart and as one knowing whereof he affirmed. His closing words were as follows”

"The eyes of the centuries were upon Napoleon's men at the Pyramids. The eyes of the years are upon Osteopathy. You have a future before you that is to mould and fashion the grandest healing agency of all the centuries. God bless you and your work."

The last to appear on the program was Dr. A. T. Still, who was welcomed with a grand ovation by the magnificent audience present. He began by making the statement, "Sixty-seven years ago this month I saw for the first time the village of St. Louis." He spoke of "osteopathic engineers," and what they must look for and correct in order to restore "the greatest engine known," the human body, to its normal condition.

The Code of Ethics proposed by the Committee on Education, which had been under consideration two or three years, was again thoroughly discussed, a few changes made, and finally adopted in the general convention.

The same Committee presented its report which had already been read before the Board of Trustees, and received its approval. After a very spirited discussion the report was adopted with an amendment offered by the Board of Trustees that the time for requiring the beginning of the three years' course be extended to September, 1906. The report closed with the following statements:

"That the standards adopted by this association two years ago, of a course of three years in Osteopathy, and of four years in Osteopathy and surgery, be declared the sole basis for its educational and legislative work.

"That this association shall co-operate with the state boards of registration in the general and early establishing of the advanced requirement and in unifying the standards for the issuing of licenses to practice in the several states.

"That it co-operate with state osteopathic societies in securing amendments to existing laws where necessary to the advanced standard.

"That this advanced standard be made an absolute condition in all the future legislative work of the association.

"That it co-operate with the state osteopathic societies in states where legislation is yet to be secured, to the end that this standard shall be incorporated in all new legislation."

The following resolution, bearing upon the subject, was adopted without a dissenting vote:

"Resolved, That the Board of Trustees be instructed to take steps to carry into effect the recommendations contained in the report of the Committee on Education; that the Board enter into correspondence with the view to co-operating with the various state societies in reference to the steps necessary to incorporate the advanced educational standard in the legislation of the several states; that the board instruct the Legislative Committee to insist upon, as a necessary condition in all legislation in which it is employed during the year, such provisions as will assure the incorporation of the three-year requirement, and that the board instruct the Educational Committee to correspond and co-operate with the various boards with the view to securing uniformity in the operation of the various state laws and the institution of the three-year requirement in their operation as soon as the circumstances will permit; and also to pay particular attention to the matter of matriculation requirements in the several colleges with a view to restricting the entrance into the profession of persons not properly qualified."

The Committee of Publication made an elaborate report showing that it had been active during the year and that great progress had been made. Two series of Case Reports had been issued; the first issue of the "Osteopathic Year Book," published by Dobbyn and Sons, Minneapolis, under the auspices of the Association, had been prepared and distributed; the Journal o f the American Osteopathic Association, Dr. A. L. Evans, Editor, had been enlarged and improved; and the Directory of the Association had been issued separately as a quarterly supplement to the Journal.

The Committee on Legislation reported one defeat, two signal victories, and several unsuccessful attempts to down Osteopathy during the year. These results are reported in Chapter IV. The report closed with the following statement : "We not only urge unadulterated osteopathic practice, but unadulterated laws, independent boards, uniform in all states, fair and just to all alike, our profession, the old schools, and the people."

A National Association of State Boards of Osteopathic Examiners was organized for the purpose of co-ordinating existing laws in so far as their present requirements will allow, and "to outline such other legislation in addition to that already in force and to be presented in other states which will tend toward a uniformly high standard of educational requirements in conformity with the action taken by the American Osteopathic Association in the report of its Educational Committee, July 14, 1904."

The Inside Inn, World's Fair Grounds, was the headquarters of the Association. One of the most notable events of the week was the banquet held there the evening of July 14. The attendance was large and the speeches would have done credit to any body of professional men and women. The menu was inviting, but did not include wine, which fact attracted so much attention that the press of the country referred to this radical and uncompromising stand taken by the osteopaths. The manager of the Inside Inn paid the profession a great compliment when he said near the close of the fair that "the osteopathic convention was the best representative body of people that had assembled there during the fair, that the members attended to their own business, were always prompt and courteous, and that their banquet was the largest and best spread during the fair."

Denver was chosen as the place for the next annual meeting. The election of officers for 1.904-5 resulted as follows: President, Dr. C. P. McConnell; First Vice-President, Dr. J. 141. McGee; Second Vice-President, Dr. Nettie H. Bolles; Secretary, Dr. H. L. Chiles; Assistant Secretary, Dr. C. A. Upton; Treasurer, Dr. 141. F. Hulett; Trustees, Drs. Ellen B. Ligon, C. W. Proctor, and F. E. Moore.


The success of Osteopathy in healing the sick and the consequent rush to the parent school, the American School of Osteopathy, to pursue the study of the new science and learn its practice, lead many incompetents to undertake to give instructions to the would-be student. Schools were started without capital, equipment, brains, experience, or purpose, except to make money. Correspondence schools blatantly forced themselves upon the attention of the people by advertising. Even reputable journals sold their space to those disreputable schemes, till Dr. C. M. T. Hulett, while President of the American Osteopathic Association showed them the real character of the so-called schools they were advertising. Most of the advertisements disappeared at once from the columns of first class journals. Private osteopathic practitioners, with "an itching palm," took pupils and professed to teach them all about Osteopathy in a few lessons. Others claimed to give Osteopathy by teaching a few "movements," and even issued books with cuts purporting to represent movements. One says: "There are about 300 different movements in the application of Osteopathy for the treatment of all diseases of the body." The following extravagant claim is from the same source: "It cures all diseases without the use of drugs. Headaches can be cured in five minutes; constipation and diarrhea succumb readily to the effects of the treatment. All pains are almost instantly relieved by methods described in this volume. In fact it treats on all forms of diseases and how to cure them." Is it any wonder that such methods aroused the opposition of the medical profession and gave an intelligent people erroneous ideas concerning Osteopathy and helped to create a feeling of revulsion against it?

A score or more of pseudo schools and probably as many individuals acting upon their own responsibility, professed to be able to turn out osteopathic physicians. But several schools had been started, patterned after the parent school, which were striving to do good work. Those that were doing honest work were desirous of elevating the standard and it was evident that concerted action was necessary in order to establish and maintain a satisfactory standard. The more thoroughly educated osteopaths in the field also began to demand a better preparation of all who desired to enter the profession. The people in centers of culture and refinement were clamoring for a standard of excellence for Osteopathy that would compare favorably with that accepted from other schools of practice. And the law-makers were inclined to withhold recognition from the new science unless its practitioners were required to show as thorough a preparation for their practice as was required of the medical profession.

In view of these conditions the time seemed ripe in 1898 for united co-operation in the work of education. Accordingly a letter was sent out by the American School of Osteopathy to a few of the better known schools inviting them to a conference to consider the advisability and practicability of an organization for united effort. Dr. C. M. T. Hulett, American School of Osteopathy, Kirksville; Dr. N. A. Bolles, Western Institute of Osteopathy, Denver. Dr. L. M. Reem, Northern Institute of Osteopathy, Minneapolis; Dr. Geo. F. Burton, Pacific School of Osteopathy, Los Angeles; Dr. W. B. Davis, Milwaukee Institute of Osteopathy, Milwaukee; Dr. S. S. Still, S. S. Still College of Osteopathy, Des Moines, were the representatives at the first meeting, held in the reading room of the American School of Osteopathy, Kirksville, Missouri, June 28 and 29, 1898. Three sessions were held and most of the time was taken in preparing the constitution for the organization, which, among other things, said:

"Section 12. Any College of Osteopathy before being admitted to membership in this Association, shall conform to the following requirements:

"1. It shall be regularly organized and legally incorporated.

"2. It shall include permanently, as active members of its faculty at least two persons who are graduates of some reputable School of Osteopathy.

"3. It shall teach Osteopathy pure and unmixed with any other system of healing in the sense of modifying the science of Osteopathy by combining with such system, but this shall not prevent any college from teaching surgery as a cognate profession.

"4. It shall require regular attendance of its pupils for a period of four terms of five months each.

"5. It shall publish a definite date for the opening and closing of each term.

"6. It shall publish, or furnish to the Executive Committee of this Association, a list of students matriculated and of those graduated each term.

"7. It shall require of each student, before admission to its course of study, an examination, the minimum requirements of which shall be as follows:

"In English - An essay of not less than two hundred words, which shall be judged on the points of thought, construction, spelling, punctuation, and writing.

"In Arithmetic - A knowledge of fractions, compound numbers, percentage, ratio and proportion, and the metric system.

"In History and Geography-Such questions as will show a fair knowledge of the United States.

"In Physics - Such questions as will show some practical knowledge of mechanics, hydrostatics, hydraulics, acoustics and optics.

"8. In place of all or part of this examination, colleges may accept certificates of reputable literary or scientific institutions of learning, colleges, academies, normals, high schools, or first grade teachers' certificates.

"9. In case of students who fail in only a part of the above examination, colleges may, at their discretion admit them to the regular course, but they shall not be allowed to enter the second term's work until the entrance requirements are complied with; or such students may be required to take a special course of study of five months after which they may enter the regular course.

"10. Colleges that are members of the Association may honor official certificates issued by any other member of this Association, except in the work of its last term; and when a student is suspended or expelled by any member of this Association, the facts shall be at once furnished to the Secretary, and such student shall not be admitted to any other college of the Association until such disability be removed.

"11. It shall require satisfactory completion of the following minimum course of study:

"Anatomy, five hours a week for three terms.

"Histology, two hours a week for one term.

"Chemistry, including Urinalysis and Toxicology, two hours a week for two terms.

"Physiology, five hours a week for two terms.

"Pathology, two hours a week for one term.

"Symptomatology, five hours a week for one term.

"Principles of Osteopathy, two hours a week for one term.

"Diagnosis, Theory and Practice of Osteopathy, four hours a week for one term.

"Clinics, four hours a week for one term.

"Gynecology and Obstetrics, two hours a week for one term.

"Hygiene and Dietetics, one hour a week for one term.

"Psychiatry, one hour a week for one term."

Dr. N. A. Bolles was chosen President; Dr. L. M. hem, Vice President; and Dr. C. M. T. Hulett, Secretary and Treasurer. An address issued by the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy and printed in pamphlet form contained the constitution and made the following statement as to schools claiming to teach the science:

"Many of these institutions were and are little more than diploma mills. Regardless of the sacred handling of the name of Osteopathy, they are content to record commercial transactions with a class of people who have as little regard for truth and honesty as they themselves possess, and who, in the natural sequence of events, go forth, with purchased degree and title, to deceive the public."

"Truly it is a spectacle that would be ridiculous, were it of less serious import, to see a man who could not possibly secure a position as teacher in a third class academy gravely announcing himself, with one or two others of similar caliber, as the 'faculty' of a college of Osteopathy, and throwing open the doors of his institution to those who would become seekers for fame and money in the domain of Osteopathic conquest."

"There are institutions or individuals to the number of a score or more that profess to be able to turn out osteopathists. Some of the older ones have realized their mistakes and have seriously set about correcting them. Others, new as to years and experience, but rich as to good intentions, will rise or fall as merit may determine. And a few others have no higher ambition than to collect tuition fees of hapless students."

Another important action taken at the first meeting was the passing of the following resolution:

"Resolved, That it is the sense of this meeting, that all colleges that are members of this association should charge a uniform tuition fee of their students of not less than five hundred dollars."

The year following the American School of Osteopathy reduced its tuition to three hundred dollars. Most of the other schools followed the example set by the parent school, and the tuition has remained about the same ever since.

The second meeting was in Indianapolis in 1899, during the meeting of the American Osteopathic Association. The Boston Institute of Osteopathy was admitted to membership.

The officers elected at this meeting were as follows: Dr. L. M. Deem, President; Dr. C. E. Still, Vice-President; Dr. C. M. T. Hulett, Secretary and Treasurer.

There was more or less friction between the schools, during the year following on account of the advertising methods of one of the schools. This and other "important matters to be decided upon for announcement in the fall catalogues" resulted in a called meeting, which was held in Chicago, March 30 and 31, 1900.

The third regular meeting was held in Chattanooga, Tennessee, in July, 1900, during the meeting of the American Osteopathic Association. At this meeting, the Southern School of Osteopathy, Franklin, Kentucky, and the Northwestern College, Fargo, North Dakota, were admitted to membership. It was decided that students roatriculating in the September, 1901, class and thereafter would be charged four hundred dollars, but the resolution was not carried into effect. A closer relation between the A. C. O. and the national organization was effected, as the following shows:

"The relationship of the Associated Colleges to the A. A. A. O. was discussed, and the A. A. A. O. requested to appoint a committee of three to confer with the Associated Colleges in reference
to the standard maintained by the colleges now members of the Association and with reference to accepting new members.

This committee conferred with the members of the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy and was present at one of the meetings and discussed the educational standards of the colleges, and it was the opinion of all present that the standard should be constantly raised."

The officers elected were, Dr. C. E. Still President; Dr. C. E. Achorn, Vice-President; Dr. W. B. Davis, Secretary and Treasurer.

The fourth meeting was held at Kirksville, Missouri, July 2 to 5, 1901. The Philadelphia College of Osteopathy, the Atlantic School of Osteopathy, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania, and the California College of Osteopathy, San Francisco, were received as members.

Most of the time was taken in the discussion of the business relations existing between the schools holding membership in the Association. Accusations and counter-accusations as to the methods of conducting the business of some of the schools called for heroic action and one of the colleges which was thought to be most guilty was dropped from the association. The differences were adjusted, however, before the next meeting, and the accused college was then recognized as entitled to membership as before.

A new constitution was adopted and the by-laws revised so as to meet the growing requirements of the organization and hold the schools to a more rigid adherence to the purposes for which the association was organized.

The earnestness on the part of the American Osteopathic Association and its evident fairness toward all the schools, caused it to be looked upon as the ultimate court to which all questions pertaining to education might be referred for formal adjudication. The Associated Colleges of Osteopathy shared this view and introduced the following into its new constitution:

"The Executive Committee, together with the Educational Committee of the American Osteopathic Association, shall constitute a joint committee which shall provide for the investigation of schools applying for membership, and an annual investigation of schools already members of the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy, and shall report thereon to this Association.

"The Board of Trustees of the American Osteopathic Association and the duly authorized representatives of the Associated Colleges shall consider this report and decide upon the reception or retention of such schools, and if they shall agree, the decision shall be final; but if they do not agree, then they shall submit the question at issue to the American Osteopathic Association for final settlement."

The officers elected for the ensuing year were, Dr. S. A. Ellis, President; Dr. E. C. Pickier, Vice-President; and Dr. Geo. F. Nason, Secretary and Treasurer.

Milwaukee was the place of the fifth regular meeting, and August 6 to 8, 1902, the time. A number of sessions were held which were devoted to an attempt to secure greater harmony and more uniformity of action among the colleges. At the last session the American School of Osteopathy withdrew from membership in the Association. The application for membership of the Illinois College of Osteopathy and the Rhode Island College of Osteopathy were rejected.

The American College of Osteopathic Medicine and Surgery was admitted to membership. It was decided that after September 1, 1903, classes should matriculate but once a year. The following important resolutions were adopted:

"The Associated Colleges of Osteopathy recommends to the Educational Committee the appointment of an official examiner to investigate and report on all colleges applying for membership in the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy. The above report to be made to the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy, and the expenses of the examiner to be borne by the college making application. And further, that a deposit be required on the estimated expense of the examiner; the estimate of the expense to be made by the Secretary of the American Osteopathic Association. Also that the Associated Colleges recommend to the trustees of the American Osteopathic Association the appointment of an examiner to visit annually each of the schools of the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy without notice to the school and report at the next annual meeting of the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy; the expense of said examiner to be divided equally between the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy and the American Osteopathic Association."

The report of the Committee on Education of the American Osteopathic Association was discussed at length by all members of the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy present. No final action was taken, but "it was tacitly agreed that at the next annual meeting the length of the courses should be changed from four terms of five months each to three years of not less than nine months each."

The following officers were chosen for the ensuing year: Dr. S. S. Still, President; Dr. Robert Collier, Vice-President; Dr. H. I. Hewish, Secretary and Treasurer.

All the colleges of the Association were represented at the sixth meeting, in Cleveland, in July, 1903. A uniform rate of tuition was adopted and much other work was done tending to greater harmony among the schools. By unanimous vote, the association also adopted the suggestion of the Committee on Education of the American Osteopathic Association, thereby putting itself on record in favor of at least a three years' course of study of nine months each.

It sent the following formal communication relating to that subject to the American Osteopathic Association:

"The Associated Colleges of Osteopathy in session unanimously indorses that portion of the educational report of the American Osteopathic Association referring to the length of course of study that the various colleges should give." The special report of Dr. E. R. Booth, inspector of schools, which had been read at a meeting of the trustees of the American Osteopathic Association, was presented, but not read in full, as its main features were presented in the general report which had already been read to the American Osteopathic Association. Dr. Booth was requested to furnish each school with a copy of his report concerning that school and also write each a letter pointing out its defects and making suggestions as to how its work might be improved. This was done about the middle of August, 1903. The following resolution was passed:

"As the expense incurred by an annual inspection of the colleges would prove burdensome to the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy, we hereby move the inspection be held not more frequently than once in three years, unless mutually agreed upon by the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy, and the American Osteopathic Association."

The constitution was amended so as to require colleges of Osteopathy to include "as active resident members of the faculty at least five persons who are graduates of some reputable school of Osteopathy," instead of two.

The Associated Colleges of Osteopathy held its seventh regular meeting at Inside Inn, World's Fair, St. Louis, Mo., during the convention of the American Osteopathic Association, July 12 to 15, 1904. The length of the course in osteopathic colleges received more attention than any other subject. It was announced that the American School of Osteopathy, not a member of the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy, would not require a three years' course, beginning with September, 1904, as previously agreed upon. This threw consternation into the ranks of the colleges, but all the members of the Associated Colleges of Osteopathy, except the Southern School of Osteopathy, agreed to stand by their former action. They appealed to the American Osteopathic Association to stand by its previously announced intention of insisting upon the three years' course necessary to future membership in the American Osteopathic Association. Most of the other transactions related to mere routine business.

The following officers were elected for 1904-5: Dr. J. B. Littlejohn, President; Dr. C. A. Whiting, Vice-President; Dr. J. W. Banning, Secretary; Dr. Frank L. Martin, Treasurer.


The early opposition of the drug doctors to the osteopaths in most of the states, made it necessary for the latter to organize in order to present a united front against a united and a thoroughly organized and trained foe. The osteopaths in some of the states were slow to appreciate the advantages of state societies and a close alliance with the national association. They soon found, however, that a single-handed fight was generally a loosing one, and thus learned that strength is found only by combination and united effort.

The history of the organization, growth, and work of the state societies alone would make an interesting and valuable volume. Much material is at hand that might be used in preparing at least a chapter relating to the specific work of these organizations; but it is deemed advisable to await more detailed and authoritative statements from those in the several states as to the work done by these societies. It is hoped that each state will select a historian for Osteopathy within its boundaries, and that the unadulterated facts will be put in form and preserved so as to make them available for the future historian of Osteopathy.

The following named states have organizations, and most of them stated times for meetings: Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Indian Territory, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin.

Illinois has nine district societies, working in conjunction with the state organization, and Pennsylvania has ten. Many cities also have their local societies for mutual improvement. These give more attention to professional questions than is possible in the organizations having more in hand the business interests of states and nation.

A movement is on foot to bring about a more perfect union of all osteopathic interests by affiliation of all these means of advancement. It is proposed to amend the Constitution of the American Osteopathic Association so as to bring about that end without in any way impairing the efficiency of the auxiliary societies.